AP PHYSICS SUMMER WORK. Part 1: Students will get practice creating and interpreting graphs

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1 AP PHYSICS SUMMER WORK Welcome to Advanced Placement Physics. This summer assignment is valid for both the AP Physics C class as well as the AP Physics 1 class. The technique of graphing is one that will be described in depth in class; as such the goal of this summer assignment is to get you thinking about graphing. Assignment:Your assignment is broken up into 2 parts. Part 1: Students will get practice creating and interpreting graphs Part 2: Students will generate their own data, from which they will draw conclusions as to the type of motion that has been displayed. Part 1 Students will need graph paper (preferably graph paper that has holes on its edge so that you can place it in your binder). In addition to the graph paper students will need a ruler along with colored pencils. Students will have to create 4 graphs (Tables 1 4) The definition of the term distance is the amount of space an object covers, regardless of the direction the object is moving. It is useful in physics to know where an object is located at a particular moment in time. Table 1 below summarizes the distance covered by an object at a particular moment in time. Table 1 Time (sec) Distance Covered (feet) Label the top of your graph paper AP Physics Summer Work Make a graph of the data presented in Table 1. The title of your graph will be Distance vs. Time The times will go on the horizontal (x) axis of the graph.

2 The distances will go on the vertical (y) axis of the graph. After plotting the 6 points make a continuous function. This means if your 6 points appear to form a line use your ruler to draw a line, if your 6 points appear to form a 1) Explain whether or not you think the object whose motion is described by the information in Table 1 moves with a constant velocity. 2) The slope of a line is defined as its rise over its run. Find the slope of your line and explain what this number is representing with regards to the motion of the object The definition of the term speed is the rate in which an object covers distance, regardless of its direction. Table 2 summarizes the speed of an object at a certain moment in time. Table 2 Time (hours) Speed (miles/hour) Make a graph of the data presented in Table 2. The title of your graph will be Speed vs. Time The times will go on the horizontal (x) axis of the graph. The speeds will go on the vertical (y) axis of the graph. After plotting the 6 points make a continuous function. This means if your 6 points appear to form a line use your ruler to draw a line, if your 6 points appear to form a 3) Explain whether or not you think the object whose motion is described by the information in Table 2 moves with a constant velocity 4) The slope of a line is defined as its rise over its run. Find the slope of your line and explain what this number is representing with regards to the motion of the object

3 Table 3 Time (sec) Distance Covered (meters) Make a graph of the data presented in Table 3 The title of your graph will be Distance vs. Time The times will go on the horizontal (x) axis of the graph. The distances will go on the vertical (y) axis of the graph. After plotting the 6 points make a continuous function. This means if your 6 points appear to form a line use your ruler to draw a line, if your 6 points appear to form a 5) Explain whether or not you think the object whose motion is described by the information in Table 3 moves with a constant velocity. 6) A tangent lineis a line that can be drawn to a curve such that it only touches the curve at 1 spot. A google search on the term tangent line will reveal more information to you if you are unfamiliar with this term. On your graph I would like you to draw a tangent line to the point on the curve that corresponds to t = 2 sec. I would then like you to draw a 2 nd tangent line to the point on the curve that corresponds to t = 4 sec. What information does the slope of the tangent line at those two points tell us with regards to the motion of the object?

4 The velocity of an object represents the speed of that object in a particular direction. Table 4 Time (min) Velocity (ft/min) Make a graph of the data presented in Table 4 The title of your graph will be Velocity vs. Time The times will go on the horizontal (x) axis of the graph. The velocities will go on the vertical (y) axis of the graph. After plotting the 5 points make a continuous function. This means if your 6 points appear to form a line use your ruler to draw a line, if your 5 points appear to form a 7) Explain whether or not you think the object whose motion is described by the information in Table 4 moves with a constant velocity 8) At time t = 1 min the velocity of the object is 30 ft/min. At time t = 2 min the velocity of the object is 0. At time t = 3 min the velocity of the object is -30 ft/min. Explain what happens to the motion of the object at time t = 2 min. Part 2 In this part of the assignment you will create your own motion data. You will need 5 additional people to help you with this, so you can choice to work together with future classmates or recruit friends/family. The 1 st step is to determine the location for your experiment. You need to select a location in which you can move in a straight line over a distance you specify. Examples of locations and distances could be your backyard for 200 ft, the 100 m straight line portion of the high school track, 100 ft along the beach, etc. Once you select your location you will need 5 people equally spaced apart with timing devices. For example if you choice the high school track you would break the 100 m up into 5 sections, each section would be 20 m in length. At the end of each section you should place a person operating a timing device. So in addition to

