1 SUSTAINABLE TOURISM ON SMALL ISLANDS with special reference to Malta prepared by Lino Briguglio (University of Malta)
2 ORGANISATION OF THIS PRESENTATION This presentation is divided in six sections: 1. Introduction: sustainable tourism 2. Discussion on the economic impacts of tourism on small island jurisdictions 3. Assessment of environmental impacts on small islands jurisdictions 4. Tourism trends on the island of Malta 5. Measures to reducing the negative impacts of tourism 6. Conclusion with an optimistic argument that tourism itself is sharpening our awareness of the evils of environmental degradation, and that this could be conducive towards the adoption of sustainable tourism policies and measures.
3 Section 1: Introduction
4 INTRODUCTION Islands and Tourism Many small island also important tourist destinations. Most of these islands are located in the tropical and temperate zones. Many have tourist inflows higher than the local population. In the case of Malta, the number of tourists is about three times as large as the local population, which when translated into resident equivalent amounts to about 7% of the population.
5 INTRODUCTION Islands and Tourism Sustainable tourism is a useful concept for all tourist destinations, but it is of major importance for small islands, where tourist densities are high and the carrying capacity is relatively low. Tourism density is related to the concept of carrying capacity which has been defined by the World Tourism Organisation as The maximum number of people that may visit a tourist destination at the same time, without causing destruction of the physical, economic, socio-cultural environment and an unacceptable decrease in the quality of visitors satisfaction.
6 INTRODUCTION Meaning of Sustainable Tourism Sustainable tourism has been defined as tourism which is developed and maintained in such a manner and scale that it remains viable in the long run and does not degrade the environment in which it exists to such an extent that it prohibits the successful development of other activities (Butler 2002). This definition highlights the need for a balance between economic and environmental concerns.
7 Section 2: Economic Impacts of Tourism
8 ECONOMIC IMPACTS Benefits of Tourism Economic benefits of tourism: 1. Direct and indirect employment in tourism activities and other activities associated with tourism. 2. Relatively large multiplier effect due to the fact that its import content is relatively small compared, for example, to manufacturing. 3. For many small island states, it is a major source of foreign exchange earnings. 4. It has considerable indirect economic advantages, including a renewed interest in local arts and crafts, and improvements in leisure, communication, medical and other facilities.
9 ECONOMIC IMPACTS Problems Tourism however, tends to usher in a number of undesirable economic effects. Tourists exert demand on the public infrastructure, and if this is deducted from tourism expenditure, the economic contribution of tourism would be smaller than that usually reported. Tourism inflows are to a large extent controlled by foreign operators, often with enough bargaining power to dictate prices for accommodation in the host country. A related problem is that tourism as an industry depends on the whims and fancies of non-redidents. It creates pronounced seasonal unemployment. It gives rise to rapid increases in the price of land, often accompanied by land speculation.
10 Section 3: Environmental Impacts
11 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Inherent Problems of Small Islands Small Islands tend to have unique and fragile ecosystems. Industrial development often leads to a rapid loss of biodiversity in small islands. Islands also have a relatively large coastal zone in relation to the landmass. Thus, a relatively large proportion of land is exposed to forces that lead to coastal erosion and, in tropical islands, render them very prone to be affected by extreme events such as cyclones. Small islands are also very vulnerable to sea-level rise which would submerge a large proportion of the land mass, including their beaches, which are major attractions for tourists.
12 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Tourism Exacerbates Problems Although these environmental impacts are not caused by tourism, they can be exacerbated by tourism. International air and sea transport, for example, are required even in the absence of tourism, but the increased traffic caused by tourism places severe strains on many islands. Airports and seaports in islands take up very large areas in proportion to the total space available, posing increased land-use pressure, as well as air and sea pollution. In the case of air traffic, flying craft also contribute considerably to noise pollution, often affecting practically the whole population of small islands.
13 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Tourism Exacerbates Problems cont Tourism generates a large amount of waste. Tourism is generally of a coastal nature, leading to coastal degradation. Tourism may also cause inland problems. For example, in islands where eco-tourism is promoted, fragile vegetation and habitats may be damaged In islands where cultural tourism is promoted, as is the case in Malta, considerable damage can be caused to historical places through frequent tourist visitations. Another problem faced by small island jurisdictions is related to the high population density and limited carrying capacity.
