1 Conservation Area Appraisal Northwold and Cazenove September 2010 PJ44453
2 2 This Appraisal has been prepared by Ann Robey (contact: on behalf of London Borough of Hackney. All images are copyright of Hackney Archives / LBH, unless otherwise stated London Borough of Hackney, LA08638X (2006)
3 3 CONTENTS 1 Introduction 1.1 What is a Conservation Area? 1.2 Location and Context of the Conservation Area 1.3 The Significance of Northwold and Cazenove Conservation Area 1.4 The format of the Conservation Area Appraisal 1.5 Acknowledgements 2 Planning Context 2.1 National Policy 2.2 Local Policies 3 Historic Development of the Area 3.1 Archaeological Significance 3.2 Origins and Historic development 3.3 Historic Maps 3.4 Geology and Topography 4 The Conservation Area and its Surroundings 4.1 The Surroundings and Setting of the Conservation Area 4.2 General Description of the Conservation Area 4.3 Plan Form and Streetscape 4.4 Views, Focal Points and Focal Buildings 4.5 Landscape and Trees 4.6 Activities and Uses 5 The Buildings of the Conservation Area 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Character Areas Northwold South Northwold South Stoke Newington Common 5.3 Listed buildings 5.4 Buildings of Local Significance 5.5 Buildings of Townscape Merit 6 SWOT Analysis 6.1 Strengths 6.2 Weaknesses 6.3 Opportunities 6.4 Threats 7 Conclusions 7.1 Boundary of the Conservation Area 7.2 Significance of the Conservation Area.
4 4 APPENDICES Appendix A Schedule of Listed and Locally Listed Buildings Appendix B Bibliography Appendix C Further information
5 5 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 What is a conservation area? A Conservation Area is an area of special architectural or historic interest, the character or appearance of which it is desirable to preserve or enhance. Conservation Areas are very much part of the familiar and cherished local scene. It is the area as a whole rather than the specific buildings that is of special interest. Listed Buildings within Conservation Areas are also covered by the Listed Building Consent process. The special character of these areas does not come from the quality of their buildings alone. The historic layout of roads, paths and boundaries; characteristic building and paving materials; a particular 'mix' of building uses; public and private spaces, such as gardens, parks and greens; and trees and street furniture, which contribute to particular views - all these and more make up the familiar local scene. Conservation Areas give broader protection than listing individual buildings: all the features listed or otherwise, within the area, are recognised as part of its character. Conservation Areas enjoy special protection under the law. Below are some of the key requirements for works in conservation areas: You will need Conservation Area Consent to demolish a building in a conservation area. LB Hackney will seek to keep all buildings that make a positive contribution to the character and appearance of a conservation area. You must give us six weeks notice, in writing, before any work is carried out to lop, top or fell a tree in a conservation area. You can contact the Council s Tree Officer for advice and help. For further details see our page on trees. You will need to demonstrate that any development proposal preserves or enhances the character or appearance of a Conservation Area. Hackney has greater control over building work in Conservation Areas, including materials and detailed design. You may need to apply for planning permission for alterations or extensions that would not normally need planning permission, such as minor roof alterations, dormer windows or a satellite dish. If you are in any doubt about whether you need planning permission, you can contact the duty planner. Hackney also has greater control over the erection of advertisements and signs. For instance, Hackney has the power to control shop signs, posters or estate agents boards that would not normally need permission.
