Acids, Bases, and ph

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Acids, Bases, and ph"

Transcription

1 Acids, Bases, and ph by Dr. Lara Baxley Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA Outline I. Acids II. Acids in Water III. Strong vs. Weak Acids IV. Bases V. The ph Concept VI. ph of Strong Acid and Strong Base Solutions VII. Calculating [H + ] and [OH ] from ph VIII. How CO 2 makes water acidic Introduction You may have heard that cola drinks are acidic, but what about regular carbonated water with no other additives? It turns out that carbonated water has a slightly lower ph than still (not carbonated) water. What does it mean to have a low ph? How is ph measured and how does it relate to the acidity of a solution? Why is carbonated water acidic? These are all important questions and you will learn how to answer them, and more, by the end of this chapter. Not only is acid-base chemistry important in determining the acidity of your drink, it also plays a crucial role in biology (have you heard of an amino acid?), atmospheric chemistry (acid rain), health (Vitamin C is a compound called ascorbic acid), and many other aspects of chemistry. In this mini-chapter you will learn the basics of acids and bases and how they are related to ph. I. Acids An Acid is a substance that donates one or more H + ions (protons) to another substance (called a base). Some examples of acids are HCl, H 2 SO 4, and HC 2 H 3 O 2. Notice that all of these compounds have at least one H atom in the front of their formulas. This H atom is donated as an H + ion when the acid reacts with a base. A certain class of acids, called carboxylic acids, are organic compounds that contain C, H, and O atoms. Acetic acid, HC 2 H 3 O 2, is an example of a carboxylic acid. The formulas of carboxylic acids may be written with the H in front like other acids, or with a COOH at the end. The COOH represents a carboxyl group, which has the structure shown in Fig. 1. This means that acetic acid, shown in Fig. 2, can be written either as HC 2 H 3 O 2 or CH 3 COOH. Other examples of carboxylic acids are CH 3 COHCOOH (lactic acid, exists in milk) and C 6 H 5 COOH (benzoic acid, a food preservative). Fig. 1 A carboxyl group characterizes a carboxylic acid. Fig. 2 The structure of acetic acid shows that it is a carboxylic acid with a COOH group Acids, Bases, and ph Dr. Lara Baxley pg. 1

2 II. Acids in Water In 1887 a chemist named Svante Arrhenius proposed that an acid is a substance that produces H + ions in water. Therefore, many chemistry textbooks will show an acid ionizing (separating into ions) in water. For example, the reaction of HCl in water would be, HCl(aq) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) Arrhenius model (commonly used) It has subsequently been discovered that when an acid ionizes in water, the H + (which is a proton) actually binds to water molecules to form a hydronium ion, H 3 O +. In essence, the acid donates a proton to water. This model is often called the Brønsted-Lowry model after the two chemists who originally proposed the proton-transfer model of acids and bases. Therefore, it is more correct to write the reaction of HCl in water as, HCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) Brønsted-Lowry model (more accurate) The Brønsted-Lowry model is depicted using molecular models in Fig 3. Fig. 3 When HCl dissolves in water, a proton (H + ) is transferred from the acid to water. The significance of these two models is that you should understand that a chemist will often use H + (aq) and H 3 O + (aq) interchangeably. Practice Problem 1 Problem: Write the chemical equation for the reaction of nitric acid in water using both the Arrhenius model and the Brønsted-Lowry model. (Use this space to write your answer. Don t peak at the answer until you have tried on your own) Acids, Bases, and ph Dr. Lara Baxley pg. 2

3 Practice Problem 1 continued The formula of nitric acid is HNO 3. For the Arrhenius model, dissociate the H + from the anion NO 3. For the Brønsted-Lowry model, transfer the H + to a water molecule. Answer Arrhenius Model: HNO 3 (aq) H + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) Brønsted-Lowry model: HNO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) III. Strong and Weak Acids For simplification, we will use the Arrhenius model for the rest of this chapter. A strong acid completely ionizes in water such that every molecule of the acid dissociates into H + and an anion, with no intact acid molecules left in the solution. The six strong acids that you are to memorize for this class are HCl, HBr, HI, HNO 3, HClO 4, and H 2 SO 4. Strong acids are also strong electrolytes because they completely ionize in water to form ions that can conduct electricity. For example, since HCl is a strong acid it will completely ionize in water, and the chemical reaction would look like this, HCl(aq) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) (100% to products = Strong acid) Weak acids, on the other hand, only partially ionize in water, producing a small amount of ions, but most of the molecules stay intact. Because weak acids produce only a small amount of ions, they are weak electrolytes and will only slightly conduct electricity. The ions of a weak acid are in equilibrium with the intact molecules. This means that while molecules are reacting to form ions, some ions are reacting back to form molecules at the same rate. The equilibrium condition is depicted as a double arrow in the chemical equation. The equilibrium reaction for the weak acid HF would be shown as, HF(aq) H + (aq) + F (aq) (~99% reactants, ~1% products = Weak acid) The difference between solutions of HCl and HF is shown in Fig. 4, with water molecules removed for clarity. Notice that the strong acid solution contains more H + ions. Fig. 4 Model of a strong acid and a weak acid dissolved in water Acids, Bases, and ph Dr. Lara Baxley pg. 3

4 Notice that the two acids shown in Fig. 4 both contain the same concentration of acid, that is the same number of acid molecules were added per unit volume of solution (in this case 6 HCl or 6 HF molecules were added). Also notice that the strong acid contains a higher concentration of H +, 6 H + ions for HCl and only 1 H + for HF (this doesn t quite agree with only 1% of HF molecules dissociating, but to show that we d need a figure with 100 molecules!). IV. Bases When Svente Arrhenius experimented with acids, he also determined that a base is a compound that produces OH in water. Strong bases are soluble metal hydroxides like NaOH, Sr(OH) 2, and KOH, and metal oxides, such as Na 2 O, SrO, and K 2 O (we will not consider the oxides in the rest of this chapter). Strong bases completely dissociate in water and are strong electrolytes. For example, NaOH will dissociate in water according to the equation, NaOH(aq) Na + (aq) + OH (aq) (100% to products = Strong base) Weak bases, on the other hand, only partially ionize in water to produce only a few OH ions. Weak bases contain nitrogen atoms in their formulas, such as NH 3 and CH 3 NH 2. Johannes Brønsted and Thomas Lowry determined that weak bases produce OH ions in water by removing (or accepting) H + from water molecules. The reaction of ammonia, NH 3 with water looks like this, NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH (aq) (~99% reactants, ~1% products = Weak base) Practice Problem 2 Problem: Identify each of the following as an acid, a base, or neither. (answer in this space, then look at the solution) a. H 3 BO 3 b. HOCH 2 COOH c. LiOH d. CH 3 OH I will recognize an acid because it will have one or more H s at the beginning or COOH at the end (or HOOC at the beginning). I will recognize bases because they will have a metal and then OH. If it isn t an acid or a base, I will assume that it is neutral. Acids, Bases, and ph Dr. Lara Baxley pg. 4

