1 SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION COLLEGE DRINKING IN CONTEXT The issue of campus drinking is a pervasive problem: our students grow up in a culture which equates the consumption of alcohol with having fun, relaxing, making social situations complete and reducing tension. Drinking alcohol has become a rite of passage for some young people in this country, and many students come to college having learned to drink during their high school years. Unfortunately, high risk alcohol use can produce serious outcomes. Updated in 2013, the College Drinking Prevention website announced, The consequences of excessive and underage drinking affect virtually all college campuses, college communities, and college students, whether they choose to drink or not. According College Drinking: Changing the Culture the impact of high- risk college drinking remains a serious problem and has lead to the following negative consequences: More than 1,800 college students die each year from alcohol- related injuries. Almost 600,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 are injured while under the influence of alcohol. 400,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 had unprotected sex and more than 100,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 report having been too intoxicated to know if they consented to having sex. More than 600,000 students are assaulted by another student who has been drinking. 97,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 are victims of alcohol- related sexual assault or date rape. About 25 percent of college students report academic consequences of their drinking including missing class, falling behind, doing poorly on exams or papers, and receiving lower grades overall. 31 percent of college students met criteria for a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and 6 percent for a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in the past 12 months, according to questionnaire- based self- reports about their drinking. More than 3,360,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 drive under the influence of alcohol. Binge drinking negatively affects college students academic performance, social relationships and health. Frequent binge drinkers are 21 times more likely than non- binge drinkers to miss classes, fall behind in schoolwork, engage in vandalism, be injured or hurt, engage in unplanned sexual activity, not use protection when having sex, get in trouble with campus police, or drive a car after drinking Annually, an estimated 30,000 college students require medical treatment after overdosing on alcohol.
2 Many students come to campus already having engaged in high- risk drinking. The latest national statistics indicate that 20% of high school seniors reported 5+ binge drinking, 10.5% reported 10+ binge drinking, and 5.6% reported 15+ extreme binge drinking in the past 2 weeks (Patrick, Schulenberg et al., 2013). These issues continue into adulthood. According to the CDC, one in sex U.S. adults binge drink about four times a month, consuming about eight drinks per binge. Students decisions to use alcohol are strongly affected by environmental and peer influences, which combine to create a culture of drinking. This culture actively promotes drinking, or passively promotes it, through tolerance, or even tacit approval. The alcohol beverage industry aggressively markets alcoholic drinks to young adults (Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, Georgetown University, 2002). The use of alcohol on campus has created a culture of beliefs and customs, entrenched in every level of college students environments. These beliefs and customs, combined with the expectations they engender, exert a powerful influence over students'ʹ attitude and behavior toward alcohol use. Parents also play an important role in their students decision to use alcohol. Young adults are influenced by parents attitudes toward alcohol use as well as the drinking behavior they have been exposed to as children. Reminiscing about drunken college experiences in a positive way contributes to students belief that drinking is an expected and appropriate activity in college. Parents can positively influence students by clearly stating their values about underage alcohol use and discussing the academic and legal consequences. UNIVERSITY OF OREGON SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION The goal of current prevention, assessment and treatment efforts at the UO is to change this culture of drinking. By intervening in the environmental factors that make alcohol readily available to underage students, and by offering alternatives to using alcohol as a way to deal with stress or to gain social approval, the misuse of alcohol on our campus will hopefully be reduced. At the UO, both harm reduction and primary preventative approaches are used when addressing alcohol issues. Harm reduction is a public health philosophy that seeks to lessen the dangers around alcohol use and risk of harm. Primary prevention works to prevent alcohol and other drug use and abuse. The Substance Abuse Prevention and Student Success program promotes a responsible behavior around alcohol use including awareness, education, and compliance with campus policies and state and federal law. Through the use of best practices, the UO strives to decrease high- risk drinking and its negative consequences among UO students. Our substance abuse prevention programs and services are evidenced- based, comprehensive, and coordinated with campus and community partners. To change the culture of drinking on campus, the UO supports the use of comprehensive, integrated programs with multiple complementary components, a conceptual 3- in- 1 framework for prevention efforts identified by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), which targets: (1) individuals (including at- risk subpopulations or alcohol- dependent drinkers), (2) the student population as a whole, (3) the institution, and (4) the surrounding community (Hingson and Howland, 2002; DeJong et al., 1998; Institute of Medicine, 1989).
3 DEFINITIONS OF BINGE AND HIGH- RISK DRINKING According to the CDC, binge drinking is the most common pattern of excessive alcohol use in the United States. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism defines binge drinking as a pattern of drinking that brings a person s blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to 0.08 grams percent or above. This typically happens when men consume 5 or more drinks, and when women consume 5 or more drinks, in about 2 hours (NIAAA, 2004). Binge drinking is particularly problematic because significant quantities of alcohol are being consumed in a short period of time. As this happens, the body'ʹs blood alcohol content rises dramatically. As decision- making abilities decrease along with reaction time and other motor functioning skills, the probability of negative consequences from alcohol consumption increases dramatically. Although the term binge drinking is currently popular, we also use the term high- risk drinking. High- risk drinking is defined as any alcohol use that engenders a high likelihood of negative consequences. The notion of high- risk drinking clarifies that any alcohol use can result in negative social, interpersonal and legal consequences. By definition, binge drinking is high- risk drinking, but some high- risk drinking occurs regardless of number of drinks consumed. High- risk drinking also includes drinking done by alcoholics. While it is true that a subset of students who chronically engage in high- risk drinking behaviors will or already have become alcohol dependent, we are equally concerned about the much larger percentage of students who experience lasting consequences from episodic high- risk drinking. One night alcohol problems affect not only the individual, but other individuals, including the community as a whole, as well. DOES UO HAVE A DRINKING PROBLEM? The latest UO National College Health Assessment (2012) suggests that alcohol use continues among the student body at problematic rates, which is not dissimilar to other universities. For example: 39% of UO students report at least one episode of consuming five or more drinks in the past two weeks. 76% of UO students reported using alcohol within the last 30 days. o 55% reported using 1-9 days of the 30 days; 19% used days of the last 30 days; and 1.5% reported using all 30 days. o 24% of UO students reported not drinking alcohol Roughly 1 out of 5 students at the UO do not drink alcohol. 28% of UO college students reported driving after having any alcohol within the last 30 days. 75% of UO students estimated their BAC to be under 0.10 and 48% reported drinking 4 or fewer drinks the last time they partied or socialized. According to the AlcoholEdu for College Fall 2013 Surveys, first year freshmen and transfer students, under the age of 21 years old, have similar drinking rates compared to the national average. On the UO campus, 30% of first year students having engaged in binge drinking at least once in the past two weeks compared to the national average at 26% (AlcoholEdu 2013),
4 including 7% were problematic drinkers for the UO and 8% for the national average (problematic drinking defined as 8 or more drinks for women and 10 or more drinks for men at least once in the past two weeks). See Chart 1: Pre- College Drinking Behaviors for First- Year Freshmen and Transfer Students Under the Age of 21. Chart 1: Pre- College Drinking Behaviors for First- Year Freshmen and Transfer Students Under the Age of 21. Note: Findings are based on self- reported data obtained from 3229 first- year UO students who completed the AlcoholEdu for College (Survey 3) midway through the fall 2013 semester. Key terms: Non- drinkers: 0 drinks in the past two weeks; Light/Moderate drinkers: 1-3 drinks for women; 1-4 drinks for men on at least one occasion in the past two weeks; High- risk drinkers: 4 or more drinks for women; 5 or more drinks for men on at least one occasion in the past two weeks (includes problematic drinkers - 8 or more drinks for women; 10 or more drinks for men). Additional findings from the AlcoholEdu for College Fall 2013 Survey include: UO students are most commonly drinking at off- campus residence. On average, females reported drinking in a high- risk way less frequently than men. Results indicated that UO students are engaging in high- risk behaviors such as doing shots and pre- gaming and at rates higher than the national aggregate data. People who self- identify as being a member of a volunteer or community service organization reported engaging in more protective and caretaking behaviors than do people who are not members of such organizations. More than 575 students indicated an interest in planning alcohol- free events and activities. A substantial percentage of students, including those who do not currently drink, report significant negative consequences as a result of other'ʹs drinking or drug use, including being physically injured (15.6%), physically injuring another person (2.2%), doing something they later regretted (39.3%), getting in trouble with the police (5.2%), forgetting where they were or what they did (33.2%), and/or 5.4% of students reported alcohol use affecting their academic their individual academic performance* (NCHA, 2012). (*Defined: received a lower grade on an exam, or an important project; received a lower grade in the course; received an incomplete or dropped the course; or experienced a significant disruption in thesis, dissertation, research or practicum work.) UO takes the problem of risky drinking very seriously and will continue to be proactive in its education, prevention and treatment efforts.