6 6 1.2 Location and Context of the Conservation Area The Northwold and Cazenove Conservation Area lies to the west of Upper Clapton Road and comprises a compact group of streets running westward towards Stoke Newington and northwards towards Clapton Common. Almost the whole area was developed on lands owned by the Tyssen-Amhurst family and built during the late Victorian period between 1870 and There are two distinctive residential areas; one to the south and one to the north of Northwold Road. The southern boundary is Evering Road between the junction of Rectory Road to the west and Brooke Road to the eastern end of Upper Clapton Road. It comprises the compact group of streets that cross Brooke Road and continue northwards to Northwold Road. This area was mostly built in the 1870s and early 1880s. The northern part of the Conservation Area are the roads running north of Northwold Road crossing the other main east-west route, Cazenove Road, and include Osbaldeston Road, Kyverdale Road, Fountayne Road, Filey Road and Forburg Road. This area was not completed until the 1890s. The third distinctive area of the Conservation Area is Stoke Newington Common and the surrounding terraces, including the eighteenth century Sanford Terrace to the west. Immediately adjacent to Northwold and Cazenove Conservation Area lay two of Hackney s other Conservation Areas. To the west is Stoke Newington Conservation Area and to the north, Clapton Common Conservation Area. 1.3 Significance of the Northwold and Cazenove Conservation Area Much of the surviving housing stock of Hackney comprises of housing originally built for the Victorian middle classes. The Northwold and Cazenove Conservation Area occupies an important place in the architectural history of Hackney because of the high quality and variety of types of the Victorian homes within it. The overall architectural style on the Tyssen-Amhurst Estate is distinctive and the area retains many desirable streets where people still want to live their lives. Due to the strength of the Tyssen-Amhurst family in controlling the housing development on their estate, there are similarities in the design of the speculatively built homes, but monotony has been prevented. The individual houses and terraces in the Northwold and Cazenove Road Conservation Area are much more varied than one might first imagine in this late Victorian suburb. Especially significant is the variety in the external decoration of these Victorian homes, one of the main ways in which the middle classes were able to set themselves apart as a class and to show their wealth and status. Decorative mouldings and stringcourses, plaster heads, different types of bay window and door surrounds abound in the area, emphasising fashion and subtle changes in taste of the developers and their potential tenants or purchasers. Another significant asset in the Northwold and Cazenove Road Conservation Area are the green and pleasant front gardens that have largely survived in many streets of the estate. Many Victorian suburbs throughout the capital have not been so lucky, where the fate of many front gardens is to have been paved-over and to have become little more than car parks.
7 Victorian suburbs were built for people whose work took them to the city, so they were built on parcels of agricultural land near to the expanding railway network. The location also needed to be attractive and healthy if the suburb was to succeed. Long term prosperity also depended on the provision of necessary public facilities such as shops, schools and churches. The Northwold and Cazenove Road Conservation Area had from the beginning all these necessities railway stations at Lower Clapton and Stoke Newington as well as trams and buses, important shopping streets in Upper Clapton and Stoke Newington and significant open spaces on Stoke Newington Common and Clapton Common. This unique area still has all the assets needed for a successful suburb and those living in the Northwold and Cazenove Road Conservation Area today not only have chosen the area for the variety of housing stock of different sizes and tenures that it offers, but also the excellent transport links, recreational green spaces and good shops The format of the Conservation Area Appraisal This document is an appraisal document as defined by English Heritage in their guidance document Conservation Area Appraisals and in the more recent document Understanding Place: Guidance on Conservation Area Appraisals (August 2005). The purpose of the document is, to quote from the English Heritage document, to ensure that the special interest justifying designation is clearly defined and analysed in a written appraisal of its character and appearance. This provides a sound basis, defensible on appeal, for development plan policies and development control decisions and also forms the basis for further work on design guidance and enhancement proposals. This appraisal describes and analyses the particular character of the Northwold and Cazenove Conservation Area. This includes more obvious aspects such as its open spaces, buildings, and architectural details, as well as an attempt to portray the unique qualities which make the area special. These include less tangible characteristics such as noise or smell, and local features which are unique to the area, such as the very special environment which is created in quiet residential streets in the south of the Conservation Area and in the open space of Stoke Newington Common, overlooked by fine the fine Georgian houses of Sanford Terrace. The document is structured as follows. This introduction is followed by an outline of the legislative and policy context (both national and local) for the Conservation Area. Then there is a detailed description of the geographical context and historical development of the conservation area and a similarly detailed description of the buildings and the three different Character Areas of Northwold and Cazenove Conservation Area. These areas are Northwold South (the short streets, Jenner, Benthal, Maury and Norcott) running south from Northwold Road, crossing Brooke Road and ending in Evering Road and Northwold North which comprises the long s -shaped streets of Osbaldeston, Fountayne, Kyverdale, Chardmore and
8 Forburg Roads running to the northern boundary of the Conservation Area at Upper Clapton Road, opposite Clapton Common. The third distinctive area is the terraces adjacent to and including the open space of Stoke Newington Common, which includes the Grade II Sanford Terrace. A number of Appendices contain supplementary information including schedules of the streets within the Conservation Area, listed and locally listed buildings. Appendix C provides a bibliography. Appendix E notes sources of further information, and a copy of the Council s Cabinet Report adopting the Conservation Area Boundary and Appraisal is included in Appendix F Acknowledgements This appraisal has been prepared with the help and assistance of the Cazenove Area Action Group, who have contributed background research which helped in the drafting of the document and who have made comments on the proposals contained within it. Conservation Area Advisory Committees consist of local residential and business interests as well as representatives of local historical, civic and amenity societies. They assist Hackney Council in considering applications that may affect the character or appearance of a conservation area, by commenting on planning applications. For details of how to become involved with your local Conservation Area Advisory Committee please contact the Hackney Society, contact details of which are given in Appendix E.