5 Practice Problem 2 continued Answer a. H 3 BO 3 This has three H s in the front, so it is an acid. This acid is call boric acid and it can be used as an antiseptic and flame retardant. Since boron gives off a green flame color, boric acid is also sometimes used in fireworks. b. HOCH 2 COOH This has COOH at the end, so it is an acid (a carboxylic acid, in fact). This is call glycolic acid. It readily penetrates the skin and is used in chemical peels. c. LiOH Lithium is a metal and this compound is a hydroxide, so this is a base. I don t have any interesting facts about lithium hydroxide. d. CH 3 OH This is a tricky one. It looks like a hydroxide with an OH, but remember that CH 3 is not a metal, so this is not a metal hydroxide and therefore not a base. This also is not an acid because it only has OH, no COOH. This compound is neutral. This compound is called methanol, but has the common name, wood alcohol. Although this is closely related to ethanol, which is in alcoholic drinks, don t drink methanol! It causes blindness and even death. V. The ph Concept ph is a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is. The concept of ph was first introduced in 1909 by a Danish chemist name Søren Sørensen. The ph scale ranges from 0 to 14, with 0 being the most acidic and 14 being the most basic. The ph scale, with ph and corresponding H + concentration (really H 3 O + ) and examples of various solutions is shown in Fig. 5. The ph can be calculated from the H + (or H 3 O + ) concentration using the equation: (eqn. 1) ph = log[h + ] or ph = log[h 3 O + ] The brackets indicate molar concentration (units of mol/l or M), so [H + ] means molar concentration of H +. The negative sign shows that the higher the [H + ], the lower the ph. Log indicates how many times 10 is multiplied by itself to result in the number [H + ]. This means that for every increase in 1 ph unit, there is a 10x increase in [H + ]. The logarithmic relationship between [H + ] and ph is shown in Fig 6. Fig. 5 The ph Scale Acids, Bases, and ph Dr. Lara Baxley pg. 5

6 Fig. 6 ph is a log scale such that for every 1 ph unit change, the H + concentration changes 10-fold. Practice Problem 3 Problem: Calculate the ph of a solution with an H + concentration of 3.20 x 10 3 M (perform this in your calculator to make sure that you get the right answer). Use the ph formula given in eqn. 1, ph = log[h + ] Solution ph = log[h + ] = log(3.20 x 10 3 ) ph = 2.49 *note: we will not worry about significant figures for ph in this class. Provide all ph s to 2 decimal points and all concentrations with 3 significant figures. V. ph of Strong Acid and Strong Base Solutions The example above shows how to calculate the ph of a solution if you know the concentration of H +, but how do you calculate the H + concentration of a given acid or base solution? The answer is that it depends on the compound. In this class, we will only consider the ph of strong acids and strong bases. Calculations involving weak acids and bases will be covered in Chem 201B. For a strong acid, since the acid completely dissociates into H + and an anion, all moles of acid become H +. Therefore, for a strong acid: [H + ] = [strong acid]. For example, Fig. 7 shows that 6 HCl molecules produce 6 H + ions. Fig. 7 For every molecule of a strong acid added to water, one H + ion is formed, so that [H + ] = [strong acid]. Acids, Bases, and ph Dr. Lara Baxley pg. 6

7 Practice Problem 4 Problem: Calculate the ph of M HClO 4 (perform this in your calculator to make sure that you get the right answer). Since HClO 4 is a strong acid, it completely dissociates into H + + ClO 4. Therefore, [H + ] = [HClO 4 ]. This means that the given concentration can be used in eqn. 1 to solve for ph. Solution [H + ] = [HClO 4 ] = M ph = log[h + ] = log(0.035) ph = 1.46 Strong bases completely dissociate into cation and OH ions. The first step in calculating the ph of a strong base is to determine concentration of OH ions. Some strong bases will produce more than one OH ion for each formula unit of the base. For example, Ca(OH) 2 will dissociate in water according to the chemical equation, Ca(OH) 2 (aq) Ca 2+ (aq) + 2 OH (aq) The mole ratio in this reaction shows that for every 1 mole of Ca(OH) 2 dissolved in water, 2 moles of OH will be produced. Therefore, for strong bases with 2 OH ions per formula unit, [OH ] = 2 x [base]. Hydroxides with 3 OH ions per formula unit are not soluble in water, so we do not need to consider them. Once you have determined the [OH ] in the basic solution, there are two methods for calculating ph. These two methods use the following equations, (eqn 2) poh = log[oh ] (this is just like the ph equation, but with OH ) (eqn 3) [H + ] [OH ] = (this is a constant for water solutions at 25 C) (eqn 4) poh + ph = 14 (this is derived by taking log of both sides of eqn. 3) If you know [OH ] and you wish to calculate ph, you choose one of the following methods; Method A 1. Use eqn. 3 to calculate [H + ] 2. Then use eqn. 1 to calculate ph Method B 1. Use eqn. 2 to calculate poh 2. Then eqn. 4 to calculate ph Acids, Bases, and ph Dr. Lara Baxley pg. 7