5 yourself you need 5 other people to help out. So using the track example you would have 5 friends standing at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 meters away from the start line. On go all 5 friends start their timing device. When you cross where they are standing they stop their timing device. You will perform this experiment 2 times. 1) Experiment #1 consists of you starting at the start line, from a state of rest, and accelerating all the way through the last person. On go all people start their timing devices simultaneously. What I recommend is you start off slow and then gradually build up more and more speed until you cross the last person. 2) Experiment #2 consists of you starting some distance behind the start line. It does not matter how far. You begin to build up to a constant speed. Once you hit the start line you maintain that constant speed all the way through the last person. So basically you are moving with a constant velocity. The people operating the timing devices should not start their device until you reach the start line. The results from experiments 1 and 2 should be placed in separate tables. An example of these tables is shown below: Distance covered (m) Experiment #1: 100 m along beach starting from rest Time to cover that distance (sec) Instantaneous Velocity (m/s) AverageAcceleration (m/s 2 ) Columns 1 and 2 are derived from the measurements of your experiment. Columns 3 and 4 are derived from calculations. Below I show you how to get the values that go in columns 3 and 4 Instantaneous velocity is defined as how fast you are travelling at the moment you cross that distance. Below are the mathematical steps you follow to calculate instantaneous velocity: 1) The average velocity is found by dividing the distance covered by the time to cover that distance.

6 Average velocity = Distance covered / Time needed to cover that distance EX: Starting from rest it took you 4 sec to cover 20 meters, according to table above Average velocity = 20 m / 4 sec = 5 m/sec 2) The instantaneous velocity is found by looking at your answer for the average velocity. Another way to find average velocity is to add together your beginning and ending velocities over the span of that trip. Average Velocity = (Initial Velocity + Final Velocity)/2 EX: Starting from rest it took you 4 sec to cover 20 meters, so your average velocity is 5 m/sec. Your starting velocity was zero so your ending velocity must be 10 m/s, because the average of 0 and 40 is 5. Additional Example: Starting from rest it takes you 5.66 sec to cover 40 meters. This gives you an average velocity of 40 m / 5.66 sec = 7.07 m/s. Since you start from rest your ending velocity at 40 m must be because the average of 0 and is 7.07 Average Acceleration is defined as the rate in which your velocity changes over a period of time. To find your average acceleration you subtract your initial velocity from your final velocity and divide by the amount of time over which your velocity changed. For example if you start from rest and reach a final velocity of 10 m/s over the span of 4 seconds your average acceleration is: Average Acceleration = (final velocity initial velocity)/time = (10 m/s 0 m/s)/4 = 2.5 m/s 2 Once you have completed the # s in your table you are to make 3 graphs. Since the # s will be decimals I want you to make the graphs by using computer software. Microsoft Excel allows you to enter data into a spreadsheet, from which the computer will generate a graph. Below are the steps you follow in making a graph in Microsoft Excel: 1) Open an Excel Spreadsheet 2) The horizontal (x) axis values are placed in column A 3) The corresponding vertical (y) axis values are placed in column B 4) Once all data has been entered you highlight the data and hit the insert tab 5) Select the scatter plot option to make your graph 6) Once your graph is made you can give it a title along with labeling the horizontal and vertical axis

7 To complete Part 2 of this assignment you need to have 2 tables, one each for experiment 1 and experiment 2. From each table you are to make a total of 3 graphs. These graphs are: 1) Distance vs. Time 2) Instantaneous Velocity vs. Time 3) Average Acceleration vs. Time So to summarize you need a total of 2 tables and 6 graphs from Part 2 of this experiment. This assignment will count as 50 points and will serve as an introduction for our 1 st lab of the school year. The assignment is due the 1 st day we have class. Please contact me with questions. Have a great summer. Mr. Bayha

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