Unit 4 Notes: Ancient Rome

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1 Unit 4 Notes: Ancient Rome Name Date Block Geography The city of Rome, with its central location on the Italian peninsula, was able to extend its influence over the entire Mediterranean Basin. The Italian peninsula was protected by the sea and an arc of mountains, the Alps. The city of Rome was built on seven hills surrounding the Tiber River. Location and place (see map): Rome Centrally located in the Mediterranean distant from eastern Mediterranean powers Italian Peninsula Alps Protection Mediterranean Sea Protection, sea-borne commerce How was geographic location important to the economic, social, and political development of ancient Rome? Roman Religion Roman mythology, like Greek mythology, was based upon a polytheistic religion that was integral to culture, politics, and art. Roman mythology was based on the religion of the Greeks. Roman mythology offered explanations of natural phenomena, human qualities, and life events. Roman gods and goddesses had the same attributes as Greek deities. Jupiter: king, Juno: queen, Apollo: sun, Diana: hunt, Minerva: wisdom, and Venus: love What was the source of Roman mythology? Influence of Roman Mythology Symbols and images from Roman Mythology were prevalent in their literature, art, and architecture.

2 Many of Western civilization s symbols, metaphors, words, and idealized images come from ancient Roman mythology. Most of the planets in our solar system are named for Roman gods and goddesses. What impact did Roman mythology have on later civilizations? Social structure in the Roman Republic Patricians were the powerful nobility in Rome. They came from only a few families. Plebeians were citizens who did not come from noble families. They were the majority of population. In the early days of the Republic, Plebeians could not intermarry with Patricians. The Romans had thousands of slaves who were captured from their conquered provinces. Roman slavery was not based on race. Roman Government In 509 B.C. the Romans overthrew their Etruscan king and established a system where power was shared among many leaders. This type of government is called representative democracy, or a republic. Although women, most aliens (non-romans living in the Republic), and slaves were excluded from the governing process, the Roman Republic made major strides in the development of representative democracy, which became a foundation of modern democracy. Citizenship in the Republic was limited to patrician and plebeian men, and selected foreigners. Citizens had rights and responsibilities of citizenship. They were represented in the government, but they had to pay taxes, and serve in the military. Features of Representative Democracy in the Republic Power was divided into branches so one person would not hold too much power. Assemblies: All Roman citizens were represented in an Assembly. Senate: 300 members who served for life had a legislative function. The Senate was initially made up of patricians, but later included plebeians too. Consuls: Two consuls served for 1 year and shared executive power. The Twelve Tables served as the law of the land for the Roman Republic (like our Constitution).

3 How did the government of the Roman Republic become more democratic in its decision making? Roman Military The Roman army of citizen soldiers was well equipped and organized. Each legion was made up of about 5000 Roman soldiers. Rome conquered the entire Italian Peninsula and then attacked the Carthaginian Empire. Punic Wars: Rome v. Carthage ( B.C.): Rome and Carthage were in competition for trade. Carthage was a great Phoenician sea trading empire that controlled the Western Mediterranean. In the first Punic War Rome built a navy and defeated Carthage to gain Sicily as a province. In the Second Punic War a Carthaginian general named Hannibal crossed the Alps to invade the Italian Peninsula. He won several victories but was finally defeated by Scipio at the Battle of Zama. In the Third Punic War, the Romans completely destroyed Carthage and sold all the survivors into slavery. Roman victory in all three wars resulted in expanded trade and wealth for Rome. Roman Conquest After the victory over Carthage in the Punic Wars, Rome was able to conquer the entire Mediterranean basin over the next 100 years. Roman culture diffused throughout the provinces. Evolution of the Roman Empire and spread of Roman culture: (see map) Mediterranean basin (Africa, Asia, Europe, including the Hellenistic world of the Eastern Mediterranean) Western Europe (Gaul, British Isles) Why was Rome able to conquer Carthage and then go on to extend its influence across the entire Mediterranean basin and much of Western Europe?