8 Either method will give you the same answer, so the choice is yours. Method B will be demonstrated in the following examples. Practice Problem 4 Problem: Calculate the ph the following solutions. (Solve on your own before looking at the solutions) a x 10 5 M KOH b M Ca(OH) 2 First calculate the [OH ] from the given base concentration and number of OH ions per formula unit. Then, use the [OH ] to calculate poh using eqn 3. Finally, calculate ph from the poh and eqn. 4 Answer a x 10 5 M KOH KOH has one OH in the formula, so [OH ] = [KOH] = 2.08 x 10 5 M poh = log(2.08 x 10 5 ) = ph = 14 poh = = = 9.32 b M Ca(OH) 2 Ca(OH) 2 has 2 OH in the formula, so [OH ] = 2 x [Ca(OH) 2 ] = 2 x M = M poh = log(0.0151) = ph = 14 poh = = = Acids, Bases, and ph Dr. Lara Baxley pg. 8

9 VII. Calculating [H + ] and [OH ] from ph In the previous examples, we learned how to calculate ph given the concentration of a strong acid or strong base solution. In addition to calculating ph of a solution, one can also measure the ph of a solution directly using ph strips or a ph meter. Once the ph is measured, one may wish to use this information to calculate the concentration of H + or OH in the solution. This can be done by taking the anitlog (or 10 x ) of the ph or poh equations given in eqns. 1 and 3. The antilog equations are, (eqn 5) (eqn 6) [H + ] = 10 ph [OH ] = 10 poh The method for using these equations is shown in the following example. Practice Problem 5 Problem: What are the [H + ] and [OH ] in a solution with a ph of 11.25? (Solve on your own before looking at the solutions) To calculate [H + ], use eqn 5 above. Calculating [OH ] can be done in one of two ways. My preferred method is to use eqn. 4 (ph + poh = 14) to calculate poh and then eqn. 6 to calculate [OH ]. Answer Calculate [H + ]: [H + ] = 10 ph = = 5.62 x M H + Calculate poh: poh = 14 ph = = 2.75 Calculate [OH ]: [OH ] = 10 poh = = 1.78 x 10 3 M OH VII. How CO 2 makes water acidic Look at the ph scale in Fig. 5. Notice that rain water has a ph of about 5. This often confuses people who have been taught that water is neutral and should have a ph of 7. The reason that rain water is slightly acidic is because CO 2 from the atmosphere dissolves in natural water and Acids, Bases, and ph Dr. Lara Baxley pg. 9

10 makes the water acidic. This is also why carbonated beverages are acidic, even if no other compound has been added to the water. Earlier in this chapter, you learned that acids can be identified as have either an H in front of their formula or COOH at the end of their formula. CO 2 has neither of these, so how can CO 2 make water acidic? The reason is that CO 2 actually reacts with the water to make carbonic acid, H 2 CO 3, which is an acid. The chemical equation for this reaction is, CO 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 2 CO 3 (aq) Although this is an equilibrium reaction that will reverse to form the reactants, the product, carbonic acid, is an acid that will ionize to form H +, which will lower the ph of the water. Student Learning Outcomes You now know a little more about acids, bases, and how the acidity of a solution is related to ph. You not only know how CO 2 makes water acidic, but you should also be able to, 1. Identify a compound as being either a strong acid, weak acid, strong base, or weak base from its formula. 2. Write the chemical equation representing the reaction of an acid or a base in water. 3. Determine which of a pair of solutions will have more ions, a strong acid vs. a weak acid, or a strong base vs. a weak base. 4. Determine the concentration of H + ions and OH ions in a given concentration of a strong acid or strong base. 5. Calculate the ph of a given solution of a strong acid or strong base. 6. Calculate the concentration of H + and OH ions in a solution with a given ph. Photo credits Fruit: ph strips: David Gould, Getty Images (found on about.com) Baking soda: Carbonated water: Fig. 1: Carboxyl group structure: unknown source Fig. 2: Acetic acid: wikipedia.com Fig. 3: HCl in water: modified from Fig. 4: Strong vs Weak Acids: Lara Baxley, Cuesta College Fig. 5: The ph Scale: unknown source Fig. 6: Relationship between ph and [H + ]: Lara Baxley, Cuesta College Fig. 7: Number of H + ions formed in a strong acid solution: Lara Baxley, Cuesta College Acknowledgement I wish to thank my husband and colleague, Dr. Greg Baxley, for reviewing and editing this document. Acids, Bases, and ph Dr. Lara Baxley pg. 10

Acids and Bases: A Brief Review, see also pp and pp Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases 143. The H + Ion in Water

Acids and Bases: A Brief Review, see also pp and pp Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases 143. The H + Ion in Water Quiz number 5 will be given in recitation next week, Feb 26Mar 2 on the first part of Chapter 16, to be covered in lectures this week. 16.1 Acids and Bases: A Brief Review 16.2 BronstedLowry Acids and

More information

Acids and Bases: Definitions. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases CHEMISTRY THE CENTRAL SCIENCE

Acids and Bases: Definitions. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases CHEMISTRY THE CENTRAL SCIENCE CHEMISTRY THE CENTRAL SCIENCE Professor Angelo R. Rossi Department of Chemistry Spring Semester Acids and Bases: Definitions Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Acids are substances which increase

More information

CHAPTER 16: ACIDS AND BASES

CHAPTER 16: ACIDS AND BASES CHAPTER 16: ACIDS AND BASES Active Learning: 4, 6, 14; End-of-Chapter Problems: 2-25, 27-58, 66-68, 70, 75-77, 83, 90-91, 93-104 Chapter 15 End-of-Chapter Problems: 69-74, 125, 129, 133 16.1 ACIDS AND

More information

Notes: Acids and Bases

Notes: Acids and Bases Name Chemistry Pre-AP Notes: Acids and Bases Period I. Describing Acids and Bases A. Properties of Acids taste ph 7 Acids change color of an (e.g. blue litmus paper turns in the presence of an acid) React

More information

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Ch 14 Page 1 Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Properties of Acids Sour taste React with some metals Turns blue litmus paper red React with bases Some Common Acids HCl, hydrochloric acid H 2 SO 4, sulfuric acid

More information

Acids and Bases: A Brief Review

Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Acids and : A Brief Review Acids: taste sour and cause dyes to change color. : taste bitter and feel soapy. Arrhenius: acids increase [H ] bases increase [OH ] in solution. Arrhenius: acid base salt water.

