Mill Road Area. Conservation Area Appraisal. June 2011

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1 Mill Rod Are Conservtion Are Apprisl June 0

2 MILL RO AREA CONSERVATION AREA APPRAISAL This publiction hs been produced by: Plnning Services, Cmbridge City Council, PO Box 00, Cmbridge CB 0JH Tel: Cn be downloded from Printed on recycled pper. Plese recycle. Copyright notice Crown copyright nd dtbse right 0. Ordnnce Survey Licence number 0000.

3 Contents Introduction.... Aims nd Objectives.... Summry of Specil Interest.... Ntionl nd Locl Policy... Hisricl Development.... A Brief Hisry of Cmbridge.... Development of the Mill Rod Are... Loction nd Setting.... Loction nd Activities.... Topogrphy nd Geology.... The Lndscpe nd Urbn Setting.... Biodiversity... Sptil Anlysis.... Lyout nd Street Pttern.... Open Spces nd Trees.... Focl Points, Focl Buildings, Views nd Vists.... The Public Relm... Buildings in the Conservtion Are Introduction Listed Buildings.... Buildings of Locl Interest.... Positive Buildings... Chrcter Ares.... Introduction.... Chrcter Are : Mill Rod nd St Mtthews Are.... Chrcter Are : Romsey Town Are... Issues.... Principl Issues... Contct Detils... Appendices: Mps... MILL RO AREA CONSERVATION AREA APPRAISAL

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5 Introduction. Aims nd Objectives This Conservtion Are Apprisl seeks define wht is specil bout the Mill Rod re of the Centrl Conservtion Are, nd provide detiled informtion bout its spces, buildings, lndscpe, public relm, nd other positive fetures. It lso identifies its negtive fetures nd provides guidnce on enhncement opportunities. This document is mteril considertion when the Council considers pplictions for chnge within, or on the edges of, the Conservtion Are.. Summry of Specil Interest The Mill Rod re forms prt of the Cmbridge Conservtion Are No. Centrl, which ws originlly designted in. The Mill Rod nd St Mtthew s re ws dded in, when other djoining prts of Cmbridge (the Glisson Rod, Sttion Rod nd Riverside res) were lso included. In, the City Council produced Conservtion Are Apprisl for the Mill Rod nd St Mtthew s Are. This document drws hevily on this erlier Apprisl though with the ddition of the Romsey Town re the est. MILL RO AREA CONSERVATION AREA APPRAISAL

6 MILL RO AREA CONSERVATION AREA APPRAISAL The Conservtion Are boundry s existing is tken s including ll of the lnd covered by the Apprisl, which sits the north nd south of the Petersfield section of Mill Rod, long mixed-use street which leds estwrds out of the city centre. At the time of designtion in, nd gin in the Apprisl, it ws considered tht the Romsey end of Mill Rod beyond the rilwy bridge did not meet the sttury Conservtion Are criteri of n re of specil rchitecturl or hisric interest. However, this re is now considered be of enough vlue meet these criteri. The lte development of this prt of Cmbridge mens tht this re ws minly fields until the 0s or 0s when grid pttern of streets, stretching off t right ngles Mill Rod, ws first estblished. A lrge number of the buildings re individully dted, with the 0s or 0s being noted on mny of the properties. Churches, schools, librry nd other community buildings soon followed, with purpose-built shops long Mill Rod nd smll corner shops in other loctions. Mny of the streets lso hd public house nd some employmentrelted premises, lthough these tend be more prevlent mongst the terrced housing. Overll, the Conservtion Are provides n exmple of well-detiled nd wellpreserved Vicrin suburb, with only few exmples of modern infill. To the north of Mill Rod, the terrced houses fce directly on the pvement, with grdens lmost completely hidden. Around the Collier Rod re nd the south of Mill Rod, principlly long St Brnbs Rod, re exmples of more prestigious mid lte th century housing, but this time provided by lrger semidetched houses, set bck from the rod. Within the Conservtion Are re two smller sub-res of terrced houses which both hve unique qulity firstly, round Norfolk Terrce nd Blossom Street in the north, nd round Covent Grden nd Mill Street in the south. At vrious loctions re buildings or spces in complementry uses the primry school off Norfolk Street, St Mtthew s Church off St Mtthew s Street, Angli Ruskin University (which sits on the estern edge of the Conservtion Are), nd Hughes Hll (Cmbridge University s oldest grdute College) nd the djoining Fenner s Cricket Ground. The principl open spce is the lrge Vicrin cemetery, which lies in the middle of the northern prt of the Conservtion Are, providing intriguing glimpses of trees nd lndscpe from vrious loctions, nd the tree-lined Romsey Recretion ground between Vinery Rod nd Hemingford Rod. Mill Rod itself is complex multi-ethnic nd multiculturl mix of commercil, residentil, religious, nd community uses, in minly mid lte th century buildings lining the pvements on either side. St Brnbs Church is the lrgest nd most impressive building, lthough the listed former Librry, now occupied by the Indin Community nd Culturl Assocition, is nother outstnding building with terrcott nd red brick elevtions. The buildings in Mill Rod provide good vriety of mostly independent shops, cfes, nd brs or public houses, lthough it is noticeble tht mny of the smller public houses in the