9 9 2 PLANNING CONTEXT 2.1 National Policies Individual buildings of special architectural or historic interest have enjoyed a means of statutory protection since the 1950s, but the concept of protecting areas of special merit, rather than buildings, was first brought under legislative control with the passing of the Civic Amenities Act in A crucial difference between the two is that listed buildings are assessed against national criteria, with lists being drawn up by the government with advice from English Heritage. Conservation Areas, by contrast, are designated by local authorities on more local criteria, and they are therefore very varied - small rural hamlets, mining villages, or an industrial city centre. However, general guidance on the designation of Conservation Areas is included in Planning Policy Guidance Note 15 (PPG15), which sets out the government s policies on the historic built environment in general. By the summer of 2005, the London Borough of Hackney had designated 25 Conservation Areas. 2.2 Local Policies Legislation and guidance has emphasised the importance of including firm Conservation Area policies in the Unitary Development Plan (UDP), which must in turn be based on a clear definition of what constitutes that special architectural or historic interest which warranted designation in the first place. The Environmental Quality chapter of Hackney s Unitary Development Plan of 1995 contains Policies EQ11 to 15, concerning the designation and control of Conservation Areas. The justification to Policy EQ15 explains that the existing historic areas within the Borough fall roughly in four groups, and as staff resources permit, the Council will consider the designation of further Conservation Areas, and the amendment of boundaries to existing Conservation Areas. These groups are: Town centres and village cores: with buildings of varying age and type that will also include Georgian and Victorian ribbon development; for example, Dalston Lane and Broadway Market. Residential areas: especially areas characterised by villas a particularly well developed Hackney building type. Open spaces and their settings: for example, London Fields and Stoke Newington Common. Industrial Heritage: for example, the Regent s Canal and Waterworks Lane, Lea Bridge. The Northwold and Cazenove Conservation Area falls into both the second and the third group, as it comprises streets of mid to late Victorian housing of surprisingly
10 wide architectural variety and a small but ancient open space known today as Stoke Newington Common. Under the revised planning structure, following the enactment of the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act (2004), the UDP is in the process of being replaced by a new Local Development Framework. Policies within the Framework will reflect national policies (as set out in para. 2.1), as currently reiterated in local policies, and therefore guidance contained within this Appraisal will be fully compatible with the revised planning structure. 10
11 11 3 HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE AREA 3.1 Archaeological Significance To the north-west of the Conservation Area, Stoke Newington Common forms part of an extensive Palaeolithic working floor containing flint instruments including axes, hammer stones and flakes which was discovered in the 1880s. Despite the nearby presence of Ermine Street, along which Kingsland Road and Stoke Newington High Street run, few artefacts of the Roman period have been discovered apart from some stone coffins in Upper Clapton. Other notable finds in the vicinity are a stone sarcophagus, discovered in Lower Clapton and the discovery in the 1980s of a Saxon longboat (c.950 AD) on the banks of the Lea in Clapton. There are no Scheduled Ancient Monuments in or near the Northwold and Cazenove Conservation Area, although Stoke Newington Common has archaeological significance. 3.2 Origins and Historic Development In the late Saxon period Hackney formed part of the manor of Stepney, which had been held by the Bishops of London since the early seventh century, when King Athelbert gave lands and their incomes to support St Paul s Cathedral. Hackney has no separate entry in the Domesday Survey of 1086, as it formed part of the Bishop of London s larger manor of Stepney until the sixteenth century, but the name is recorded in 1198 as Hacas ey, a Saxon word meaning a raised place in the marsh. The name Clapton is derived from the Old English Clop ton meaning farm on the hill and it is likely Anglo-Saxon farmers settled the area, as in nearby Stoke Newington. The prevailing activity was agriculture, with the land being occupied by the Bishop s tenants, who grew hay, corn and other foodstuffs for both the Bishop s household and for sale to the inhabitants of the nearby City of London. Early evidence suggests that there were ribbons of settlement along the road known from the fourteenth century as Clapton Street or Hackney Lane, part of the northern route between Stepney and Stamford Hill which later became known as Lower and Upper Clapton Road. From c.1800 the manorial courts distinguished the parts north and south of Lea Bridge Road, as Upper and Lower Clapton. Wealthy merchants built some large houses in the area during the sixteenth and seventeenth century, the most important of those in Upper Clapton being Brooke House (dating from the fifteenth century) which occupied the site of the B6 College to the north of Lea Bridge roundabout. By the 1860s Brooke House was a mental asylum, and it survived until after the Second World War when it was demolished in , after partial bomb damage.