More information

CHEM 12 Acids and Bases 3/22/2016

CHEM 12 Acids and Bases 3/22/2016 Acids and Bases Name: Expected background knowledge from acids and bases introductory reading: Definitions (Arrhenius, BL) of an acid and base Definitions of conjugate acid and base pairs Properties of

More information

Auto-ionization of Water

Auto-ionization of Water 2H 2 O H 3 O + + OH Hydronium ion hydroxide ion Q: But how often does this happen? This is the fundamental concept of all acid-base chemistry In pure water, how much of it is water and how much is ions?

More information

UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES

UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES 6.1 Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Definitions for acids and bases were proposed by the Swedish chemist Savante Arrhenius in 1884. Acids were defined as compounds that

More information

Acids and Bases. Chapter 16

Acids and Bases. Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Chapter 16 The Arrhenius Model An acid is any substance that produces hydrogen ions, H +, in an aqueous solution. Example: when hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in water, the following

More information

AP Chemistry- Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases. Bases- originally defined as any substance that neutralized an acid

AP Chemistry- Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases. Bases- originally defined as any substance that neutralized an acid AP Chemistry Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases Acids Electrolyte Taste Litmus Phenolphthalein React with metals to give off H 2 gas H 2 SO 4 (aq) + Mg (s) MgSO 4 (aq) + H 2 (g) Ionize

More information

Talk in. Arrhenius Acid- Base Definition and ph

Talk in. Arrhenius Acid- Base Definition and ph Talk in. Arrhenius Acid Base Definition and ph When we think of acids, we typically think of the Arrhenius definition. Svante Arrhenius (18591927) Arrhenius Acid = Any compound that increases the hydronium

More information

CHM1 Review for Exam 12

CHM1 Review for Exam 12 Topics Solutions 1. Arrhenius Acids and bases a. An acid increases the H + concentration in b. A base increases the OH - concentration in 2. Strong acids and bases completely dissociate 3. Weak acids and

More information

Chapter 15: Acids, Bases, and Salts. 15.1: Acids and Bases

Chapter 15: Acids, Bases, and Salts. 15.1: Acids and Bases Chapter 15: Acids, Bases, and Salts Name: 15.1: Acids and Bases Define an Acid: Define a Base: Ex of an acid in aqueous solution: Ex of a base in aqueous solution: List some of the properties of acids

More information

If we write these equations in ionic form, in each case the net ionic equation is the same; H 3 O + (aq) + OH - (aq) H 2H 2 O(l)

If we write these equations in ionic form, in each case the net ionic equation is the same; H 3 O + (aq) + OH - (aq) H 2H 2 O(l) CHEM 1105 ACIDS AND BASES 1. Early Definitions Taste: Effect on Indicators: Neutralization: acids - sour; bases - bitter acids turn blue litmus red; bases turn red litmus blue phenolphthalein is colourless

More information

Chem101: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases

Chem101: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases : General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases I. Introduction A. In chemistry, and particularly biochemistry, water is the most common solvent 1. In studying acids and bases we are going to see that water

More information

Acids and Bases. Basic Definitions & Concepts

Acids and Bases. Basic Definitions & Concepts Acids and Bases CHEM 102! T. Hughbanks! Basic Definitions & Concepts Most basic concepts are given clearly in your text - these notes will only list these as topics discussed, so there will be less detail.!

More information

Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases

Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases 14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases A. Arrhenius Model 1. Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions 2. Bases produce hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions B. Bronsted-Lowry

More information

Note: (H 3 O + = hydronium ion = H + = proton) Example: HS - + H 2 O H 3 O + + S 2-

Note: (H 3 O + = hydronium ion = H + = proton) Example: HS - + H 2 O H 3 O + + S 2- AcidBase Chemistry Arrhenius acid: Substance that dissolves in water and provides H + ions Arrhenius base: Substance that dissolves in water and provides OH ions Examples: HCl H + and Cl Acid NaOH Na +

More information

Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases

Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases Chapter 17 Acids and Bases How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties Base Physical properties Tastes sour Tastes bitter Feels slippery or slimy Chemical properties Chemical properties

More information

CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solutions (continued) Lect-07

CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solutions (continued) Lect-07 CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solutions (continued) Lect-07 aqueous acid/base reactions a. a little bit more about water Water is a polar substance. This means water is able to "solvate" ions rather well. Another

More information

Types of Reactions. What are Acids &Bases? Chapter 15. Acids & Bases. Definition? a) Arrhenius. b) Bronsted-Lowry. c) Lewis

Types of Reactions. What are Acids &Bases? Chapter 15. Acids & Bases. Definition? a) Arrhenius. b) Bronsted-Lowry. c) Lewis Chapter 15. Acids & Bases Acid/Base Definitions Types of Acids/bases Polyprotic Acids The Ion Product for Water The ph and Other p Scales Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases Hydrolysis The Common Ion

More information

Lecture 6. Classes of Chemical Reactions

Lecture 6. Classes of Chemical Reactions Lecture 6 Classes of Chemical Reactions Lecture 6 Outline 6.1 The Role of Water as a Solvent 6.2 Precipitation Reactions 6.3 Acid-Base Reactions 1 Electron distribution in molecules of H 2 and H 2 O The

More information

Strong Acids (Know These) Announcements & Agenda (02/23/07) Strengths of Acids/Bases - Ionization. Last Time: Last Time: nsted-lowry Acids & Bases

Strong Acids (Know These) Announcements & Agenda (02/23/07) Strengths of Acids/Bases - Ionization. Last Time: Last Time: nsted-lowry Acids & Bases Announcements & Agenda (0//07) You should be reading Ch 0 this weekend! Quiz Today! Open Review Sessions @ pm on Wed. Low attendance this week Last Time: Bronsted nsted-lowry Acids & Bases acids donate

More information

Chapter 15 Acids and Bases reading guide.

Chapter 15 Acids and Bases reading guide. Chapter 15 Acids and Bases reading guide. Be active while reading the text. Take notes, think about what you ve read, and ask yourself questions while reading. Use this document as a guide for making your

More information

Ch Acids and Bases. Arrhenius Definition Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. Bases produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water.

Ch Acids and Bases. Arrhenius Definition Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. Bases produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Ch 15-16 Acids and Bases Arrhenius Definition Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. Bases produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Limits to aqueous solutions. Only one kind of base.