7 bck streets (t one time there must hve been one on lmost every street corner) remin, supported by the mny students who live in the djoining properties. The rod cts s mjor route in nd out of the City Centre, nd the close proximity of the rilwy sttion the southern boundry of the Conservtion Are lso provides certin mount of ctivity, both pedestrin nd vehiculr. There re only four listed buildings in the Conservtion Are St Mtthew s Church, the Cemetery Lodge, the former Librry in Mill Rod, nd Hughes Hll. Eight mbsnes in the Cemetery re lso individully listed. However, mny of the better preserved nd more prestigious houses (for instnce, in the Collier Rod re, Mortimer Rod, nd lso in St Brnbs Rod) re designted s Buildings of Locl Interest (BLIs). Throughout the Conservtion Are there re lso number of wrehouses nd other former industril buildings, now lrgely used for offices or s homes. These buildings provide some punctution the long rows of terrced houses nd, occsionlly, re set bck from the street round courtyrd. A vriety of issues hve been identified s prt of the Chrcter Apprisl. Modern development hs impinged in number of plces, most notbly the new housing off Sturn Street, Ditchburn Plce, nd St Brnbs Court, nd the design nd siting of ny further development must be crefully controlled. A lrge City Council Depot off Mill Rod, bcking on the rilwy line is surprisingly discreet but redevelopment of this lrge key site is possible t some stge. Although Conservtion Pln hs lredy been produced, the continued protection of the Cemetery nd its flor nd fun must be ensured. The former Brunswick Primry School, th century building with lrge modern extension, is borded up nd new use needs be found quickly before the hisric building deteriortes ny further. Following the Apprisl, number of enhncements were crried out in Mill Rod, including the replcement of shopfronts, but rnge of dditionl improvements re urgently needed support the continued economic vibility of the re. Finlly, the preservtion of the mny unlisted hisric houses nd cottges in the Conservtion Are, nd the protection of their hisric detiling, is n issue. The Romsey Town re covers minly residentil streets which lie t right ngles the north nd the south of the estern end of Mill Rod, one of the erliest rods leding out of the hisric core of Cmbridge. The revised boundry tkes in Mill Rod rilwy bridge with its murls, the tree-fringed cr prk west of Gret Estern Street, the tree fringed re t the junction of Argyle Street nd Mill Rod nd Brookfields nd Burnside. The Conservtion Are boundry lrgely encompsses the extent of terrced housing development s shown on the 0 Second Edition Ordnnce Survey MILL RO AREA CONSERVATION AREA APPRAISAL