14 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Tourism May Create Awareness Tourism can actually be conducive towards the protection of the environment. Tourism tends to create an awareness that the country needs to be attractive, that the air needs to be clean and that the sea needs to be unpolluted. Also, on a policy level, the dependence on tourism often forces the authorities of the islands to take a more serious view of planning, monitoring and market-based incentives, precisely because in the absence of such measures, the negative effects of tourism on the environment could, in the long run, destroy tourism itself.
15 Section 4: Tourism in Malta
16 TOURISM IN MALTA Inherent Characteristics of the Islands Malta is characterised by two main features, namely small economic size and insularity. These features pose major economic constraints on the economy of the island (Briguglio, 1995).
17 TOURISM IN Malta Inherent Feature: Small Size Due to its very small size, Malta has a very small domestic market, and has to rely on expenditure by non-residents to generate sufficient income and employment. Malta also finds it difficult to compete in products which require economies of scale for efficient production. This is the case for example for most manufactured products. The island also lacks natural resources. For this reason, Malta has limited options with regard to economic development.
18 TOURISM IN Malta Direct Economic Benefits Economic activity associated with tourism generates considerable income and employment in Malta, since a high proportion of tourism expenditure goes on transport, food and accommodation, sectors in which the Maltese tend to have a high stake. However the contribution of tourism to GDP is not known with any degree of certainty, although it can be about 15% of the GDP of the island. With regard to employment, it is known that the number of jobs in hotel and catering establishments amounted to about 10% of gainful employment in 2009, but there were many other jobs in economic activities related to tourism, such as transport, souvenir retail outlets and banking.
19 TOURISM IN Malta Indirect Economic Benefits Tourism may have been an important factor in the revival of certain traditional arts in Malta and crafts such as lace-making, filigree work and pottery. Demand by tourists for these products has rendered their production economically viable. The Maltese Islands, are renowned for their wealth of historical and archaeological heritage, which, before the advent of large-scale tourism, were probably not appreciated enough. The places of cultural importance are, even now, more valued by tourists than by the locals. However awareness of cultural heritage among the Maltese population has increased as a result of tourism.
20 TOURISM IN Malta Major Problems: Seasonality A major problem relates to the seasonal nature of the industry. The bulk of international tourists (about 70%) visit Malta during the summer months, and this gives rise to seasonal fluctuations, with a very high level of demand in summer and very slack demand in the winter and shoulder months. The seasonal nature of the industry indirectly impacts many other areas of the Maltese economy. This is particularly true with regards the supply side of the labour market.
21 TOURISM IN Malta Is Tourism the Worst Culprit? Although tourism is often associated with environmental degradation, non-tourism economic activities also have major negative impacts on the environment and, therefore, the fact that tourism harms the environment should not be construed as a case for other forms of economic activity. Manufacturing industry, with its reliance on fuel for machinery and its high rate of water consumption, may be more environmentally unfriendly than tourism. The agriculture sector, with its reliance on pesticides and fertilizers, also causes major environmental damage. Construction can also be environmentally harmful.
22 Section 5: Reducing the Negative Impacts
23 REDUCING THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS Should Malta Rely on Tourism: As already explained, in Malta, the economic benefits of tourism are relatively large and in the absence of tourism income and employment would be drastically reduced. For this reason the authorities, the operators and the majority of the local population would like to see it grow as much as possible without harming the environment and creating social problems. The issue in this regard is not therefore whether or not a small island like Malta should continue to encourage tourism but rather how best to reduce the environmental and social harm caused by this type of economic activity, respecting the carrying capacity of the island.
24 REDUCING THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS: Alternative Tourism Alternative forms of tourism, including eco-tourism and cultural tourism are likely to cause less environmental damage than mainstream tourism, principally because the inflow of tourists will be smaller. However, given the sea and sun are the major attractions of small islands, and these are the backbone of mainstream tourism, it is likely that reliance on alternative tourism would result in heavy losses of incomes and employment in the host island..