More information

16. What is the H 3 O + concentration of a solution that has an OH concentration of 1 10 3 M? 1) 1 10 4 M 3) 1 10 11 M

16. What is the H 3 O + concentration of a solution that has an OH concentration of 1 10 3 M? 1) 1 10 4 M 3) 1 10 11 M 1. If the [OH ] = 1 10 4 at 298 K for a given solution, the [H + ] of the solution is equal to 1) 1 10 14 3) 1 10 6 2) 1 10 10 4) 1 10 4 2. Based on Reference Table V, which is the strongest base? 1) NO

More information

Chapter 9 Acids, Bases and Buffers in the Body Outline 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions Acids

Chapter 9 Acids, Bases and Buffers in the Body Outline 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions Acids Lecture Presentation Chapter 9 Acids, Bases and Buffers in the Body Julie Klare Fortis College Smyrna, GA Outline 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions 9.2 Strong Acids and Bases 9.3 Chemical Equilibrium 9.4

More information

TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases

TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases ELECTROLYTES are substances that when dissolves in water conduct electricity. They conduct electricity because they will break apart into Ex. NaCl(s)! Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq), and

More information

Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions

Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Chapter 17 An example of equilibrium: Acid base chemistry What are acids and bases? Every day descriptions Chemical description of acidic and basic solutions by Arrhenius

More information

ph of strong acid and base

ph of strong acid and base ph of strong acid and base What does strong mean in terms of acids and bases? Solubility. Basically, if you say an acid or base is strong, then it dissociates 100% in water. These types of situations are

More information

ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures miscible two liquids that and form a immiscible two liquids that form a e.g.

ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures miscible two liquids that and form a immiscible two liquids that form a e.g. Unit 7 Solutions, Acids & Bases Solution mixture + solvent - substance present in the amount solute - in the solvent solvent molecules solute particles ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures

More information

Chapter 16: Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water

Chapter 16: Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water Chapter 16: Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water Problems: 16.2-16.86 16.1 ACIDS AND BASES: THE BRØNSTED-LOWRY MODEL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS & BASES Acids produce hydrogen ions,

More information

We were able to use the RICE expression to determine the ph for the autodissociation of water H 2 O H + + OH - with [H + ] = K w 0.

We were able to use the RICE expression to determine the ph for the autodissociation of water H 2 O H + + OH - with [H + ] = K w 0. 1 Lecture 10: The Strong Acid/Strong Base Equilibrium Calculation After an entire lecture on water with nothing added, you must be pumped to know that in this lecture something will actually be added to

More information

CHAPTER 9. ANS: a. ANS: d. ANS: c. ANS: a. ANS: c

CHAPTER 9. ANS: a. ANS: d. ANS: c. ANS: a. ANS: c CHAPTER 9 1. Which one of the following is the acid in vinegar? a. acetic acid b. citric acid c. muriatic acid d. ascorbic acid 2. Which is a basic or alkaline substance? a. gastric fluid b. black coffee

More information

Since we will be dealing with aqueous acid and base solution, first we must examine the behavior of water.

Since we will be dealing with aqueous acid and base solution, first we must examine the behavior of water. Acids and Bases Know the definition of Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis acid and base. Autoionization of Water Since we will be dealing with aqueous acid and base solution, first we must examine the

More information

Table 1. give a slippery feel. produce a piercing pain in a wound. are colorless when placed in phenolphthalein (an indicator).

Table 1. give a slippery feel. produce a piercing pain in a wound. are colorless when placed in phenolphthalein (an indicator). Acid/Base Basics How does one define acids and bases? In chemistry, acids and bases have been defined differently by two sets of theories. One is the Arrhenius definition, which revolves around the idea

More information

Chemistry 52. Reacts with active metals to produce hydrogen gas. Have a slippery, soapy feeling. React with carbonates to produce CO 2

Chemistry 52. Reacts with active metals to produce hydrogen gas. Have a slippery, soapy feeling. React with carbonates to produce CO 2 ACID AND BASE STRENGTH Experiment #2 PURPOSE: 1. To distinguish between acids, bases and neutral substances, by observing their effect on some common indicators. 2. To distinguish between strong and weak

More information

Answer the following questions on notebook paper, to be collected and graded for correctness.

Answer the following questions on notebook paper, to be collected and graded for correctness. nswer the following questions on notebook paper, to be collected and graded for correctness. 1. Name the following binary acids: a. HCl hydrochloric acid b. HF hydrofluoric acid c. H 2 S hydrosulfuric

More information

Name: Per: Date: Unit 11 - Acids, Bases and Salts Chemistry Accelerated Chemistry I Define each of the following: 1. Acidic hydrogens.

Name: Per: Date: Unit 11 - Acids, Bases and Salts Chemistry Accelerated Chemistry I Define each of the following: 1. Acidic hydrogens. Name: Per: Date: Unit 11 - Acids, Bases and Salts Chemistry Accelerated Chemistry I Define each of the following: 1. Acidic hydrogens 2. Binary acids 3. Oxyacids 4. Carboxylic acid 5. Amines Name the following

More information

Chapter 19: Acids and Bases Homework Packet (50 pts) Name: Score: / 50

Chapter 19: Acids and Bases Homework Packet (50 pts) Name: Score: / 50 Chapter 19: Acids and Bases Homework Packet (50 pts) Topic pg Section 19.1 1-3 Section 19.2 3-6 Section 19.3 6-7 Section 19.4 8 Naming Acids 9 Properties of Acids/Bases 10-11 Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs

More information

I. Definitions: Name: Period: Date: 1. Arrhenius (1887)- produce in aqueous solutions produce in aqueous solutions

I. Definitions: Name: Period: Date: 1. Arrhenius (1887)- produce in aqueous solutions produce in aqueous solutions Name: Period: Date: I. Definitions: 1. Arrhenius (1887)- produce in aqueous solutions produce in aqueous solutions 2. Bronsted-Lowry (1923) 3. Lewis (1923), so only allows for aqueous solutions only protic

More information

Acids and Bases. An Introduction. David A Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College, Tucson, AZ, USA

Acids and Bases. An Introduction. David A Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College, Tucson, AZ, USA Acids and Bases An Introduction David A Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College, Tucson, AZ, USA Properties of Acids 1. Sour taste (examples: vinegar, citric acid, lemon juice) 2. Turns litmus