8 MILL RO AREA CONSERVATION AREA APPRAISAL Mp. Around this boundry, the streets widen nd the erly 0 th century grid pttern chnges more spcious lyout of pired houses with much lrger grdens, typicl of the Inter-Wr period. Most of the houses re nrrow (one or two bys wide) two srey terrced houses built from brick with slte roofs. They minly dte between 0 nd 0, nd re interspersed with public houses, industril buildings, stble blocks, nd workshops, mny now in residentil uses. These buildings re notble for their use of brick, timber joinery, slte roofs, nd lrge chimney stcks, often with their originl cly pots. Whilst individul groups hve slightly vried detils, their overll form, height nd reltionship the street gives the re cohesive nd ttrctive ppernce, ssisted by the preservtion of mny of the originl detils nd mterils. Romsey Recretion Ground between Hemingford Rod nd Vinery Rod provides much needed open spce for children ply, nd hs recently been enhnced with new ply re nd sittingout spces. Mill Rod itself is in vried commercil uses, the businesses being lrgely bsed in lte th century buildings of vrying degrees of qulity. Severl smll churches or chpels remin, plus former schools, community buildings nd, lmost next door ech other, clubrooms for both the Conservtives nd the Lbour Prty. Ntionl shops such s the Co-op, SPAR nd most recently Tesco re present but not prticulrly dominnt, being mixed in with lrge number of loclly-owned nd run businesses including cfes, resturnts, nd tke-wys, reflecting the young nd often ethniclly diverse locl popultion. On the northestern edge of the Conservtion Are, Brookfields Hospitl is still operting, providing vriety of services, nd retins some hisric buildings (one is dted ) s well s more recent ccommodtion which is excluded from the Conservtion Are. Also excluded is the site immeditely the west of the hospitl, where modern commercil buildings hve recently been demolished. In 00 the City Council produced n urbn design strtegy for this site clled the Robert Syle Wrehouse nd Co-Op site, Mill Rod, Cmbridge Development Brief which set out some possible development options for it, but dte (April 0) the site remins contined by hordings with no sign of ny ctivity. A vriety of issues hve been identified s prt of the Chrcter Apprisl, including the preservtion of the hisric terrced housing, the need review the list of BLIs, the improvement of the shopfronts nd the buildings generlly in Mill Rod, the control of new development, the cre nd improvement of the green spces nd trees, the control of stellite dishes, the protection of views in, out of nd cross the Conservtion Are, nd the improvement of the public relm.. Ntionl nd Locl Policy Conservtion Ares re defined s res of rchitecturl or hisric interest the chrcter or ppernce of which it is desirble preserve or enhnce in the Plnning (Listed Buildings nd Conservtion Ares) Act 0. Locl Plnning Authorities re required by the Act identify the prts of their re tht should be designted s Conservtion Ares nd formulte nd publish proposls preserve or enhnce them. Locl uthorities must submit proposls for the protection nd enhncement of Conservtion Ares for public consulttion

9 (this cn be chieved vi the Council s website) nd they must lso hve regrd ny views expressed by people responding this consulttion. Brodly, the effects of designtion re: Conservtion Are Consent must be obtined from the Locl Plnning Authority or Secretry of Stte prior the substntil or tl demolition of ny building or structure within Conservtion Are, with some exceptions; The Locl Plnning Authority must consider the desirbility of preserving or enhncing the chrcter or ppernce of the Conservtion Are when ssessing plnning pplictions for chnge in Conservtion Ares; Permitted development rights re slightly different in Conservtion Ares; nd Permission is required from the plnning uthority fell or lop tree over certin size. Centrl Government policy relting Listed Buildings nd Conservtion Ares is set out in Plnning Policy Sttement : Plnning nd the Hisric Environment. Locl plnning policy is contined within the Cmbridge Locl Pln which sets out policies nd proposls for future development nd lnd use in Cmbridge. This is incrementlly being replced by the emerging Locl Development Frmework for more informtion look t the Council s website: MILL RO AREA CONSERVATION AREA APPRAISAL

10 MILL RO AREA CONSERVATION AREA APPRAISAL Hisricl Development. A Brief Hisry of Cmbridge Cmbridge is locted t the highest nvigble point of the River Cm from Kings Lynn vi the River Ouse. A Romn settlement developed on grvel ridge looking over the river the south t the meeting point of four importnt rods. By the nd century sizeble wn hd developed on n enclosed re of bout cres, the site being reused lter by the Anglo-Sxons. In bout 0 Willim the Conqueror built cstle (of which only the motte remins), this leding the rpid growth of the settlement, including the provision of churches St Giles, St Peter s nd St Bene t s Churches ll retin Normn fetures. Monstic foundtions soon followed, including the Augustinins priory of 0 nd the Benedictine nunnery of (now Jesus College). Other foundtions were lso estblished nd mny remin in some form or nother s present-dy colleges. Cmbridge becme importnt for its mrkets nd guilds, s well s centre for lerning, which my hve been the result of migrtion of monks nd scholrs from Oxford in 0 linked n incresing demnd throughout the th century for well trined dministrrs, who were needed for seculr rther thn ecclesisticl posts. Most of the teching ws done in single complex of buildings, now clled the Old Schools, which included the Divinity School, Lw nd Arts School, nd the Librry, completed in. Initilly the students were housed in rented ccommodtion but from the lte th century individul colleges, usully grouped round court,