25 REDUCING THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS: Self Regulation to Reduce Harm The experience in Malta and in other small islands has shown that self-regulation alone may not be sufficient to ensure adequate environmental protection. This is especially so for hotel operators that often pursue shortterm gains. It would be wishful thinking to expect, for example, that such operators would not erect structures on beaches if no control by the authorities were in place. There exists a case, therefore, for government intervention of various forms, ranging from planning and monitoring to the introduction of economic instruments..
26 REDUCING THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS: Legal Controls and Planning In a small island, where land is one of the scarcest commodities, legal constraints as to land use are indispensable. In Malta, such constraints have, since the early 1990s, been placed within the framework of the national Structure Plan and a series of local plans, with the aim of regulating development. Before the introduction of the Plan, haphazard tourism development was common. There is now a general consensus in the Maltese Islands that planning of tourism structures is essential, primarily because of the growing concern about their impact on the environment.
27 REDUCING THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS: Impact Assessments Planning generally involves direction-setting on the basis of overarching policies. In the case of land use more specific measures involving a project-by-project assessment, are required. It is generally necessary to examine certain individual project proposals before their commencement, in order to reduce environmental damage. Environmental and social impact assessments are generally undertaken for this purpose. In the Maltese Islands, environmental impact assessments are required by law for projects that are likely to have a substantial impact on the environment. Since the coming into effect of this requirement, there has been a slowing down of developments which harm the environment.
28 REDUCING THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS: Setting Standards and Monitoring Many environmental problems arising from tourism are associated with the absence of standards and effective monitoring. Certain activities need to be controlled and monitored on an ongoing basis, and this can be done by setting standards. The legal and institutional set-up in the Maltese Islands is sufficiently developed to enable the Government to set standards and back them by legal measures, but enforcement is sometimes weak.
29 REDUCING THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS: Economic Instruments Given that legislation is not always effective, especially because it requires a well-developed enforcement apparatus, and self-regulation is not always forthcoming from the private sector, economic instruments may need to be put in place to allow the market itself to reduce environmental damage. Instruments such as taxes, fees and subsidies can be used to actually alter prices in order to cover also environmental costs. Such instruments may also foster the awareness that pollution has a high social cost, even if this is not usually demonstrated in terms of market prices.
30 REDUCING THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS: Spreading the Impact One of the problems associated with tourism inflows in Malta is that these tend to be concentrated in a few locations and over a few months. If tourism inflows can be spread, the impact on the carrying capacity of the Islands would be lighter and the environment less harmed. Spreading the impact over space and time however also has its costs. In terms of spreading over space, the negative impacts of tourism would then extend to areas which are as yet unspoilt. In terms of time, increasing the flow in the winter months would mean that the host community would not have a quiet season.
31 Section 6: Conclusion
32 CONCLUSION Costs and Benefits The paper has argued that: The economic benefits of tourism are often very large. The negative impacts on the environment on the islands tend also to be relatively large. The objective of sustainable tourism is therefore not very easy to attain, and it often involves walking on a very tight rope. The paper has argued also that a policy of reducing tourist inflows would not find much support except perhaps among those very keen on environmental protection in an island where a large proportion of income and employment is generated from tourism and tourism-related activities.
33 CONCLUSION Minimising Damage & Maximise Benefits It was therefore further argued that there is the need to find ways of minimising environmental damage without compromising the current and future economic well-being of the host country. A few pre-emptive and corrective methods towards this end have been described, although it was shown that their success cannot be guaranteed. Voluntary self-regulation, planning, carrying out impact assessments, setting and monitoring standards, internalising environmental costs through economic instruments and spreading the impact over time and space, are likely to halt the pace of environmental damage, but, as shown above, they also have their downsides.
34 CONCLUSION On an Optimistic Note Fortunately, tourism, being natural resource based, has quickly made the host island more appreciative of the benefits that are offered by the environment. In addition, as goods, such as clean air, clear seas and quiet spaces, previously abundant and free, become scarce, people tend to become more and more aware that environmental degradation is a great loss, not only in terms of long term or sustainable development, but also in terms of current wellbeing.
SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN SMALL ISLANDS THE CASE OF MALTA 1 Lino Briguglio and Marie Briguglio University of Malta Planning Authority Malta INTRODUCTION The issue of sustainable tourism is often discussed
World Tourism Organization RECOMMENDATIONS TO GOVERNMENTS FOR SUPPORTING AND/OR ESTABLISHING NATIONAL CERTIFICATION SYSTEMS FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Introduction Certification systems for sustainable tourism
Expert Meeting on TOURISM'S CONTRIBUTION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 14-15 March 2013 Strategies to develop effective linkages between tourism and other economic sectors by Wesley Vanriel Senior Director,
RTD12 Jyväskylä JAMK University of Applied Sciences Responsible Tourism - addressing seasonality Harold Goodwin Professor of Responsible Tourism Manchester Metropolitan University www.haroldgoodwin.info
Introduction Tourism is an export item made up of a series of services Unlike other exports, international tourism is produced and consumed within the destination, even though it is sold in the external
Policies & Procedures Policy Title Environmental Policy Reference GG Policy Group First issue date 01 Jan 2015 Issued by Executive Office Previous revision date Applicable to Jumeirah Dhevanafushi Maldives
QUÉBEC DECLARATION ON ECOTOURISM In the framework of the UN International Year of Ecotourism, 2002, under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Tourism Organization
GREAT BARRIER REEF Climate Change Action Plan 2007 2011 Climate change is now recognised as the greatest long-term threat to the Great Barrier Reef. The Great Barrier Reef is internationally renowned as
Biological Diversity and Tourism: Development of Guidelines for Sustainable Tourism in Vulnerable Ecosystems Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity Foreword The rapid and often uncontrolled
(21 January 1994 - to date) ENVIRONMENT CONSERVATION ACT 73 OF 1989 (Gazette No. 11927, Notice No. 1188. Commencement date: 9 June 1989) GENERAL POLICY IN TERMS OF THE ENVIRONMENT CONSERVATION ACT 73 OF
Ministry of Trade and Industry Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Commonwealth Secretariat SMALL STATES IN TRANSITION FROM VULNERABILITY TO COMPETITIVENESS ST LUCIA STRATEGIC APPROACH TO TOURISM AS AN EXPORT
RECOMMENDATION LDD MONITORING FORM REQUIRED This document shows the case officer's recommended decision for the application referred to below. This document is not a decision notice for this application.
Ecotourism in the context of climate change 19-21 May 2015 Nyi Nyi Kyaw Director General Forest Department Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry Myanmar International Ecotourism Conference
Submission to the Ministry of Economic Development on Growing New Zealand s Share of the International Business Events Market and Strengthening the National Network of Convention Venues 18 June 2010 Introduction
SUPPLEMENTARY PLANNING POLICY GUIDANCE Child Day Care Facilities May 2006 MALTA ENVIRONMENT AND PLANNING AUTHORITY P.O. Box 200 Marsa GPO 01 Malta Tel: (356) 2290 0000 Fax: (356) 2290 2295 e-mail: email@example.com
Environmental /Cultural Impacts of Tourism: the Case for Sustainable Tourism Introduction Economic Impacts are not the only important impacts tourism can have Nature, peoples and cultures also affected
Standing Committee for Economic and Commercial Cooperation of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (COMCEC) Tourism Product Development and Marketing Strategies in the COMCEC Region COMCEC COORDINATION
hall aitken social and economic regeneration consultants The social and economic impacts of regional casinos in the UK February 2006 1 Summary This report aims to identify and quantify the impact of regional
Foundation for Excellence in Business Practice Conference. Geneva, April 2005 Tourism & Sustainable Development Sarah French Centre for International Development & Training, Wolverhampton University, UK
FACTS CONNECTICUT A M E R I C A N S E C U R I T Y P R O J E C T Pay Now, Pay Later: Connecticut The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that the cost of protecting Connecticut s coast from the potential
Larnaca Urban Sustainable Development Strategy USUDS LARNACA - ACTION PLAN Larnaca undertook a thorough process of diagnosis of the city which formed the base for the identification of the future vision
Disaster Risk Reduction in Tourism Destinations U n i t e d N a t i o n s E n v i r o n m e n t P r o g r a m m e Disaster Reduction through Awareness, Preparedness and Prevention Mechanisms in Coastal
The environment management services industry Author: Paul J Perkins AM, Adjunct Professor, Australian National University and Chairman of the Barton Group. Citation: Perkins P 2006, The environment management
Excerpted from PAS Report 581, Coastal Zone Management. Copyright 2016 by the American Planning Association. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 1 ESSENTIAL FACTS ABOUT COASTLINES The only thing that is constant
Local Communities: Planning for Climate Change Minister s foreword Climate change is a reality. It s up to all New Zealanders to help reduce the effects of climate change and keep our communities safe.