More information

CHM101 Lab Acids and Bases Grading Rubric

CHM101 Lab Acids and Bases Grading Rubric Name Team Name CHM101 Lab Acids and Bases Grading Rubric To participate in this lab you must have splash-proof goggles, proper shoes and attire. Criteria Points possible Points earned Lab Performance Printed

More information

9.5 ph and the ph Scale

9.5 ph and the ph Scale 9.5 ph and the ph Scale Living things prefer a constant ph. Normal blood ph is strictly regulated between 7.35 and 7.45. The ph of a solution is commonly measured either electronically by using an instrument

More information

UNIT 14 - Acids & Bases

UNIT 14 - Acids & Bases COMMON ACIDS NOTES lactic acetic phosphoric citric malic PROPERTIES OF ACIDS 1. 1. PROPERTIES OF BASES 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. NAMING ACIDS NOTES Binary acids (H + one element) Practice: 1. hydro- - HF

More information

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Name: Class: Date: Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Acids generally release H 2 gas when they react with a.

More information

Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium

Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium 1. What is the difference between the Arrhenius and the BronstedLowry definition of an acid? Arrhenious acids give H + in water BronstedLowry acids are proton

More information

BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES

BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES ACIDS & BASES BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES Brønsted acids are proton donors. Brønsted bases are proton acceptors. Amphoteric species can act as either an acid or a base, depending on the

More information

CHAPTERS 15 FAKE TEST QUESTIONS. 1. According to the Brønsted Lowry definition, which species can function both as an acid and as a base?

CHAPTERS 15 FAKE TEST QUESTIONS. 1. According to the Brønsted Lowry definition, which species can function both as an acid and as a base? You might need to know the following K values: CHAPTERS 15 FAKE TEST QUESTIONS CH 3 COOH K a = 1.8 x 10 5 Benzoic Acid K a = 6.5 x 10 5 HNO 2 K a = 4.5 x 10 4 NH 3 K b = 1.8 x 10 5 HF K a = 7.2 x 10 4

More information

Write the acid-base equilibria connecting all components in the aqueous solution. Now list all of the species present.

Write the acid-base equilibria connecting all components in the aqueous solution. Now list all of the species present. Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Concept Check 16.1 Chemists in the seventeenth century discovered that the substance that gives red ants their irritating bite is an acid with the formula HCHO 2. They called

More information

An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution.

An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution. Chapter 8 Acids and Bases Definitions Arrhenius definitions: An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution.

More information

Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4)

Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4) Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4) Chemical Equations 1. Balancing Chemical Equations (from Chapter 3) Adjust coefficients to get equal numbers of each kind of element on both sides of arrow.

More information

Acids and Bases. Ch a pt e r Aqueous Equilibria: Chemistry 4th Edition McMurry/Fay. MOH(aq) M + (aq) + OH (aq)

Acids and Bases. Ch a pt e r Aqueous Equilibria: Chemistry 4th Edition McMurry/Fay. MOH(aq) M + (aq) + OH (aq) 15 Ch a pt e r Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Chemistry th Edition McMurry/Fay Dr. Paul Charlesworth Michigan Technological University AcidBase Concepts 01 Arrhenius Acid: A substance which dissociates

More information

1. Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases and the conjugate acid base pairs in the following reactions.

1. Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases and the conjugate acid base pairs in the following reactions. Exercise #1 Brønsted-Lowry s and Bases 1. Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases and the conjugate acid base pairs in the following reactions. (a) HCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) (b) H 2

More information

Tutorial 3: Ionization of Water

Tutorial 3: Ionization of Water Tutorial 3: Ionization of Water DEMONSTRATION OF CONDUCTIVITY OF TAP WATER AND DISTILLED WATER - Pure distilled water still has a small conductivity. Why? - There are a few ions present. - Almost all the

More information

Acid/base Definitions. Acid/Base Definitions. Acid / Base Chemistry. Acid/Base Definitions. Identifying Acids and Bases

Acid/base Definitions. Acid/Base Definitions. Acid / Base Chemistry. Acid/Base Definitions. Identifying Acids and Bases Acids Identifying Acids and Bases Acid (anhydrides) contains H+ ions as the cation, with and other element as the anion Non-metal oxide H2SO4 HI P2O5 Bases Base (anhydrides) Contains OH- as the anion Combined

More information

Chem 1B Dr. White 1. Chapter 14 Acids and Bases. 14.1 Nature of Acids and Bases. A. Acids. B. Bases

Chem 1B Dr. White 1. Chapter 14 Acids and Bases. 14.1 Nature of Acids and Bases. A. Acids. B. Bases Chem 1B Dr. White 1 Chapter 14 Acids and Bases 14.1 Nature of Acids and Bases A. Acids B. Bases Chem 1B Dr. White 2 C. Arrhenius Definition 1. acid 2. base 3. Acid-base reaction involving Arrhenius acids

More information

ph. Weak acids. A. Introduction

ph. Weak acids. A. Introduction ph. Weak acids. A. Introduction... 1 B. Weak acids: overview... 1 C. Weak acids: an example; finding K a... 2 D. Given K a, calculate ph... 3 E. A variety of weak acids... 5 F. So where do strong acids

More information

Acid Base Concepts. Arrhenius concept. Hydronium Ion. Page 1

Acid Base Concepts. Arrhenius concept. Hydronium Ion. Page 1 Acid Base Concepts Page 1 The Swedish chemist, Svante Arrhenius, framed the first successful concept of acids and bases. He defined acids and bases in terms of their effect on water. According to Arrhenius,

More information

Water is both an acid and a base. This means that a water molecule can either give or receive a proton.

