The Punic Wars The Punic Wars BCE Carthage The Harbor of Carthage Carthage Carthaginian Navy

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1 The Punic Wars The Punic Wars BCE Punic comes from the Latin word for Phoenician Three conflicts fought between Rome and Carthage First Punic War BCE Fought over Sicily Second Punic War BCE Fought over Spain Hannibal invaded Italy Third Punic War BCE Rome feared Carthage would again become a threat Carthage was obliterated Carthage Carthage was a colony founded in the 8 th century BCE by Phoenician traders From the 8 th century BCE to the 3 rd century BCE it grew from a small port town to become the richest and most powerful city in the Mediterranean By the mid 3 rd century Carthage controlled virtually all trade in the Mediterranean The Harbor of Carthage The harbor of Carthage was an engineering wonder Designed and built to accommodate both merchant and military vessels The entire harbor could hold 220 ships This harbor was the heart and soul of Carthage Carthage Carthage was ruled by an oligarchy a system of government where an elite few rule The large and powerful Carthaginian navy enabled Carthage to rule the Mediterranean Its military consisted mostly of well-paid mercenaries from Western Europe and North Africa Carthaginian Navy Developed from the Phoenician sailing tradition Carthaginian sailors were well-paid and were citizens of Carthage unlike the army which was largely made up of foreign mercenaries Carthaginian boats were called Triremes Had three banks of oars Were used to smash into and sink enemy boats Carthaginian oarsmen were incredibly skilled at maneuvering their vessels during battles 1

2 Rome By the mid 3 rd century BCE Rome had come to dominate most of the Italian peninsula but not Sicily Had become a moderate power in the region but could not yet challenge Carthage at sea Rome s strength lay in its army which was made up largely of Roman citizens and supported by troops from allied states Roman Army The Roman army in the 3 rd century was not yet a professional force Troops were levied by conscription from landholding farmers Romans had adopted the manipular structure more flexible and effective than the earlier used Greekstyle phalanx First Punic War: BCE Carthage had the advantage at sea Rome had the advantage on land Conflict would arise over control of Sicily Rome would build four fleets to take on the powerful Carthaginian navy each was destroyed Rome then developed a new naval tactic the corvus This lashed the ships together and forced the sailors to fight hand to hand Allowed Rome to turn naval battles into mini-land battles Rome would win and take control of Sicily Carthage lost because its corrupt government did not take the Romans seriously Funds that should have gone to the Carthaginian military were embezzled by its nobles the mercenaries would then refuse to fight Rome had virtually no navy at the beginning of the war but by the end it had a powerful fleet Between the 1 st and 2 nd Punic Wars Carthage would fight the Mercenary War between BCE after refusing to pay its mercenaries Rome would take Corsica and Sardinia Carthage would slowly recover and begin to expand further into Iberia (Spain) 226 BCE Rome and Carthage signed the Ebro Treaty North of the Ebro River was controlled by Rome South of the Ebro River Carthage would control the territory it had already conquered It was agreed that neither nation would cross the border The Second Punic War: BCE 219 BCE Saguntum, an ally of Rome but located south of the Ebro, was attacked by the Carthaginian general Hannibal The Romans demanded that Carthage turn Hannibal over to Rome Carthage refused 218 BCE Rome declared war Rome believed this would be an easy victory as the Carthaginian navy was now very weak Hannibal was the son of Hamilcar Barca, the leading Carthaginian commander during the First Punic War As a boy his father made him swear an oath: "I swear that so soon as age will permit... I will use fire and steel to arrest the destiny of Rome Hannibal led 60,000 men including 37 war elephants through Spain and Gaul along the Mediterranean coast Hannibal gathered many men on his way towards Rome his soldiers would make up a diverse, multi-ethnic army 2