11 were built so tht by there were in ll, rising t the time of the Reformtion. The founders of these Colleges were kings (Edwrd III, Henry VI, nd Henry VIII), queens nd other members of the royl fmilies, riscrts nd powerful civil servnts. The new buildings were initilly constructed in clunch-fced rubble (unlike Oxford, which used loclly qurried Oolitic limesne), but from the th century onwrds brick becme the mteril of choice. Outside the university nd college buildings, much of medievl Cmbridge hs been demolished nd redeveloped prt from smll groups of buildings, such s the ones t the junction of Bridge Street nd Northmpn Street. A chnge of building style strted in the mid th century nd then developed in the th century in rejection of the Gothic in preference for Itlin-bsed motifs, such s mullioned nd trnsomed windows nd more clssicl detils, following the exmple of Chrispher Wren s buildings in Oxford nd London. Lter, in the th century, the buildings followed the Plldin principles of Lord Burlingn, such s Jmes Burrough s Fellow s Building t Peterhouse. In 00 Cmbridge hd just students in comprison Oxford s 0, but by 0 the numbers were 0 0, confirming Cmbridge s incresed cpcity s more Colleges were built, including Downing College of 0. Further buildings were dded during the th century s Cmbridge becme n importnt centre for the study of the Arts, such s the University Librry () nd the Fitzwillim Museum (lso ). In 0 some 0 students completed their studies nd by 00 there were over,000, leding the provision of lrge number of new university buildings, some of them on the former wter medows the west of the Bcks, n re tht is defined by Queen s Rod nd runs long the rer entrnces mny colleges. By the mid 0 th century, the city s popultion hd risen bout 0,000 from bout,000 in 00. Much new housing ws dded between the wrs nd from the 0s, new colleges, nd extensions existing colleges, were lso constructed, mostly designed by prestigious rchitects. In the erly st century, Cmbridge hs become not only n importnt university city but lso focus for urism with n estimted four million visirs yer. In the lst thirty yers or so, Cmbridge hs lso developed n interntionl reputtion for scientific reserch nd development.. Development of the Mill Rod Are The Conservtion Are is defined by Mill Rod, n importnt hisric route (Hinn Wy) tht leds out of the city centre wrds the estern edge of Cmbridge. The re ws still fields until the Inclosure Act of 0, fter which new rods were incrementlly lid out t right ngles Mill Rod, lthough most of these did not pper until the 0s or even lter. Mill Rod is so nmed becuse it led out of the City wrds windmill, which ws locted somewhere ner the present site of Mill Street. Ditchburn Plce, the oldest surviving building on Mill Rod (nd surprisingly not listed) ws built in s the Prish Workhouse, nd t bout the sme time some terrced houses were built in the Covent Grden re round the site of the windmill on the south side of Mill Rod. Wht is now the cemetery ws then in use s the University Cricket Ground, the lnd being converted cemetery in, involving the demolition of the Brnwell New Church. The construction of the first rilwy line Cmbridge in (the Estern Counties line, lter the Gret Estern) lso hd n impct on the re, with the new sttion being locted just the south of the Conservtion Are. MILL RO AREA CONSERVATION AREA APPRAISAL

12 MILL RO AREA CONSERVATION AREA APPRAISAL However, development ws, t lest initilly, surprisingly slow. By the only buildings long the north of Mill Rod were provided by short stretch of properties the est of Covent Grden. There were few buildings on the north side, with the Egle Foundry on the site of the present Council Depot, with row of cottges on the south side, which sod in virtul isoltion. To the north of Mill Rod in the St Mtthew s re, Norfolk Street ws estblished with, the north, number of streets of smll cottges, which were demolished in the 0s. Most of the new residentil development ppers hve strted from the 0s onwrds when the former Brnwell Open Fields were purchsed by Joseph Sturn from the Geldrt fmily, both of whom re commemorted in the street nmes. St Mtthew s Church ws built the designs of Richrd Reynolds Rowe in, initilly serve the residentil streets which lredy existed the west. The Emery Street re ws developed from the 0s onwrds on lnd owned by Corpus Christi College. Flower Street, Blossom Street nd the site of wht is now Angli Ruskin University, were ll developed on lnd which hd once been used s lrge nursery grden. To the south of Mill Rod, St Brnbs Church ws completed in 0, nd t bout the sme time St Brnbs Rod ws lid out on lnd belonging Gonville nd Cius College, which owned most of the lnd in this prt of Cmbridge. The southern boundry of the re ws built up when Devonshire Rod ws extended fter 0. Most of the buildings long the west of Mill Rod were therefore provided in the 0s nd 0s (some retin dte plques confirming the dte of construction) nd lthough there re severl long rows of terrced houses, minly on the north-west side, other groups of commercil buildings were lso purpose-built with ground floor shops below residentil ccommodtion. There were lso number of buildings in industril uses, principlly the Egle Brewery nd Boln s Wrehouse in Tenison Rod. The Librry ws built in nd Dles Brewery, in Gwydir Street, ws dded in the erly 00s. Hughes Hll ws built in. The former Plyhouse (now Slly Ann s) ws opened in s the first purpose-built cinem in Cmbridge, nd the Bth House ws dded Gwydir Street (close the junction with Mill Rod) in s public bthing fcility. The former workhouse ws converted mternity Hospitl in, nd then more recently converted yet gin, nd substntilly extended, become Ditchburn Plce Sheltered Housing. The development nd growth of Romsey Town minly ok plce between 0 nd 00, nd mirrored the development the west of the rilwy line s detiled bove. Prt of the mp of shows, for instnce, tht Gret Estern Street hd been developed with terrced houses nd tht the djoining streets Cvendish Rod, Sedgwick Street, Ctherine Street nd Thody Street hd been lid out but only few houses hd been built. Beyond these streets were open fields nd llotments, crossed by old footpths tht led the uninhbited Coldhms Lne nd Coldhms Common where coprolites were mined. For ech terrce, the width of ech house ws crucil, for if over foot it ws possible provide seprte front hllwy, llowing some privcy