Water is both an acid and a base. This means that a water molecule can either give or receive a proton. The Self-Ionization of Water Water is both an acid and a base. This means that a water molecule can either give or receive a proton. - H2O( l ) H2O( l ) H3O ( aq ) OH ( aq) base acid A pair of water molecules

More information

ph: Measurement and Uses

ph: Measurement and Uses ph: Measurement and Uses One of the most important properties of aqueous solutions is the concentration of hydrogen ion. The concentration of H + (or H 3 O + ) affects the solubility of inorganic and organic

More information

Chapter 15 Acids and Bases. Fu-Yin Hsu

Chapter 15 Acids and Bases. Fu-Yin Hsu Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Fu-Yin Hsu Stomach Acid and Heartburn The cells that line your stomach produce hydrochloric acid. To kill unwanted bacteria To help break down food To activate enzymes that break

More information

3/6/2014. Chapter 15. Acids and Bases. Stomach Acid and Heartburn GERD. Curing Heartburn. Common Acids. Properties of Acids. Lecture Presentation

3/6/2014. Chapter 15. Acids and Bases. Stomach Acid and Heartburn GERD. Curing Heartburn. Common Acids. Properties of Acids. Lecture Presentation Lecture Presentation Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Sherril Soman Grand Valley State University Stomach Acid and Heartburn The cells that line your stomach produce hydrochloric acid. To kill unwanted bacteria

More information

Lab Activity: Strong Acids & Strong Bases, Weak Acids & Weak Bases, and the Hydrolysis of Salts

Lab Activity: Strong Acids & Strong Bases, Weak Acids & Weak Bases, and the Hydrolysis of Salts Lab Activity: Strong Acids & Strong Bases, Weak Acids & Weak Bases, and the Hydrolysis of Salts Strong acids and strong bases completely ionize in water to make hydronium or hydroxide ions. Because the

More information

Chapter 17. The best buffer choice for ph 7 is NaH 2 PO 4 /Na 2 HPO 4. 19)

Chapter 17. The best buffer choice for ph 7 is NaH 2 PO 4 /Na 2 HPO 4. 19) Chapter 17 2) a) HCl and CH 3 COOH are both acids. A buffer must have an acid/base conjugate pair. b) NaH 2 PO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 are an acid/base conjugate pair. They will make an excellent buffer. c) H

More information

1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is:

1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is: 1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is: a) K = [H+ ][NO 2 ] [HNO 2 ] b) K = [H+ ][N][O] 2 [HNO 2 ] c) K =

More information

Topic 8 Acids and bases 6 hours

Topic 8 Acids and bases 6 hours Topic 8 Acids and bases 6 hours Hydronium ion (H3O + ) = more stable form of hydrogen ion (H + ) H + + H2O H3O + 8.1 Theories of acids and bases 2 hours 1. Arrhenius H-X / M-OH ACID a substance that dissociates

More information

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent A. Structure of water 1. Oxygen's electronegativity is high (3.5) and hydrogen's

More information

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction.

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 1 REACTIONS AND YIELD ANSWERS stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 2C 8 H 18 (l) + 25O 2 16CO 2 (g) + 18H 2 O(g) From the equation, 16 moles of CO 2 (a greenhouse

More information

Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution (Sections )

Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution (Sections ) Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution (Sections 4.1-4.12) Chapter Goals Be able to: Classify substances as electrolytes or nonelectrolytes. Write molecular, ionic, and net ionic equations for precipitation,

More information

Notes on Unit 4 Acids and Bases

Notes on Unit 4 Acids and Bases Ionization of Water DEMONSTRATION OF CONDUCTIVITY OF TAP WATER AND DISTILLED WATER Pure distilled water still has a small conductivity. Why? There are a few ions present. Almost all the pure water is H

More information

Chapter 6: Neutralizing the Threat of Acid Rain

Chapter 6: Neutralizing the Threat of Acid Rain Chapter 6: Neutralizing the Threat of Acid Rain Is normal rain acidic? Is acid rain worse in some parts of the country? Is there a way to neutralize acid rain? Acid Rain The problem Regional atmospheric

More information

Acid-Base 2/27/2012. Definitions of Acids/Bases. Acid-Base Behavior. Arrhenius Definition. Arrhenius Definition

Acid-Base 2/27/2012. Definitions of Acids/Bases. Acid-Base Behavior. Arrhenius Definition. Arrhenius Definition Acids Taste sour Burn Skin Turn Litmus Red Dissolve metals Citrus fruit Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Vinegar Battery Acid Bases Taste Bitter Behavior Burn Skin/Feel Slippery Turn Litmus Blue Soap Ammonia

More information

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Learning goals and key skills: Understand the nature of the hydrated proton, represented as either H + (aq) or H 3 O + (aq) Define and identify Arrhenuis acids and bases.

More information

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Chapter 16 AcidBase Equilibria Acids and bases are found in many common substances and are important in life processes. Group Work: Make a list of some common acids and bases. How do we know which is which?

More information

Bronsted- Lowry Acid Base Chemistry

Bronsted- Lowry Acid Base Chemistry Bronsted Lowry Acid Base Chemistry Just a few reminders What makes an acid an acid? A BronstedLowry Acid is a compound that donates a proton (a hydrogen ion with a positive charge, H + ) o Think of the

More information

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria. Most solutions that occur in nature are slightly acidic. One reason for this is that when carbon

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria. Most solutions that occur in nature are slightly acidic. One reason for this is that when carbon Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Most solutions that occur in nature are slightly acidic. One reason for this is that when carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms carbonic acid, H 2 CO 3. Basic solutions

More information

Arrhenius Theory of Acids

Arrhenius Theory of Acids Acids and Bases Chapter 17: 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 17, 18, 43, 67a-d, 71 Chapter 18: 5-9, 26, 27a-e, 32 Arrhenius Theory of Acids an acid-base reaction involves the reaction of hydrogen ions and hydroxide

More information

H 2 O + HNO 3 H 3 O + + NO 3

H 2 O + HNO 3 H 3 O + + NO 3 Properties Unit 12 Acids & Bases electrolytes sour taste turn litmus red react with metals to form 2 gas vinegar, soda, citrus fruits electrolytes bitter taste turn litmus blue slippery feel ammonia, lye,

More information

14-Jul-12 Chemsheets A

14-Jul-12 Chemsheets A www.chemsheets.co.uk 14-Jul-12 Chemsheets A2 009 1 BRONSTED-LOWRY ACIDS & BASES Bronsted-Lowry acid = proton donor (H + = proton) Bronsted-Lowry base = proton acceptor (H + = proton) Bronsted-Lowry acid-base

More information

Titrations. Acid-Base Indicators and Titration Curves. Shapes of Titration Curves. A titration curve is a graphical history of a titration

Titrations. Acid-Base Indicators and Titration Curves. Shapes of Titration Curves. A titration curve is a graphical history of a titration Acid-Base Indicators and Titration Curves Titrations In a titration a solution of accurately known concentration is added gradually added to another solution of unknown concentration until the chemical

More information

Problems you need to KNOW to be successful in the upcoming AP Chemistry exam.