4 From Republic to Empire The Roman Republic, in the face of changing social and economic conditions, succumbed to civil war and was replaced by an imperial regime, the Roman Empire. The Roman Republic had become too large and complex. Causes for the decline of the Roman Republic: Spread of slavery in the agricultural system Migration of small farmers into cities and unemployment Devaluation of Roman currency; inflation Julius Caesar The growing population of unemployed poor in Rome favored politicians like Julius Caesar. He was part of the First Triumvirate (a group of three powerful leaders) Julius Caesar gained even more fame as a general conquering Gaul (France). Julius Caesar defeated Pompey in a Civil War. The Senate was forced to declare him Dictator for Life. Julius Caesar granted citizenship to more people living in the empire, and he provided jobs, land and food. Julius Caesar was assassinated by members of the Senate who feared he had too much power. Civil War Another Triumvirate of leaders came to power after Julius Caesar s assassination. Octavian, Julius Caesar s adopted nephew, defeated Marc Antony in another Civil War. Augustus Caesar Octavian took the name Augustus Caesar and became Rome s first emperor. Augustus Caesar s control over the military allowed him to finally unify and enlarge the empire after all the years of civil war. Augustus Caesar established the Roman Empire by instituting civil service, rule by law, a common coinage, and secure travel and trade throughout the Empire. Even though Imperial authority rested in the hands of the Emperors, Augustus failed to provide a method for peaceful succession of Emperors. How did military conquests alter economic and social life in Rome?

5 Why did the Roman Republic fail to survive challenges by Julius Caesar? How did an imperial monarchy come to rule Rome? Pax Romana Following Augustus Caesar, the Roman Empire enjoyed 200 years of peace and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. Rome expanded and solidified its Empire in the Near East during the Pax Romana. Economic impact of the Pax Romana The Roman empire established uniform system of money, which helped to expand trade. The Romans constructed an extensive system of roads to connect the empire. The empire was well defended so travel and trade were safe on Roman roads. Roads promoted prosperity and stability. Social impact of the Pax Romana: Returned stability to social classes Increased emphasis on the family Political impact of the Pax Romana: Created a civil service to manage the empire. Developed a uniform rule of law. What was the Pax Romana? What was the impact of the Pax Romana on the Roman Empire? Christianity Jewish Roots

6 The Jewish homeland of Palestine had been conquered by the Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, and Greeks. The Romans came to Judea 63 B.C. and made it a province in A.D. 6. The Jews were expecting a King to come and set them free. Jesus of Nazareth Jesus was a Jew and Roman subject born in 5-6 B.C. Poor traveling rabbi (Jewish teacher) The message of Jesus Taught a unique interpretation of the Torah Proclaimed the Kingdom of God was at hand and all people could be included. People should treat each other with love Conflicted with polytheistic beliefs of the Roman Empire Jesus reportedly performed miracles. Jesus of Nazareth was proclaimed to be Messiah (liberating King). Many Jewish leaders feared followers of Jesus would disrupt relations with the Roman Empire. Jewish leaders in Jerusalem convinced Pilate, the Roman governor, to crucify Jesus. The Roman cross remains the symbol of Christianity. Christianity is Born The resurrection of Jesus from the dead became the most important teaching of Christianity. Followers of Jesus who claimed to have witnessed his resurrection were called Apostles. Essential Beliefs, Traditions, and Customs of Christianity Monotheism Jesus as both Son and incarnation of God Life after death New Testament, containing accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus, as well as writings of early Christians Christian doctrine established by early church councils Spread of Christianity Apostles carried the message of Christianity throughout the Roman Empire. Pax Romana made the spread of Christianity easier Excellent Road system