The National Development Plan: Strengthening the Philippines Strategic Planning Process 6 th UNWTO Executive Training Program,25-28 June 2011, Bhutan Presentation Outline Imperatives for Strategic Planning
Challenges for tourism in the Mediterranean Zoran Klarić PhD Associate Professor, Institute for Tourism Zagreb SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT is a form of development which uses the natural ecosystem as resources
WEST OF ENGLAND TOURISM DEVELOPMENT PLAN EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Context Tourism is the world s biggest industry. In the UK, it accounts for 3.5% of the nation s economy with a value in excess of 80 billion,
Tourism development and carrying capacity in the Rhodes Island, Greece K. Kyriakou, E. Sourianos, D. Vagiona * Department of Spatial Planning and Development, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AgiaVarvara,
Social, Cultural and Environmental impacts of Tourism As we saw, there are many impacts of tourism on local communities. We will expand this to social, cultural and environmental impacts. Social and Cultural
Coastal Adaptation to Climate Change in The Gambia By Famara Drammeh, UN Nippon Fellow 2013/2014 The Gambia 1 Content What is Climate Change (CC)? What Causes Climate Change? Expected Impacts of Climate
Perspectives of sustainable development in Rhodes Island, Greece K. Kyriakou, E. Sourianos and D. Vagiona * Department of Spatial Planning and Development, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Agia Varvara,
2012-2016 SLOVENIAN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY (summary) Introduction Pursuant to Article 5 of the Promotion of Tourism Development Act (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, No. 2/04), the Ministry
Arctic Tourism development, challenges and possibilities Dr. Anna Karlsdóttir Associateprofessor UI & Senior Research Fellow Nordregio Nature as the magnet Tourism in the Arctic spreads in all directions
5 JUNE 2015 MINISTERIAL MEETING OF THE BLUE WEEK 2015 We, Ministers responsible for Ocean/ Fisheries/ Maritime Affairs, having met in Lisbon on June the 5 th, 2015, at the invitation of the Minister of
Policies and Strategies for Integrated Tourism Planning and Sustainable Development: The case of Iran Dr. Zahed Ghaderi The significance of tourism Tourism industry accounts for 9.3% of the world s GDP
ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE REVIEW OF SPAIN EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In a context marked by economic growth, the pressures from sectors such as construction, tourism, transport, energy and agriculture, high densities
CBD Distr. GENERAL UNEP/CBD/COP/13/24 6 December 2016 CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES TO THE CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY Thirteenth meeting Cancun, Mexico, 4-17 December 2016 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH THE CANCUN
CHAPTER 7: TOURISM BUSINESS IN BELIZE 7.1 Introduction Direct government investments are commonly undertaken to lead the private sector in a certain direction. In some instances the government opts not
Protected Area Categories and Management Objectives A protected area is defined as: An area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural
Coordinator-General s report summary Hummock Hill Island Development project February 2011 REPORT SUMMARY Background The Coordinator-General has recommended that the Hummock Hill Island Development project
HANDBOOK FOR ESTIMATING THE SOCIO - ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF DISASTERS III. TOURISM A. INTRODUCTION 1. General considerations In most of the countries in the region, tourism is a sector that
of Sustainable Tourism Management - an overview - Dr. Head of Dept of Tourism Dublin Institute of Technology Who are we? Dublin Institute of of Technology 6 x Faculties Faculty of of Tourism and and Food
The National Climate Change Policy of Sri Lanka Preamble Climate change which is the ultimate outcome of global warming is now universally recognized as the fundamental human development challenge of the
Climate Change and Sri Lanka Ajith Silva Director/ Policy and Planning Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Sri Lanka Asia Total Area: 65610 Km Land Area : 62705 Km Inland water : 2905 Km 2 Coastal
6 th UNWTO Asia-Pacific Executive Training on Tourism Policy and Strategy Bhutan, 25-28 June 2012 Country Presentation: Vietnam Tourism Master Plan to 2020 Presented by: Dr. Ha Van Sieu Director, Institute
Harmful substances and hazardous waste United Nations Environment Programme An overview Chemicals are an integral part of everyday life. There are over 100,000 different substances in use today. They play