12 12 Figure 1: View of Brooke House and Upper Clapton Road C.1910 Hackney remained a favourite residence of wealthy Londoners from medieval times to the mid-nineteenth century. Additionally, descendants of Huguenot refugees, and a small but affluent Sephardic Jewish community, made their homes in Hackney from the end of the seventeenth century onwards. At the beginning of the nineteenth century there were a significant number of detached villas with large gardens on both sides of Upper Clapton Road, especially near Clapton Common. Indeed Dickens mentions the area in Sketches from Boz as a favoured area for City gentlemen in the 1830s. To the regular city man who leaves Lloyds at five o clock and drives home to Hackney, Clapton, Stamford Hill or elsewhere can be said to have any daily recreation beyond his dinner, it is his garden. He never does anything to it with his own hands, but he takes a great deal of delight in it notwithstanding, and if you are desirous of paying your attention to his youngest daughter, be sure to be in raptures over every flower and shrub it contains. Charles Dickens Sketches by Boz (1836) After the Reformation the manor of Stepney passed into the hands of the Wentworth family, but their indebtedness from the 1630s led to the separation of the Hackney manors and dispersal of their property. In 1697, after years of litigation, the two manors in Hackney; the main manor known as Lordshold and the smaller Kingshold, passed into the possession of Francis Tyssen. The family continued to purchase other lands in Hackney throughout the eighteenth century and by the 1830s the Tyssen-Amhurst family owned Hackney s largest estate, concentrated in the north-western part of the parish, especially in the Upper Clapton area. Roque s 1745 map shows very little settlement north of Brooke House, but lanes from Upper Clapton Road such as Dow s or Kate s Lane (later to become Northwold Road) can be seen to wind through the agricultural fields owned by the Tyssen-Amhurst s leading towards Stoke Newington Common. By 1821, it is evident that there was more building development along Upper Clapton Road and
13 Kate s Lane which had several clusters of cottages and houses along its course. Over 70 labourers families lived in Kate s Lane in 1821 and in 1827 complaints were made to the Parish Vestry about drinking, Sunday shopping and gambling in the brickfields in the area. Just ten years later, a plan of the landholdings of the Tyssen-Amhurst family shows Kate s Lane extensively built on from Upper Clapton Road to the corner of what was to become Fountayne Road. On the west side of Stoke Newington Common stood Sanford Place, which had been built in Figure 2: Detail of Map of 1821, showing development in Kate s Lane (later Northwold Road) By the 1860s it would still have been possible to view a rural scene in this part of Upper Clapton, with open fields, market gardens and nursery grounds (including a large tree nursery) and a dairy. However development was not far away and the brickfields that existed to the south in Brooke Road pointed the way forward for this part of Clapton. A map of 1868 shows the extent of the brickfields at that date. By 1868, a former cart way behind Brooke House formed the east end of Brooke Road, which continued as a footpath through the brickfields to Stoke Newington Common. A wide new street, Foulden Road (later to become Fountayne Road) had been formed and continued to the right to join Upper Clapton Road. This stretch was to become the eastern end of Cazenove Road. Within twenty years the whole area to the west of Upper Clapton Road had been released on building leases by the Tyssen-Amhurst s and under their control, a wide variety of individual builders had taken the land on leases to develop speculatively. Consistency in the design was achieved by strong estate regulation under the direction of Chester Cheston, Steward to the Tyssen-Amhurst Estate. The estate carefully regulated the leasing of building lots from the 1860s onwards. Their control accounts for the consistency of design and careful layout of the streets, the integrity of the streetscape and planting and most importantly the consistency, but not uniformity in the design of the houses built. The streets were named after parts of the family estates in Norfolk, Northumberland and Kent. Development of the area was also encouraged by better transport links. The railway reached Stoke Newington, Stamford Hill and Clapton in 1872, and this was rapidly followed in 1875 by workman s trams that travelled as far as Clapton Common. The area at once became more easily accessible to the city clerk and