13 the front prlour. Front by windows were lso dded the more up-mrket houses, often lived in by trin drivers, who erned more thn the more lowly rilwy workers. The mps lso confirm the existence of two lrge houses, both set bck from Mill Rod. To the north, The Lodge occupied lrge site between Cvendish Rod nd Sedgwick Street (which ppers hve been tlly redeveloped in the 0s), nd the south, Romsey House, which my hve given its nme the re. This survives on the corner of Coleridge Rod nd Mill Rod nd is currently used s lnguge school. From the 0s (one of the remining buildings is dted ) site the north of Mill Rod ws developed s n Isoltion Hospitl. Now clled Brookfields Hospitl, fter the smll strem which runs cross the site, further buildings were incrementlly dded including the lrgest building which fces Mill Rod. This ws built using distinctive polychrome brickwork nd ppers dte it my hve been designed by E Wrehm Hrry, the Borough Surveyor. Other interesting buildings lso dte this period, including the Slisbury Club (for the Conservtives), which ws built in by FA Mullet, with further section being dded the west in 0. St Philip s Church in Mill Rod is dted, nd St Philip s School in Ross Street ws built close by between nd the designs of W M Fwcett. St Philip s Junior School in Thody Street ws built between nd by J S Redding nd Son, Cmbridge. In new Methodist Church ws built on Mill Rod the designs of W Wren of Cmbridge. This ws lter (0) substntilly extended. Of the commercil buildings, the Royl Stndrd Public House ws built in Mill Rod round 0 nd ws cquired from Chrles Armstrong-Ors by the Str Brewery in. All of these buildings re lredy on the City Council s list of BLIs. The provision of further houses in the next twenty yers, long with shops, schools, churches nd other fcilities, gve the locl residents ll they needed. As this ws the period when Britin s Empire ws t its most powerful, mny of the new street nmes reflected the vrious countries then under British control, such s Suez, Mlt, Cyprus nd Hobrt. By the re hd over,000 residents, most of whom worked for the rilwy s drivers, gurds, boilermkers, pltelyers, fitters, firemen nd clerks. Other men worked in the building industry nd some of them helped build the new Lbour Prty Clubhouse in Mill Rod, which ws opened by Rmsey Mcdonld in. When mny of the residents supported the Generl Strike in, the re becme fmous for its strong union membership nd socilist lenings, nd ws often referred s Red Romsey. Whilst it ly close the City Centre, it felt quite isolted from the University buildings, dons nd students, with the line of the rilwy quite literlly creting brrier. MILL RO AREA CONSERVATION AREA APPRAISAL