7 Common languages: Latin and Greek The Apostle Paul Paul traveled all over Rome establishing Churches. Letters written by Paul to these Churches became part of the New Testament (the sacred text of Christianity). Persecution of Christians The Roman Empire generally practiced religious tolerance. Christians were initially persecuted by Jewish authorities. Christians became a problem for Roman rulers because they refused to worship Roman gods. Some emperors violently persecuted Christians in the Roman Empire. Early martyrs (a person who willingly suffers death rather than renounce his or her religion) inspired others Despite persecution, Christianity grew. Appeal of Christianity Embraced all people: men, women, slaves, nobles, and the poor Gave hope to the powerless Offered a personal connection with a loving God Promised eternal life after death Emperor Constantine The Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity and made it legal in the Empire. Christianity later became the official state religion. The Catholic Church The doctrines (teachings) of the Christian faith were established in early church councils. The Roman Catholic Church bureaucracy began to resemble the structure of the Roman Empire. The Church became a source of moral authority. Loyalty to the Church became more important than loyalty to the Emperor. The Church became the main unifying force of Western Europe. How did Christianity become established within the Roman Empire?

8 What were the essential beliefs of the early Christian faith? How and why did Christianity spread? What was the impact of the early Church in the late Roman Empire? Roman Achievements and Influence Conquests and trade spread Roman cultural and technological achievements throughout the Empire. Western civilization was influenced by the cultural achievements of Rome. Roman architectural and artistic achievements include the Pantheon, Colosseum, and Forum. The Pantheon was constructed as a temple to the deities of Roman Mythology and was later converted to a Christian Cathedral. The Roman Colosseum, or Flavian Amphitheatre, was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles, executions, and re-enactments of famous battles. For centuries, the Roman Forum was the center of Roman public life. It was a marketplace, the site of triumphal processions and elections, and the venue for public speeches. Roman Technology Roman Roads allowed the overland movement of armies, provided communication routes, and facilitated trade. The Romans constructed numerous aqueducts in order to bring water from distant sources into their cities and towns, supplying public baths, latrines, fountains and private households. Arches were the signature of Roman architecture and were used to support aqueducts and bridges. Roman Science Ptolemy was an astronomer and geographer who supported the geocentric model of the solar system and calculated the earth s circumference. The Romans emphasized public health. Roman towns had public baths and public water systems.

9 Medical schools were led by field doctors who had served Roman legions. Latin The Roman language of Latin provided a lingua franca for the empire. Latin was later blended with the languages of Germanic tribes create Romance languages such as Italian, French and Spanish. Roman Literature Virgil s Aeneid was a Roman epic about Aeneas who displayed the classic values of the Roman Republican. Religion Roman Mythology, and especially Christianity, shaped the future of Western Civilization. Roman Law Roman law would become the foundation for later European legal systems. The principle of innocent until proven guilty came from the Twelve Tables. How did Roman achievements influence Western civilization? Decline of the Western Roman Empire Over a 300-year period, the western part of the Roman Empire steadily declined because of internal and external problems. The geographic size of the empire was one cause for its decline. The Roman Empire had grown so large it was difficult to defend and administer. The Roman economy also struggled. The cost of defense, disrupted trade, high taxes, and devaluation of Roman currency were major problems. A strong military was essential for maintaining the empire. They began to rely on non-romans to defend sections of the empire. These mercenaries (hired soldiers) lacked the discipline and loyalty of Roman citizen soldiers. Moral decay was another problem. The conservative family and patriotic values of the Roman Republic were also declining.

10 People lost faith in Rome and the family. Political problems such as civil conflicts and weak administration led to further decline. Multiple groups attacked Rome s borders and invaded its territory. Reforming Emperors Emperor Diocletian tried to address some of Rome s problems by increasing the size of the army, and fixing prices. Most importantly, he divided the empire into western and eastern sections. Constantine moved the capital of the empire from Rome to Byzantium and renamed the city Constantinople. The Eastern half of the empire came to be called the Byzantine Empire and Constantinople was its capital. Rome Falls to the Goths In 476 A.D. the city of Rome was invaded and the last western emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was overthrown. Why did the Western Roman Empire decline?

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