MCKENZIE COUNTY COMPREHENSIVE PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION...1 Purpose of a Comprehensive Plan...1 McKenzie County Comprehensive Plan...1 Definitions...2 Goal....2 Vision...3 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...4
GALAPAGOS REPORT 2011-2012 TOURISM THE NEW MODEL OF TOURISM: DEFINITION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF ECOTOURISM IN GALAPAGOS JUAN CARLOS GARCÍA, DANIEL ORELLANA AND EDDY ARAUJO How to cite this
Creating Green Jobs within the Environment and Culture sector. Matilda Skosana Environmental Programmes (ILO Definition): 1. DEFINITION OF GREEN JOB. Jobs are green when they help reduce negative environmental
AS Economics Introductory Macroeconomics Sixth Form pre-reading National income National income (Y) = money value of goods and services produced in an economy over a period of time, usually one year. National
Compilation of Tourism Satellite Accounts: Bangladesh Experience MD. Shahabuddin Sarker Deputy Director National Accounting Wing Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics Regional Workshop on Tourism Satellite Accounts
Finance, Mining & Sustainability The Gamsberg Zinc Project South Africa Project Summary Discovered in 1971 Anglo American purchased 33% interest in 1974 and increased interest to 100% in 1998 Feasibility
Review of Section 481 Film Relief Department of Finance Consultation Paper May 2012 Tax Policy Unit Department of Finance Government Buildings, Upper Merrion Street, Dublin 2 Ireland Tel: +353 1 6767571
Indicator 14 Volume of tourism. 14.1 Overnight stays in tourist accommodation. Measurement What should the measurement tell us? At its most elemental, tourism is about numbers numbers of visitors, numbers
Opportunities and challenges There are a number of opportunities and challenges that have the ability to inform and influence future freight movement. It is therefore critical that government, industry
CONGRESS OF THE PHILIPPINES SIXTEENTH CONGRESS Third Regular Session } HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES H. No. 6152 BY REPRESENTATIVES ABAD, RELAMPAGOS, ALVAREZ (F.), CAGAS, LANETE, ABUEG, DIMAPORO (I.), FORTUN,
Towards a UNESCO culture and development indicators suite Working document 3 Dimension n 3: Sustainable management of cultural heritage for development I. Summary list of indicators FULLY DEVELOPED INDICATORS
Appendix 2 : Relevant Development Plan Policies Angus Local Plan Review 2009 Policy S1 : Development Boundaries (a) Within development boundaries proposals for new development on sites not allocated on
SUBMISSION BY THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES 22 October 2015 Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of the United Arab Emirates In the post-2020 period the United Arab Emirates will continue to expand its
International Marrakech Task Force on Sustainable Tourism Development Tourism for sustainability Are we tackling the challenges of tourism and climate change? UN DESA ministère de l économie, des finances
Dwejra A Coastal Nature Park Introduction Dwejra is an important and very popular site in the Maltese Islands found on the North West coast of the island of Gozo. The site is famous for it natural beauty
Economic Survey of Latin America and the Caribbean 2014 1 BAHAMAS 1. General trends Growth in the Bahamian economy slowed in 2013 to 0.7%, down from 1.0% in 2012, dampened by a decline in stopover tourism,
Economic projections 2016-2019 December 2016 Outlook for the Maltese economy Economic projections 2016-2019 Economic activity in Malta is expected to remain robust over the projection horizon, supported
The Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) and Sustainable Development Statutory Guidance to SEPA made under Section 31 of the Environment Act 1995 December 2004 Paper 2004/21 Crown copyright 2005
DRAFT CANCUN DECLARATION ON MAINSTREAMING THE CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIODIVERSITY FOR WELL-BEING We, the Ministers of environment, agriculture, fisheries, forestry and tourism from countries
HURRICANE WORKFORCE ANALYSIS HURRICANES ANDREW AND OPAL Florida Agency for Workforce Innovation Labor Market Statistics September 2004 Hurricane Workforce Analysis Hurricanes Andrew & Opal Introduction
2.3: PLAN PHILOSOPHY AND INTEGRATED RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 2.3.1 INTRODUCTION The Council has adopted a sustainability approach to managing the resources of the District for the future. It formulated a Vision
Queensland Ecotourism Investment Opportunities Best Practice Ecotourism Development Guidelines for Stage 1 Expression of Interest Ecotourism Facilities on National Parks Great state. Great opportunity.