14 MILL RO AREA CONSERVATION AREA APPRAISAL A Generl Improvement Are (GIA) ws declred in Romsey Town in encourge property owners upgrde their terrced houses including the instlltion of inside ilets, new bthrooms, dmp-proofing, nd new roofs. Since then, despite some gentrifiction, the effect of student lets, nd the grdul ssimiltion of fmilies from rnge of ethnic bckgrounds, strong community spirit still survives nd is reflected in the support for vrious locl groups including n ctive Residents Assocition. Tody, the Mill Rod Are remins n importnt locl centre with rich culturl nd ethnic mix. There hs been chnge in the blnce between the dy-time nd night-time economies, with some shops hving been replced by tkewys nd other food outlets. The Bth House ws sved from demolition in by the St Mtthew s Neighbourhood Assocition nd Friends of the Erth nd is now in community use. The djoining residentil streets re populr nd provide vriety of house sizes, whilst the close proximity of the City Centre nd rilwy sttion dd the ttrctions of the re. 0

15 Loction nd Setting. Loction nd Activities Cmbridge is locted in south Cmbridgeshire close the junction of the M London nd the A, which connects Felixswe Kettering nd further west. The Mill Rod re Conservtion Are covers the previous Mill Rod nd St Mtthew s section of the Centrl Conservtion Are s well s the continution of Mill Rod beyond the rilwy bridge the est. Activities within the Conservtion Are re minly residentil, with commercil uses focused long Mill Rod nd lesser degree, long Norfolk Street, lthough there is n occsionl commercil use (public house, smll shop or office group) in the residentil bck streets. C nd D Mors in Hope Street is smll bck-street grge in rod where other hisric buildings my lso hve been built for industril or nonresidentil uses, such s stbles. Mill Rod is notble for its wide rnge of independent shops nd other fcilities; the ddition of Tesco Metro Sre in Mill Rod in recent yers ws controversil. One of the specil fetures of Mill Rod is the wy in which the vst mjority of its shop units hve styed the sme size, rther thn being combined. There re mny cfes, brs nd resturnts, minly imed t the night-time economy. Mny of the shops re owned by fmilies rther thn by lrger ntionl chins, providing specil chrcter the re which is further enhnced by the rich ethnic mix. A number of hisric public houses cn be found within the residentil streets, clerly built s prt of the initil phse of expnsion in the lte th century. These re prticulrly supported by the mny students who live in the immedite re, MILL RO AREA CONSERVATION AREA APPRAISAL

16 MILL RO AREA CONSERVATION AREA APPRAISAL s well s providing n importnt community focus. Eductionl uses re evident round the western side of the Conservtion Are, nmely t Angli Ruskin University Cmpus (which lrgely lies outside the designted re) nd t Hughes Hll, n impressive detched building which lies just within the Conservtion Are next the Fenner s Cricket Ground. St Philip s Infnts School in Ross Street is now Community Centre, nd on Mill Rod, the former Methodist Church is now the Romsey Mill Centre. Brookfields Hospitl is still opertionl but only the remining hisric buildings of the lrge cmpus lie within the Conservtion Are, fcing Mill Rod. Some of the former industril buildings hve been converted in offices, or re now residentil. There re six ctive churches St Philip s Church, Mill Rod, the Church of Seventh Dy Adventists in Hobrt Rod, the Mill Rod Bptist Church, St Brnbs, St Mtthew s, nd the King s Church in Tenison Rod, nd the Abu Bkr Siddiq Islmic Centre in Mwson Rod. St Mtthew s Primry School is locted just within the Conservtion Are, prts of which re BLI.. Topogrphy nd Geology The Conservtion Are lies on flt, low lying lnd the est of the City Centre nd the est nd south of the River Cm. There re no specil pogrphicl fetures of ny note, prt from smll strem (now lrgely culverted) which psses cross the northern prt of the Brookfields Hospitl site. The only chnge in level is provided by the bridge where Mill Rod crosses the rilwy line. Cmbridge lies on grvel ridge over Jurssic clys suitble for brick mking, s seen in mny of the buildings in the Conservtion Are. In the pst, bnd of gult cly which lies long the west bnk of the River Cm lso produced the white bricks which re commonly ssocited with prts of Est Angli, s well s the locl pntiles of vried hues including yellows, browns, pinks nd greys. To the south of Cmbridge, the southern nd estern prts of the county re chlky, providing the flint, chlk rubble nd chlk blocks (in the form of clunch) which ws used for some of the erly University buildings, bricks grdully tking precedence from the mid th century onwrds. There is evidence of grvel extrction close the Mill Rod re on hisric mps.. The Lndscpe nd Urbn Setting The Conservtion Are lies in n urbn setting the est of the City Centre, seprted from it by the lrge open green spce of Prker s Piece nd Gonville Plce/Est Rod, very busy route which diverts trffic wy from the hisric core. To the west side of Est Rod re further terrced houses of the th century, with lrge re of 0s development (Stffordshire Street etc.) the immedite west of St Mtthew s Church. Angli Ruskin University provides vriety of modern buildings, mostly of no specil merit, which butt up the western boundry of the cemetery. The cemetery nd Romsey Recretion Ground re the mjor green spces within the re.

