17.1 The Flow of Energy Heat and Work

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1 Presentations Chapter 17 Topic Thermochemistry Name Date Hour Principles of Chemistry 17.1 The Flow of Energy Heat and Work 1. In what direction does heat flow? How is heat represented? Why does heat flow? 2. Define thermochemistry. What is chemical potential energy? Give an example. 3. What happens in endothermic and exothermic processes? In an endothermic process In an exothermic process 4. In studying energy changes, what is a system? And what are surroundings? 5. Explain the law of conservation of en energy. 6. Label and explain the following pictures in terms of heat flow. a. b. 1

2 7. Conceptual Problem Practice Problem. 9. In what units is heat flow measured? How is the energy in food usually expressed? 10. On what two factors does the heat capacity of an object depend? What is the heat capacity of object? What is specific heat capacity (also known as specific heat)? So, how are heat capacity and specific heat related? 2

3 11. Does water release heat as it cools? How is this property useful to farmers during freezing weather? 12. Refer to table How does the specific heat of water compare to the specific heat of iron? 13. Why would the filling in a hot apple pie be much more likely to burn your tongue than the crust? 14. Sample Problem Practice Problem. How much heat is required to raise the temperature of g of mercury 52 o C? 3

4 17.1 Section Review Questions: 1. The energy released when a piece of wood is burned has been stored in the wood as? a. sunlight. b. heat. c. calories. d. chemical potential energy. 2. Which of the following statements about heat is false? a. Heat is the same as temperature. b. Heat always flows from warmer objects to cooler objects. c. Adding heat can cause an increase in the temperature of an object. d. Heat cannot be specifically detected by senses or instruments. 3. Choose the correct words for the spaces: In an endothermic process, the system heat when heat is its surroundings, so the surroundings. a. gains, absorbed from, cool down. b. loses, released to, heat up. c. gains, absorbed from, heat up. d. loses, released to, cool down. 4. Which of the relationships listed below can be used to convert between the two units used to measure heat transfer? a. 1 g = 1 º C b. 1 J = cal c. 1 º C = 1 cal d. 1 g = J 5. Assuming that two samples of different materials have equal mass, the one that becomes hotter from a given amount of heat is the one that a. has the higher specific heat capacity. b. has the higher molecular mass. c. has the lower specific heat capacity. d. has the higher density Measuring and Expressing Enthalpy Changes 1. What is calorimetry? 2. What basic concepts apply to calorimetry? What is a calorimeter? Label the diagram to the right. 4

5 3. What is enthalpy (H)? 4. Sample Problem Practice problem. A small pebble is heated and placed in a foam cup calorimeter containing 25.0 ml of water at 25.0oC. the water reaches a maximum temperature of 26.4oC. How many joules of heat were released by the pebble? 6. How can you express the enthalpy change for a reaction in a chemical equation? What is a thermochemical equation? Provide an example. What is heat of reaction? How does H compare for a reaction that is endothermic versus one hat is exothermic? 5

6 7. Sample Problem. 8. Practice Problems. 9. What is the heat of combustion? Section Review Questions: 1. The change in temperature recorded by the thermometer in a calorimeter is a measurement of a. the enthalpy change of the reaction in the calorimeter. b. the specific heat of each compound in a calorimeter. c. the physical states of the reactants in a colorimeter. d. the heat of combustion for one substance in a calorimeter. 2. For the reaction CaO(s) + H 2 O(l) Ca(OH) 2 (s), Δ H = 65.2 kj This means that 62.5 kj of heat is during the process. a. absorbed b. destroyed c. changed to mass d. released 3. How much heat is absorbed by 325 g of water if its temperature changes from 17.0 C to 43.5 C? The specific heat of water is 4.18 J/g C. a kj b kj c. 36 kj d. 360 kj

7 4. Which of the following is a thermochemical equation for an endothermic reaction? a. CH 4 (g) + 2O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(g) kj b kj + 2H 2 O(l) 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) c. CaO(s) + H 2 O(l) Ca(OH) 2 (s) 65.2 kj d. 2NaHCO 3 (s) 129 kj Na 2 CO 3 (s) + H 2 O(g) + CO 2 (g) 5. Oxygen is necessary for releasing energy from glucose in organisms. How many kj of heat are produced when 2.24 mol glucose reacts with an excess of oxygen? a kj b kj c kj d kj 17.3 Heat in Changes of State C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) + 6O 2 (g) 6CO 2 (g) + 6H 2 O(g) kj/mol 1. During a race, an athlete can burn a lot of calories. What do these calories turn into? What does sweating do for the body? 2. How does the quantity of heat absorbed by a melting solid compare to the quantity of heat released when the liquid solidifies? 3. How does the quantity of heat absorbed by a vaporizing liquid compare to the quantity of heat released when the vapor condenses? 4. Review. What does the graph to the right show? 5. What thermochemical changes can occur when a solution forms? Give two examples. 7

8 17.4 Calculating Heats of Reaction 10. What are two ways that you can determine the heat of reaction when it cannot be directly measured? What is Hess s law of heat summation? What is the standard heat of formation of a compound? 11. Compare negative values versus positive values in table What does this mean? 8

9 12. What is the diagram to the right show? 13. Sample Problem 17.7 (Use Table 17.4 for reference.) 17.4 Section Review Questions: 1. According to Hess s law, it is possible to calculate an unknown heat of reaction by using a. heats of fusion for each of the compounds in the reaction. b. two other reactions with known heats of reaction. c. specific heat capacities for each compound in the reaction. d. density for each compound in the reaction. 2. The heat of formation of Cl 2 (g) at 25 C is a. the same as that of H 2 O at 25 C. b. larger than that of Fe(s) at 25 C. c. undefined. d. zero. 3. Calculate Δ H 0 for NH 3 (g) + HCl(g) NH 4 Cl(s). Standard heats of formation: NH 3 (g) = 45.9 kj/mol, HCl(g) = 92.3 kj/mol, NH 4 Cl(s) = kj/mol a kj b kj c kj d. 268 kj. 9

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