# Open Problems in Quantum Information Processing. John Watrous Department of Computer Science University of Calgary

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1 Open Problems in Quantum Information Processing John Watrous Department of Computer Science University of Calgary

2 #1 Open Problem Find new quantum algorithms. Existing algorithms: Shor s Algorithm (+ extensions) - algorithms for: finding abelian hidden subgroups, hidden normal subgroups, and order of solvable groups; decomposing abelian groups; computing class numbers of quadratic number fields; solving Pell s equation.

3 #1 Open Problem Find new quantum algorithms. Existing algorithms: Grover s Algorithm + Amplitude Amplification. - many black box problems admit some polynomial speed-up: counting, finding collisions, searching spatial regions,

4 #1 Open Problem Find new quantum algorithms. Existing algorithms: Graph reachability via quantum walks [Childs, Cleve, Deotto, Farhi, Gutmann, Spielman, 2002] Application to a non-black-box problem?

5 #1 Open Problem Find new quantum algorithms. BQP NP Not too many natural problems suspected to be here P NP-complete problems

6 #1 Open Problem Find new quantum algorithms. Candidate problems: graph isomorphism group-theoretic problems lattice problems simulating physical systems Warning: many have tried Find new techniques.

7 Weak Coin-Flipping Is weak coin flipping with arbitrary bias possible? Alice and Bob want to flip a fair coin, but one of them might be cheating Alice wants heads, Bob wants tails. Bias is possible. Bias e requires O ( - log loge 1 ) rounds.

8 Black-box Problems Several open problems on black-box complexity: Improve the bound ( ( ) 2 ) D ( f ) = O Q f ( ( ) 6 ) D ( f ) = O Q f for total functions. Is there a black box (promise) problem that admits an exponential quantum speed-up where the answer is invariant under permutation of the black box? Specific problems: finding triangles in graphs, searching a 2 dimensional region, AND-OR trees, equal or disjoint sets to

9 QMA Identify natural problems in QMA. Problems known to be in QMA: Local Hamiltonian problem Group Non-membership Approximate shortest vector in a lattice. Is graph non-isomorphism in QMA? Other complexity questions: Is BQP in the polynomial-time hierarchy? Is QIP = PSPACE? Is QIP = EXP?

10 Non-Distillability of NPT States Do there exist non-distillable NPT states? Let T denote the linear mapping corresponding to matrix transposition: T ( A) = T A Tensoring with the identity gives the partial transpose: ( T ƒ I) ( Aƒ B) = A T ƒ B (extend by linearity).

11 Non-Distillability of NPT States Do there exist non-distillable NPT states? ( T ƒ I)( r) If r is separable, then semidefinite. If r is entangled, then not be positive semidefinite: ( T ƒ I)( r) is positive may or may ( T ƒ I)( r) 0 fi r ( T ƒ I)( r) 0 fi r is is PPT NPT E ( ) D r = 0 ( r) = 0 If r is PPT, then r for which? E D. Is there an NPT state

12 Communication Complexity There are many open questions about quantum communication complexity: Is there a total function for which an exponential savings in communication is possible in the quantum setting? How powerful is prior entanglement for quantum communication protocols? Find a problem for which one-way quantum communication is exponentially more efficient than one-way classical communication.

13 Non-locality and Multiple Provers There are many open questions concerning non-locality. Alice entanglement Bob Referee Referee asks classical questions, Alice and Bob give classical answers we are interested in the possible correlations in their answers.

14 Non-locality and Multiple Provers There are many open questions concerning non-locality. How much classical communication would be needed for classical players Alice and Bob to look quantum to the referee. Cooperative games setting: how much entanglement is needed for Alice and Bob to play optimally? Does parallel repetition work? What is the power of multi-prover quantum interactive proofs.

15 Quantum Channel Capacities There are many open questions concerning quantum channel capacities: Unlike classical channels, quantum channels can have several different capacities (e.g., for sending quantum information or classical information, one-way or two-way communication, prior entanglement). Additivity questions. Relations between capacities.

16 Quantum Cryptography Open questions in quantum cryptography: Identify candidate quantum one-way functions. Develop classical cryptographic systems that are secure against quantum attacks. Give a cryptographically good definition for quantum zero knowledge. Identification and relations among quantum cryptographic primitives.

17 Physical Implementations Entanglement of spatially separated qubits: Put two ions into physically separated ion traps into an entangled state. (Or a similar experiment.) Characterize errors in quantum systems: validate or invalidate error models. Develop methods to efficiently approximate errors. Better fault-tolerant quantum computing schemes

18 That s s all for now

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