17 Inter-wr housing nd industril esttes lie the north with St Mtthew s Grdens, lrge residentil development of the 0s, creting logicl boundry the more hisric re just the est of St Mtthew s Plce nd Abbey Wlk. The long north-south line of the rilwy cretes boundry between the city end of Mill Rod nd the Romsey Town re within the Conservtion Are, immeditely the est of York Street, Ainsworth Street nd Kingsn Street. However, they re degree bound gether due their similr pln form, with Mill Rod cting s the key min route for both. To the north nd south lie res of Inter-wr housing, notble for their semi-detched houses with more spcious grdens. To the est, the Conservtion Are is bounded by mixed development nd extends in Brookfields nd Burnside fter crossing the estern section of the Cmbridge Ring Rod (the A). Physiclly ttched the southern prt of the Conservtion Are re further lte th century houses in the southern end of Glisson Rod, Lyndewode Rod, Tenison Rod, nd Tenison Avenue, which ll lie within the djoining prt of the Centrl Cmbridge Conservtion Are.. Biodiversity The Conservtion Are retins n essentilly urbn chrcter with opportunities for wildlife being limited privte grdens, the Mill Rod Cemetery, grde II Hisric Prk nd Grden, s well s the Romsey Recretion Ground next Vinery Rod. A Conservtion Pln for the cemetery ws published in 00 nd gives detils on the re s ecologicl importnce s City Wildlife Site nd its mngement prctice. It lso hs policy ims nd objectives which bring in the Vision for the Site. This includes mngement which reflects the specil chrcter of the re, nd the exploittion of its potentil s locl resource nd green open spce. For more informtion on the mngement of the biodiversity of the cemetery, plese refer the Conservtion Pln. Outside the Conservtion Are, Brnwell Pit nd prt of Coldhm s Common hve been designted s Site of Nturl Hisry Interest nd gether they support rich fun nd flor including some rre wter plnts. MILL RO AREA CONSERVATION AREA APPRAISAL

18 MILL RO AREA CONSERVATION AREA APPRAISAL Sptil Anlysis. Lyout nd Street Pttern The Conservtion Are encompsses n lmost grid pttern of streets which minly lie lmost t right ngles Mill Rod. This forms the centrl feture of the lyout nd dtes the Romn period. It runs in roughly est-west direction nd on crossing the Est Rod/Gonville Plce junction continues stright in the City Centre s Prkside. Mill Rod bends gently in the middle of the section providing some drm views long the street. The 0 nd the mps confirm tht mny of the streets were lid out long the boundries of fields which were incrementlly developed for housing from the 0s nd 0s onwrds. To the north, the field boundries bend slightly the west, feture tht is reflected in the modern orienttion of Gwydir Street, Sturn Street nd York Street/Ainsworth Street. The line of the rilwy hs lso dictted street nd building lyout, for instnce, on the est side of Devonshire Rod, where much of the lnd ws used for rilwy sidings nd other industril uses such s timber yrd. Argyle Street curves slightly, reflecting the line of the old rilwy line, which is shown on the 0 mp. The originl lignment of the rilwy line from Cmbridge Bury St Edmunds pssed long the southern limit of the Conservtion Are, providing brrier which is reflected in the cler demrction between lte th century nd Inter-wr development, s shown most clerly in Mrmor Rod. It is cler tht the min chrcteristic of the Conservtion Are is the dominnt

19 building type, the two srey terrced house, creting long lines of buildings lying directly t the bck of the pvement. To the south of Mill Rod, before the rilwy bridge, nd in the Collier Rod re, the houses re still built in groups but tend be semi-detched with smll front grdens. Although mny of the streets were developed in piecemel wy by different builders, it is surprising how cohesive they pper, implying degree of control by the lndowner. Most of the properties hve long, thin bck grdens of regulr size, sometimes ccessed by nrrow bck lley. This rhythm is broken long the south side of Mill Rod, before the rilwy bridge, where the commercil uses hve resulted in the bck grdens (where they exist) being lost cr prking or other uses. Although, mny of the streets were developed in piecemel or pttern book wy by different builders, it is still surprising how consistent they pper. There re virtully no detched or semidetched properties, prt from the few tht hve been dded in more recent yers, such s the semi-detched pirs of Inter-wr houses fcing Sedgwick Rod. The building lyout long Mill Rod is fr more vried, due the more commercil uses in this prt of the Conservtion Are.. Open Spces nd Trees There re three res of open spces of ny significnce in the Conservtion Are, which is principlly mde up of residentil streets. The first is the cemetery with its lrge mture trees, vried mbsnes (some of them listed) nd winding pthwys, which is well used by the locl community s plesnt plce wlk nd relx in. The second is the public open spce is St Mtthew s Piece, which is locted on the estern side of Sturn Street. This lso retins lrge number of mture trees, grss, more winding pthwys s well s children s ply re. It lies next the Chinese Community Centre; single srey blck glzed modern building of some rchitecturl interest. A much smller plyground with some trees hs been creted t the junction of Ainsworth Street nd Sleford Street. A well lndscped grden, open the public but on privte lnd, lies in front of the former workhouse, now prt of the Ditchburn Plce Sheltered Housing development. The third re of significnt open spce is the public prk next Vinery Rod, which contins lrge grssed re for sports, children s plyground, nd newly enhnced sitting nd gthering spce which hs been stylishly fitted out with sets nd other fetures. The boundries of the prk re defined by mture trees, which feture in views in the re. A line of mture trees re prticulrly importnt in Vinery Rod, where they mke mjor contribution the setting of the long terrce of hisric houses long the estern side. A few less significnt trees cn be seen long the edge of the rilwy line nd round the smll cr prk t the end of Gret Estern Street, nd t the junction of the rilwy bridge / Mill Rod nd Argyle Street. Where the Conservtion Are termintes in Burnside, there is the strem, llotments, trees nd footpth the djoining lke nd City Wildlife Site just outside the boundry. Trees, flowerbeds, nd public seting re crefully cred for but re seprted from the public pvement by rilings nd gtes, which re presumbly locked t MILL RO AREA CONSERVATION AREA APPRAISAL

20 MILL RO AREA CONSERVATION AREA APPRAISAL night. Although not within this Conservtion Are, Petersfield nd Donkey s Common, which seprte the boundry of the Conservtion Are with Gonville Plce/Est Rod, re significnt in terms of views nd mbince. Aprt from the cemetery, St Mtthew s Piece nd Romsey Recretion Ground, mture trees re lso importnt the streetscpe in the following loctions: On the north side of Vicrge Terrce; On the south side of Hooper Street, next the boundry with the Council Depot; Crefully pruned trees nd bushes which crete forml venue either side of the wide pthwy leding up the cemetery from Mill Rod; Along the west side of Mortimer Rod, just outside the Conservtion Are; Trees long the est side of Devonshire Rod, gin just outside the Conservtion Are; Along the edge of the rilwy line; nd Around the smll cr prk t the end of Gret Estern Street. Whilst tree species vry, most of the public trees tend be London plne trees, horse-chestnuts, or silver birch. There re no exmples of th century specimen trees in the Conservtion Are. The most significnt groups of trees re mrked on the Townscpe Anlysis Mp but becuse of the difficulties in obtining ccess privte lnd, it is possible tht some significnt grden trees hve not been recorded. All trees over certin size re umticlly protected in the Conservtion Are from inpproprite lopping or felling.. Focl Points, Focl Buildings, Views nd Vists Focl points nd focl buildings There re no prticulr focl points in the Conservtion Are, lthough the cemetery, St Mtthew s Piece nd Romsey Recretion Ground do provide some well used public open spce. Close the rilwy bridge, row of 0s shops is set bck slightly from the rod nd wide pvement creted which does provide some emphsis the re. This is enhnced by the populr cfé, which lies within this group. There is spce in Mill Rod, repved nd provided with new street furniture since the Mill Rod nd St Mtthews Are Conservtion Are Apprisl in, which provides visul link between Mill Rod nd the public cr prk which serves shoppers nd is ccessed from Gwydir Street. Mill Rod in its entirety provides liner focl point the Conservtion Are due the vried shops, multiple uses, busy trffic nd mny pedestrins. Whilst none of the residentil houses stnd out in ny noticeble wy, there re number of buildings, ll in other uses, which give the streetscpe some punctution nd provide views long streets. These buildings re notble for both their size nd their high qulity rchitecturl detiling nd re s follows: The former Brunswick Primry School, Young Street; The Chinese Community Centre, Sturn Street; St Mtthew s Church, St Mtthew s Street;

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