14 thus more desirable to the middle classes who needed to commute to work, but did not have the wealth to have their own carriages. 14 Figure 3: Cazenove Road in 1880 By 1890s the brickfields to the south of Northwold Road had become Evering Road and the grid of streets running northwards towards Stoke Newington Common had been built on this part of the Tyssen-Amhurst Estate. A new large brick church, St Michael and All Angels had been erected in 1885 on the corner of Northwold and Fountayne Road as a place of worship for the middle class residents who were moving into the stylish villas and houses being built. Stoke Newington Common (saved for public use by the Metropolitan Commons Act of 1872) had been bisected by the Great Eastern Railway and further northwards, the Tyssen-Amhurst Estate had started to develop Cazenove, Osbaldeston and Kyverdale Roads running towards Clapton Common. Unlike much of Lower Clapton and Dalston the area did not decline socially during the 1920s and 1930s. Bombing during the Second World War took its toll, especially around Cazenove Road, Narford Road, Reighton Road and Bental Road. These streets took direct hits from VI flying bombs in To the north of Stoke Newington Common, there was extensive damage in Cazenove Road, Kyverdale Road, Osbaldeston Road, and Forburg Road and at the Upper Clapton Road end of Filey Avenue. Although some homes were rebuilt and repaired, many severely damaged homes were demolished and replaced by Local Authority lowrise flats and maisonettes during the 1950s. The Jewish population continued to grow in the area from the 1880s with the New Synagogue was transferred to Stamford Hill from London s East End in 1915, and the area remains home to a number of orthodox Jewish families.
15 15 Figure 4: Bomb damage Nos.1-17 Benthall Road September 1940 Further decline in the condition of many of the houses in the area continued into the 1970s, which led to demolition of some, especially in Cazenove Road and their replacement with blocks of flats and primary schools. Despite rising London house prices, gentrification has been very slow in coming to this part of Hackney even though fine houses of varying size are found throughout the Conservation Area. Only specific isolated streets such as Osbaldeston Road and the eastern end of Evering Road can be said to have been gentrified. Over the last thirty years some of the decline in the condition of the houses has been gradually reversed as the middle classes have returned and sensitive refurbishment of some of the property has occurred. But examples of extremely rundown homes still exist.
16 16 Figure 5: House in poor condition at No. 208 Evering Road Figure 6: Restored properties, Nos Evering Road Many medium sized houses have been subdivided into flats although some of the smaller properties have once again become family dwellings. The large houses that survive in Cazenove Road are all subdivided into up to six flats. A number of properties, especially in Cazenove Road, contain schools, synagogues and a large mosque.
17 Historic Maps Figure 7: Map of area in 1745
18 18 Figure 8: Map of 1821
19 19 Figure 9: Map of 1831
20 20 Figure 10: Map of 1868
21 21 Figure 11: Map of
22 Geology and Topography The London Borough of Hackney is located on a mixture of gravel, clay, brick-earth and alluvial deposits. Alluvium lies along the Lea and under Hackney Marsh. Brickearth can be found below Stamford Hill and Clapton Common, bounded on either side by tongues of London clay, which extend a little to the south of Hackney Downs. Towards the centre and the west are beds of Taplow gravel, covering much of the remainder of the remainder of the parish, except the area round Well Street Common and Victoria Park, which are on flood plain gravel. The highest point in the area is at Stamford Hill, the most northerly part of the Borough, which reaches 25 metres above sea level. From here, the land falls southwards to the valley of the Hackney Brook, which now lies in a culvert below the northern boundary of Abney Park Cemetery, and to the east, the River Lea. The Northwold and Cazenove Conservation Area lies over London Clay, overlain with brick earth to the south of Stoke Newington Common. The ground is relatively level, lying at about 25 metres above sea level, rising to about 30 metres to the north and west. A natural stream, the Hackney (formerly Manor) Brook runs along the route of Northwold Road and to the north of Stoke Newington Common and onwards to the north side of the Abney Park Cemetery, although now it is completely culverted below ground. 4 THE CONSERVATION AREA AND ITS SURROUNDINGS 4.1 The Surrounding Area and Setting of the Conservation Area The Northwold and Cazenove Conservation Area lies within the London Borough of Hackney, which itself is some five miles to the north of the River Thames. The eastern boundary of the Borough is formed by the River Lea, which meanders in a southeasterly direction from Tottenham down to the Thames at Canning Town. To the west lies Finsbury Park and Highbury, and to the south, the City of London. The principal settlements are Stoke Newington, Clapton, Hackney and Shoreditch. The Northwold and Cazenove Conservation Area lies on the northwestern side of the Borough, to the west of Upper Clapton Road and is bounded on the eastern side by the Railway line. To the northwest corner lies Stoke Newington Conservation Area, and to the northeast lies Clapton Common Conservation Area, which abuts Springfield Park and slopes down to the River Lea and the marshes. 4.2 General Description of the Conservation Area The Conservation Area consists of three distinctive areas. Northwold South, Northwold North and Stoke Newington Common. Northwold South is the area south of Northwold Road with the two main east to west routes of Evering and Brooke Roads running from Upper Clapton Road towards Stoke Newington. Off these streets are a series of smaller roads (Jenner,