www.hie.co.uk Tourism in Moray The Strategy for Tourism Development in Moray INTRODUCTION Tourism generates over 10% of Moray s total employment and 3.8% of the total turnover of businesses. It is a major
project focus Madagascar: Makira REDD+ Madagascar is considered to be one of the top five biodiversity hotspots in the world due to more than 75% of all animal and plant species being endemic while less
2/2003 Tourism and Sustainability in the 21 st Century Friends-of-Nature Wildhaus Declaration Tourism and Sustainability in the 21 st Century I. Inventory and trends Leisure and tourism came into being
DRAFT ANNUAL TOURISM REPORTING TEMPLATE 1. INTRODUCTION Council Decision 86/664/EEC of 22 December 1986 1 establishing a consultation and cooperation procedure in the field of tourism foresees that each
Disaster Risk Reduction and Building Resilience to Climate Change Impacts Luna Abu-Swaireh (firstname.lastname@example.org) May 2015 United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) Droughts Floods Storms
RBA ECONOMICS COMPETITION 2010 Appreciation of Australia s real exchange rate: causes and effects Best Essay from a First Year Student ASHVINI RAVIMOHAN The University of New South Wales Appreciation of
Malta Tourism Authority Edition 2016 3 Introduction This publication summarises the key tourism figures for Malta and gives an overview of Malta s tourism performance in 2015. The report is based on official
Great Barrier Reef Outlook Report 2009 ICRI Monaco Jan 2010 Eight assessments - Values Eight assessments - Pressures and responses OUTLOOK What does this mean for the Great Barrier Reef's future? Making
WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE TURKISH COASTAL SITES OF THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA The Mediterranean region, due to its climatic and geographical features, has been the home of many civilizations throughout history.
12 Energy 12.1 Introduction Otago is a hydro-electric power producing region and a major exporter of electricity in New Zealand today. The two large existing hydro-electric schemes in the region, Roxburgh
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS (see next page) OUTLINE OF THE REPORT 1. THE CONTEXT... Part I POLLUTION CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES 2. WATER MANAGEMENT... 3. AIR MANAGEMENT... 4. BIODIVERSITY
Sustainability initiatives for Greening the Hotels in Sri Lanka Samantha Kumarasena Deputy Director National Cleaner Production Centre Sri Lanka Contents Significance of tourism industry in Sri Lanka Importance
DRAFT ANNUAL TOURISM REPORTING TEMPLATE 1. INTRODUCTION Council Decision 86/664/EEC of 22 December 1986 1 establishing a consultation and cooperation procedure in the field of tourism foresees that each
Impact of Tourism on Community Life in Dare County Executive Summary Study Team Patrick Long, Director, Center for Sustainable Tourism Huili Hao, Director of Research, Center for Sustainable Tourism James
Climate Change: A Local Focus on a Global Issue Newfoundland and Labrador Curriculum Links 2010-2011 HEALTH Kindergarten: Grade 1: Grade 2: Know that litter can spoil the environment. Grade 3: Grade 4: