ALBERT EINSTEIN. Albert Einstein died in 1955 after giving much of his life to the world of science.

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1 ALBERT EINSTEIN Perhaps one of the most famous scientists of all time, Einstein is known as the greatest genius of the 20 th century. That is quite a title! What did he accomplish to achieve this world-famous status? Born in Germany in 1879, Albert Einstein s family moved around a lot when he was a child. In 1896, he trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics, at the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich. However, he was unable to find work as a teacher, so he went to work at the Swiss Patent Office. In the year 1905, he completed his doctor s degree. While working at the patent office, he produced a lot of his most remarkable work. He went on to hold many distinguished titles, including Professor Extraordinary at Zurich, Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague, and Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute. He was a professor in the University of Berlin, as well as a Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton. In 1921 he won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the photoelectric effect. This was a complicated hypothesis which was later confirmed, indicating that light can consist of particles, and that the energy of any light particle is proportional to the frequency of the radiation. Have you ever wondered, Why is the sky blue? Einstein wrote a complicated equation which answered this question. The sky is blue on a clear day because molecules in the air scatter blue light from the sun more than they scatter red light. Einstein immigrated to the United States in He made many important discoveries, and like Newton, he studied optics and matter. His most famous formula is E=mc2, indicating that mass and energy are equivalent and interchangeable properties this is the Special Theory of Relativity. While Einstein did not invent the atomic bomb, it is widely agreed that his theories laid the foundation for its invention. Albert Einstein died in 1955 after giving much of his life to the world of science.

2 Name Date Albert Einstein: Graphic Organizer Location: Best Known For: Time Period Branch of Science: How did this scientist change the world for the better? This Scientist s Work Led to What Other Breakthroughs?

3 Name Date 1. Einstein was born in : a. Israel b. Canada c. Germany Albert Einstein Multiple Choice Questions Circle the Correct Answer 2. Einstein went to work at a patent office because: a. His father thought it would be a better career b. He wasn t able to find a job teaching c. The pay was more than double that of a teacher. 3. Einstein won the Nobel Prize in the year: a b c What was Einstein s title when he worked at the University of Princeton? a. Chair of Departmental Science Studies b. President of International Physics Relations c. Professor of Theoretical Physics 5. True or False: Einstein invented the atomic bomb. a. True b. False 6. In 1940, what did Einstein do? a. He completed all of his studies and never worked in science again. b. He immigrated to the USA. c. He won the Nobel Prize. 7. E=mc2 is part of Einstein s: a. Theory of Relativity b. Theory of Physicality c. Theory of Creative

4 Name Date Albert Einstein Answer Questions 1. In Einstein s Theory of Relativity, what did he believe was the relationship between energy and matter? 2. Define the word hypothesis. 3. What did Einstein win the Nobel Prize for? 4. What did Einstein go to school to become? 5. Why is the sky blue? 6. Where was Einstein working when he produced much of his work? 7. Einstein was an immigrant. What can we learn from this phrase?

5 Albert Einstein Answer Key Multiple Choice Questions 1. C 2. B 3. B 4. C 5. B 6. B 7. A Short Answer Questions 1. Energy and matter are equivalent and interchangeable properties. 2. A tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation. 3. He won the Nobel Prize in Physics; specifically, for his photoelectric effect. 4. A teacher in physics and mathematics 5. Because molecules in the air scatter blue light from the sun more than they scatter red light. 6. At the Swiss Patent Office. 7. Individual response: Example: We can learn that immigrants can make huge contributions to our country and we should be welcoming.

6 Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei ( ) was an Italian scientist. Using precise measurements, he created the law of falling bodies. He made a telescope, which he used to study lunar craters. He discovered four moons in the sky around Jupiter. This made him the first scientist to use a telescope to make important astronomical discoveries. It was the year 1609, and Galileo has just heard of the invention of the telescope in Holland. With only a few details, he was able to build his own which was vastly superior! He had heard of a new theory, known as the suncentered (or heliocentric) theory, which was proposed by Nicholas Copernicus. Using his new tool, he agreed that the planets were in orbit around the sun. At the time, it was widely believed that planets, the sun, and the moon all circled around Earth. Galileo was a university professor, and was required to teach the beliefs of the time rather than this new sun-centered theory. When it was heard that he was telling his students about this new theory, he was sentenced to life in prison by the church. However, since he was quite aged by this point, it was agreed that he could live out his sentence on house arrest. Galileo is well respected within the science community, largely because of his excellent scientific techniques. Many believe that his methods opened the door for future scientists. His technique sounds quite simple to us: First, he analyzed a problem using common-sense and everyday experiences. Then, he analyzed the problem using mathematical techniques. Sir Isaac Newton

7 (who was born the year Galileo died) used Galileo s Law of Inertia as the basis for his First Law of Motion. Galileo became blind at the age of 72. Many believed that this was a result of looking at the sun, however now it is agreed that his blindness was caused by cataracts and glaucoma. He died in the year 1642.

8 Name Date Galileo Galilei: Graphic Organizer Location: Best Known For: Time Period Branch of Science: How did this scientist change the world for the better? This Scientist s Work Led to What Other Breakthroughs?

9 Name Date Galileo Galilei Multiple Choice Questions Circle the Correct Answer 1. Galileo was a scientist of descent. a. Italian b. Egyptian c. Spanish 2. How did Galileo obtain his telescope? a. He bought it from a traveling merchant. b. He built it himself c. He paid a thief to steal it from a museum. 3. The telescope was invented in: a. Italy b. Televille c. Holland 4. People used to believe that: a. All the planets circled around Earth b. All the planets circled around Jupiter c. None of the planets ever moved. 5. How does the scientific community view Galileo today? a. With respect his findings opened the door to future scientific discoveries. b. With disdain many believe he plagiarized his findings. c. With laughter his scientific findings were silly. 6. Who invented the heliocentric theory? a. Galileo Galilei b. Nicholas Copernicus c. Sir Isaac Newton 7. Heliocentric is another way to describe: a. Sun-centered b. Helicopter-centered c. Helium-centered

10 Name Date Galileo Geliei Answer Questions 1. Why was Galileo sentenced to life in prison? 2. Why was he allowed to serve his sentence from home? 3. Why did Galileo go blind? How is this different from what people believed at the time? 4. Explain how Galileo analyzed problems. 5. How many moons did Galileo discover around Jupiter? 6. Explain what Galileo studied with his telescope. 7. What is another word for sun centered?

11 Galileo Galilei Answer Key Multiple Choice Questions 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. A 5. A 6. B 7. A Short Answer Questions 1. He was sentenced to a life in jail because he was teaching students about his new theories. 2. He was allowed to serve his sentence at home because of his old age. 3. Galileo went blind because of cataracts and glaucoma. However, at his time of death it was believed he went blind from staring at the sun. 4. First, he analyzed a problem using common-sense and everyday experiences. Then, he analyzed the problem using mathematical techniques. 5. Four. 6. He studied the craters on the moon, the moons around Jupiter, and the orbit of the planets. 7. Heliocentric.

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