3 Hannibal Crosses the Alps A Roman army marched to Massilia to stop Hannibal In a stunning logistical feat, Hannibal led his army north and then down through the Alps no one at the time believed this was possible Hannibal took thirty days to cross the Alps and lost between 1/3 to 1/2 of his army Hannibal in Italy Once he was through the Alps Hannibal replenished his forces with soldiers and mercenaries from all over Italy These men joined Hannibal both out of hatred of the Romans and because they were in awe of Hannibal s achievement Remained in Italy for 15 years winning many battles but unable to capture the city of Rome The Battle of Cannae Battle of Cannae (216 BCE) This was Hannibal's most famous victory He used an envelopment strategy where he surrounded the Roman army and annihilated it 44,000 Roman soldiers were killed from this point on the Romans would not directly engage Hannibal in battle in Italy Fabius Maximus Roman politician and general who was appointed Consul five times Appointed dictator twice in 221 and 217 BCE Fabian strategy Fabius was convinced that Hannibal could not be defeated in Italy thus he refused to meet Hannibal in a pitched battle He attacked Carthaginian supply lines and developed scorched earth policies to deprive Hannibal of supplies This strategy was initially very unpopular in Rome After the Battle of Cannae, the Romans looked to Fabius for guidance he was now considered as wise as the gods Fabius Maximus is regarded as the father of guerrilla warfare a tactic that saved Rome from Hannibal General Publius Cornelius Scipio Scipio was a young general during the Second Punic War He studied Hannibal for many years as the Carthaginian army won multiple victories in Italy Decided it was best to attack Carthage outside of Italy while Hannibal was stuck on the peninsula Considered one of Rome s greatest and most brilliant generals The Second Punic War: BCE Roman General Publius Cornelius Scipio led his army to attack Carthage in Iberia He next led an army against the city of Carthage itself Hannibal returned to North Africa to defend Carthage Battle of Zama (202 BCE) Hannibal was finally defeated and Scipio earned the title Africanus Hannibal convinced the Carthaginian senate to surrender Carthage s fleet was restricted to trade vessels and 10 warships, lost its colonies in Iberia and was forced to pay Rome 200 talents every year for 50 years Rome was again victorious 3

4 Between 2 nd and 3 rd Punic Wars Carthage slowly began to rebuild its trading networks and commercial power Rome s influence and power expanded across the Mediterranean world Roman Senator Cato was convinced Carthage needed to be destroyed Cato would end every speech he made in the senate regardless of the subject Carthago delenda est! ( Carthage must be destroyed! ) The Third Punic War: BCE Rome made impossible demands of Carthage with the one goal of provoking a war 300 noble children to be given to Rome as hostages The city of Carthage was to be destroyed and rebuilt away from the coast Carthage refused but with no allies or mercenaries left it was forced to defend itself behind its massive walls The Destruction of Carthage The Roman general Scipio Aemilianus (adopted grandson of Scipio Africanus) laid siege to the city of Carthage for three years Once the Romans breeched the walls they proceeded to sack the city Carthage was destroyed brick-by-brink and burnt to the ground The survivors were sold into slavery Results of the Punic Wars Rome would become the pre-eminent power in the Mediterranean With its experienced military it would rapidly expand east becoming incredibly wealthy in the process By 133 BCE Rome had conquered Macedon, the city-states of Greece, and the kingdom of Pergamum in Asia Minor Roman Provinces Each new territory conquered became a Roman province A Roman Proconsul (governor) was sent to oversee the new province Responsible for taxing the province Often these Romans were corrupt and this position was a way to get rich quick The Wealth of Rome Wealth flowed into Rome from the new territories Wheat from Sicily and Africa Silver and tin from Spain Gems and luxury goods from Greece and the East Roman patricians became exponentially wealthy during the period after the Punic Wars A new class of wealthy merchants and traders emerged these were generally plebeians Effects of Roman Expansion Rome became incredibly wealthy and powerful Controlled most of the Mediterranean Wealth gap between rich and poor Romans increased dramatically Huge influx of slaves from non-stop conquest, beginning with the Punic Wars, forced many Roman citizens out of work Cities particularly Rome itself increased in population as the new poor looked for work 4

5 Reforms after the Punic Wars Military Gaius Marius BCE - was a brilliant general and a wealthy plebeian During the early and middle Republic, soldiers were landowners and farmers Now there were far fewer Romans who owned land Marius recruited his army from the landless poor creating Rome s first professional soldiers Soldiers were well trained and paid but their loyalty was to the general and not the Republic Societal Tiberius Gracchus BCE - was a veteran of the Third Punic War Became Plebeian Tribune in 133 BCE Attempted to enable reforms to protect the poor Roman citizens from the greed and corruption of the rich Tiberius would be murdered by the senate later that year His brother, Gaius Gracchus, would be killed a decade later attempting to bring about similar reforms Both brothers were seen as heroes of the people Rome after the Punic Wars Rome would become increasing corrupt and unstable over the next century Relied on powerful generals such as Marius, Sulla, Crassus, and Julius Caesar to maintain order This civil unrest would culminate in a series of civil wars that ended with the ultimate victory of Augustus Caesar Rome s first emperor The Republic was dead the Empire was born 5

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