23 Maury, Benthal, Norcott, Alconbury, Gelderston, Narford and Reighton Roads). This area is residential, apart from Northwold Road School, a former Board School built in The second distinctive area of the Conservation Area is Northwold North, which comprises the compact series of S shaped streets that run from Northwold Road to Clapton Common, crossing Cazenove Road. They are Kyverdale, Osbaldeston, Fountayne, Forburg and Chardmore Roads and Filey Avenue. The area is mostly residential and the streets are generally wider than in the southern part of the Conservation Area. Along Cazenove Road there are a large number of educational establishments and places of worship. At the Northwold Road end of Filey Avenue there is the Church of Saint Michaels and All Angels. 23 Figure 13: General view of Forburg Road The third part of the Conservation Area comprises Stoke Newington Common and a few terraces that overlook the open space, including the eighteenth century Sanford Terrace. Almost all of the Northwold and Cazenove Conservation Area was built in a thirtyyear period between 1865 and 1895 on land owned by the Tyssen-Amhurst family. It is an excellent example of a late-victorian residential estate built under the strict control of the ground landlord, but with different builders undertaking specific terraces or streets, which resulted in a variety of different house types and designs, but with a uniformity that gives the whole area a distinct character and integrity. The almost universal building material is buff London stock brick, with painted architectural embellishments such as window architraves, cills, stringcourses, and eaves cornices and painted moulded capitals.
24 Plan Form and Streetscape Cazenove Road, Fountayne Road, Brook Road and Evering Road are all wide leafy open streets, with the houses (generally built as terraces) lying well back behind large front gardens. These gardens usually sit behind brick walls and/or hedges. Apart from Cazenove Road, where many of the spacious front gardens have become hard-standings for cars, the survival of these gardens is remarkable throughout the Conservation Area and helps to preserve a green and open aspect to the area. In the narrower roads, notably Osbaldeston and Forburg Road and even in front of the cottages In Gelderston Road many front gardens are well maintained. Plentiful street trees, especially in Northwold North, which were part of the initial planning of the estate, make the streets green and leafy. The planned nature of the area is evident in the long, curving parallel streets. The streets are arranged to maximise street frontages, leaving no back-land plots. The areas to the rear of the terraces are exclusively given over to gardens and are devoid of development. The open, rear garden plots are an important characteristic of the Conservation Area. The rear of the houses often had small extensions which projected out from the main block fronting the street. These generally contained service rooms, and they give the rear of the rows a distinct architectural rhythm. 4.4 Views, Focal Points and Focal Buildings Views in the Northwold and Cazenove Conservation Area are limited by the densely built-up street frontages, and by the relatively flat topography. However, Stoke Newington Common and its many mature trees do play a special role in providing a focal point for views from Northwold Road, Sanford Terrace and from the southern ends of Fountayne, Osbaldeston and Kyverdale Roads. The curves of certain streets, notably Osbaldeston Road and Fountayne Road with their mature London plane and lime trees are also important focal points within the Conservation Area. The Church of Saint Michael and All Angels and Northwold Road School are taller buildings than the rest of the Conservation Area and are focal buildings. 4.5 Landscape and Trees Stoke Newington Common is the only publicly accessible open space or landscape of any significance in the Conservation Area. Mature London plane trees were planted on the Common at the end of the nineteenth century and today have reached maturity. Local residents have recently planted small saplings of many different species on the Common to enhance biodiversity. Other important trees within the Conservation Area relate to the principal street frontages, although when viewed from side streets, those to the rear gardens often make important contributions to the appearance of the Conservation Area. The