Problems you need to KNOW to be successful in the upcoming AP Chemistry exam. Problems you need to KNOW to be successful in the upcoming AP Chemistry exam. Problem 1 The formula and the molecular weight of an unknown hydrocarbon compound are to be determined by elemental analysis

More information

CH302 Exam 4 Practice Problems (buffers, titrations, Ksp)

CH302 Exam 4 Practice Problems (buffers, titrations, Ksp) CH302 Exam 4 Practice Problems (buffers, titrations, Ksp) 1 Equilibrium Constants The following equilibrium constants will be useful for some of the problems. Substance Constant Substance Constant HCO

More information

Equilibrium, Acids and Bases Unit Summary:

Equilibrium, Acids and Bases Unit Summary: Equilibrium, Acids and Bases Unit Summary: Prerequisite Skills and Knowledge Understand concepts of concentration, solubility, saturation point, pressure, density, viscosity, flow rate, and temperature

More information

Acids and Bases HW PSI Chemistry

Acids and Bases HW PSI Chemistry Acids and Bases HW PSI Chemistry Name 1) According to the Arrhenius concept, an acid is a substance that. A) is capable of donating one or more H + B) causes an increase in the concentration of H + in

More information

CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH

CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH 1. Is H 3 O + polar or non-polar? (1 point) a) Polar b) Non-polar CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH 2. The bond strength is considerably greater in HF than in the other three hydrogen halides

More information

Acid-Base Equilibrium

Acid-Base Equilibrium AcidBaseEquil 1 Acid-Base Equilibrium See AqueousIons in Chemistry 1110 online notes for review of acid-base fundamentals! Acid- Base Reaction in Aqueous Salt Solutions Recall that use [ ] to mean concentration

More information

Intermolecular forces, acids, bases, electrolytes, net ionic equations, solubility, and molarity of Ions in solution:

Intermolecular forces, acids, bases, electrolytes, net ionic equations, solubility, and molarity of Ions in solution: Intermolecular forces, acids, bases, electrolytes, net ionic equations, solubility, and molarity of Ions in solution: 1. What are the different types of Intermolecular forces? Define the following terms:

More information

Chapter 9 Lecture Notes: Acids, Bases and Equilibrium

Chapter 9 Lecture Notes: Acids, Bases and Equilibrium Chapter 9 Lecture Notes: Acids, Bases and Equilibrium Educational Goals 1. Given a chemical equation, write the law of mass action. 2. Given the equilibrium constant (K eq ) for a reaction, predict whether

More information

Acid-Base Chemistry. Brønsted-Lowry Acids & Bases

Acid-Base Chemistry. Brønsted-Lowry Acids & Bases Acid-Base Chemistry ν There are a couple of ways to define acids and bases ν Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases ν Acid: H + ion donor ν Base: H + ion acceptor ν Lewis acids and bases ν Acid: electron pair

More information

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Properties of Compounds in Water Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes Water soluble compounds

More information

Chemical Reactions in Water

Chemical Reactions in Water Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Acids, Bases and Salts Acids dissolve in water to give H + ions. These ions attach

More information

CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM A) DR. SIMON NORTH

CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM A) DR. SIMON NORTH CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM A) DR. SIMON NORTH 1. When considering conjugate acids and bases, (2 points) a) Strong acids have strong conjugate bases. b) Strong bases have strong conjugate acids. c) Weak

More information

Chemistry Unit Test Review

Chemistry Unit Test Review SNC 2DI Chemistry Unit Test Review Note: this review sheet only covers the second half of our chemistry unit. You should use our mid-unit test review sheet to recall concepts from the first half of the

More information

EXPERIMENT 10 Chemistry 110. Solutions Part 2 ACIDS, BASES, AND ELECTROLYTES

EXPERIMENT 10 Chemistry 110. Solutions Part 2 ACIDS, BASES, AND ELECTROLYTES EXPERIMENT 10 Chemistry 110 Solutions Part 2 ACIDS, BASES, AND ELECTROLYTES PURPOSE: The purpose of this experiment is to determine the properties of solutions of acids, bases and electrolytes. Students

More information

Q.1 Classify the following according to Lewis theory and Brønsted-Lowry theory.

Q.1 Classify the following according to Lewis theory and Brønsted-Lowry theory. Acid-base A4 1 Acid-base theories ACIDS & BASES - IONIC EQUILIBRIA 1. LEWIS acid electron pair acceptor H, AlCl 3 base electron pair donor NH 3, H 2 O, C 2 H 5 OH, OH e.g. H 3 N: -> BF 3 > H 3 N BF 3 see

More information

3. Which of the following describes a conjugate acid-base pair for the following equilibrium? CN - (aq) + CH 3 NH 3 + (aq) H 2 CO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l)

3. Which of the following describes a conjugate acid-base pair for the following equilibrium? CN - (aq) + CH 3 NH 3 + (aq) H 2 CO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) Acids, Bases & Redox 1 Practice Problems for Assignment 8 1. A substance which produces OH ions in solution is a definition for which of the following? (a) an Arrhenius acid (b) an Arrhenius base (c) a

More information

Acids and Bases CHAPTER 12. Opening Essay

Acids and Bases CHAPTER 12. Opening Essay CHAPTER 12 Acids and Bases Opening Essay Formerly there were rather campy science-fiction television shows in which the hero was always being threatened with death by being plunged into a vat of boiling

More information

Chapter 4 Three Major Classes of Chemical Reactions. As will likely come as no surprise, chemical reactions can be categorized in a variety of

Chapter 4 Three Major Classes of Chemical Reactions. As will likely come as no surprise, chemical reactions can be categorized in a variety of Chapter 4 Three Major Classes of Chemical Reactions As will likely come as no surprise, chemical reactions can be categorized in a variety of different ways, with nearly all reactions falling into more

More information