Chapter 4: Cellular Respiration pg : Introduction to Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

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1 UNIT 2: Metabolic Processes Chapter 4: Cellular Respiration pg : Introduction to Cellular Respiration and Fermentation pg The energy which keeps our planet alive comes from the solar energy radiating from the Sun. When sunlight enters our biosphere, it is not usable by all organisms. The sunlight must be transformed into usable chemical potential energy, this is achieved by a process called photosynthesis. Green plants and certain algae are capable of photosynthesis. Heterotrophs must eat plants to obtain this chemical potential energy to survive. All living organism must use this chemical potential energy to survive. The energy is released through a process called cellular respiration, all living thing cellular respire. Figure 1: The flow of energy from sunlight to ATP, pg. 168

2 Aerobic Respiration Aerobic respiration is the breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen producing water, carbon dioxide and ATP. The ATP is then used by the cells to perform their cellular metabolic functions. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O G = KJ/mol Aerobic Cellular Respiration is a process that uses oxygen to harvest energy from organic components. Obligate aerobe is an organism that cannot live without oxygen. Most eukaryotes, plants and animals, and some prokaryotes are obligate aerobes, requiring oxygen to live. They oxidize glucose to obtain free energy, but they can also use lipids and proteins to obtain energy. There are four stages of cellular respiration that take place to produce ATP, either by substrate-level or oxidative phosphorylation. 1. Glycolysis (in cytosol). Enzymes break down one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate. Some high-energy ATP (via substrate-level Phosphorylation) and NADH are synthesized. 2. Pyruvate oxidation (in mitochondria). Each of the two molecules of pyruvate produced in glycolysis is transported to the mitochondria and is oxidized, resulting in the production of CO 2 (a waste molecule), NADH, and an acetyl group that is initially attached to coenzyme A (acetyl-coa). 3. Citric acid cycle (in mitochondria). Acetyl-CoA molecules from pyruvate oxidation enter a metabolic cycle, where the acetyl group is completely oxidized to CO 2. In the process, ATP (via substrate-level Phosphorylation) and the electron carriers NADH and FADH 2 are synthesized.

3 4. Electron transport and oxidative Phosphorylation (in mitochondria). The NADH and FADH 2 (synthesized during glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and citric acid cycle) are oxidized. Their highenergy electrons and hydrogens are passed from one oxidizing agent to the next until they are transferred to O 2, producing water. The free energy released during electron transport is indirectly used to synthesize a large amount of ATP by oxidative Phosphorylation. Figure 2: Cellular Respiration, a simplified flow diagram shows the four stages of Cellular respiration. pg. 169

4 Substrate-level phosphorylation is the formation of ATP by the direct transfer of a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP. Oxidative phosphorylation is a process that forms ATP using energy transferred that forms ATP using energy transferred indirectly from a series of redox reactions. Glycolysis is a series of reactions in which a glucose molecule is broken into two pyruvate molecules and energy is released. Pyruvate oxidation - is a reaction in which pyruvate is oxidized by NAD +, and CO 2 is removed, forming an acetyl group and releasing NADH. Citric Acid Cycle is a cyclic series of reactions that transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP, NADH, and FADH 2 and releases carbon atoms as CO 2. The Mitochondrion The mitochondrion is a membrane bound organelle, and is the power house of the cell, producing ATP. There are four steps to cellular respiration. Three of the four occur in the mitochondrion (pyruvate oxidation, citric acid cycle, and electron transport) and one in the cytosol (glycolysis). The mitochondrion is composed outer membrane, inner membrane (cristae), inter-membrane space, and the matrix. Figure 3: Mitochondrion, the membranes and compartments, pg. 170

5 In prokaryotes, the four processes of cellular respiration take place in the cytosol. Prokaryotes do not have membrane bound organelles. Anaerobic Pathways There are more then one biochemical pathways to extract energy from food molecules. Aerobic respiration requires oxygen, and anaerobic respiration does not require the presence of oxygen to obtain chemical potential energy. There are two pathways, anaerobic respiration (bacteria) and fermentation (plant). Anaerobic Respiration is a process that uses a final inorganic oxidizing agent other than oxygen to produce energy. Fermentation is a process that uses an organic compound as the final oxidizing agent to produce energy. Obligate anaerobic is an organism that cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. Facultative anaerobe is an organism that can live or without oxygen.

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