5 WHAT ARE THE UO S CURRENT POLICIES REGARDING ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUGS? Illegal possession, consumption, and distribution and alcohol and drugs are subject to state and federal laws. The illegal use, possession, or distribution of drugs and alcohol on institutionally- owned or controlled property or as part of any University activity is proscribed conduct (See Oregon Administrative Rule (OAR) (8)). The manufacture of illegal drugs on institutionally- owned or controlled property is a malicious misuse or an unauthorized use of institutional property and is also proscribed conduct (See Oregon Administrative Rule (OAR) (5) and (7). Students attending the UO must abide by the Student Conduct Code, published on the Office of the Dean of Students website. The University of Oregon distinguishes its student disciplinary policies from the laws and functions of the larger society. Students, however, are by no means insulated from the law or relieved of the responsibilities of citizenship. Students must also abide by the UO drug and alcohol policy and state and federal drug and alcohol laws. When a student violates the Student Conduct Code, the university may initiate disciplinary action, referral for civil prosecution, or both in response to violations of the Code. University sanctions are imposed against any student or student organization found in violation. Disciplinary sanctions may include alcohol and other drug education classes, reflection papers, clinical interviews, loss of privileges, conduct reprimands, restitution for damages, and community service. For incidents deemed serious or for repeat violations, disciplinary probation, suspension, expulsion, and/or negative notation on the transcript may be imposed. Conduct Code Drug and Alcohol Policy: Oregon Administrative Rule (3) Standards Relative to the Rights of Individuals and to the Welfare of the University Community. An environment conducive to learning is one where the rights, safety, dignity and worth of every individual are respected. The following conduct endangers such an environment, and threatens the welfare of the University community as a whole: (j) Prohibited alcohol use, which includes: (A) Possession or consumption of alcohol by those under 21 years of age on University Premises or at a University Sponsored Activity; (B) Furnishing of alcohol to a person under 21 years of age; or (C) Consumption of an alcoholic beverage by a person at least 21 years of age or furnishing of an alcoholic beverage by or to a person at least 21 years of age, except in such areas and at such times as the University authorizes. (k) Prohibited drug use, which includes: (A) Manufacture, processing, distribution, or cultivation of a Drug, including but not limited to marijuana or narcotics, on University Premises or at a University Sponsored Activity, except as expressly permitted by law; (B) Sale of a Drug, including but not limited to marijuana or narcotics, on University Premises or at a University Sponsored Activity; or (C) Possession of a Drug, including but not limited to marijuana or narcotics, on University Premises or at a University Sponsored Activity except as expressly permitted by law.
6 Drug and Alcohol Policy for Students Residing in Campus Housing Students residing on campus are held accountable for University Housing rules relating to the use of illegal drugs and alcohol, in addition to the Student Conduct Code, UO drug and alcohol policy, and state and federal laws. Drug and Alcohol Regulations: Residents under the age of 21 are not allowed to consume or possess alcoholic beverages. Possessing, consuming, or furnishing alcoholic beverages is prohibited in public areas and in all areas of Wellness and Substance Free halls (including resident rooms). All local, state and federal alcohol laws are in effect. Residents 21 years of age or older not living in a Wellness and Substance Free hall may consume alcohol in the privacy of their room with the door closed. Residents 21 years of age or older may only bring alcohol into the residence halls if concealed. Residents may not display alcoholic beverage containers, including but not limited to empty containers. Possession of a rapid- consumption device (a "ʺbeer bong"ʺ for example) is prohibited in the residence halls. Group activities (five or more people in a room) where alcohol is being consumed are prohibited. Illegal use, possession, or furnishing of controlled substances on university owned or controlled property or at university sponsored or supervised activities is prohibited. Possession or use of illegal drug paraphernalia is prohibited in the residence halls. Drug paraphernalia includes bongs, pipes, vaporizers and other devices that may be used to facilitate the consumption of illegal drugs. Any illegal drug paraphernalia found will be confiscated. Narcotics and dangerous drugs shall be defined in accordance with the applicable law as well as the University Student Conduct Code. Residents and guests may not be intoxicated by alcohol or any controlled substance in the residence halls. Minors may not be present where alcohol is being consumed. The only exception is when the minor s roommate is at least 21 years of age and consuming in their shared room. University of Oregon Police Department The University of Oregon Police Department (UOPD) is a community- oriented, trust- based public safety agency. Our community- oriented policing approach fully engages our campus community in identifying and addressing problems through a collaborative process. UOPD is committed to adopting a problem- solving model, where criminal behavior is addressed at the root causes. UOPD officers are encouraged to try innovative methods in working closely with the community served. Along with the patrol division, UOPD has a Safe Campus Team, which includes officers from the Community Engagement Unit, the Crime Analysis and Investigations Unit, the Targeted Crimes Unit and the Event Management and Tactical Preparedness Unit. UOPD also closely partners with other local public safety agencies and organizations.
7 Safety Off- Campus Fifteen residential sororities and fifteen residential fraternities are affiliated with the University of Oregon. Each house corporation establishes stringent safety rules for the sororities and fraternities. Officers from UOPD are frequently invited to the Greek houses to discuss safety. Many other students live in privately owned housing close to the campus. The university s Campus Partners meets quarterly to address issues that arise from residential areas near campus. Task force members include students, administrators, police officials and neighborhood representatives. This has proven to be a strong force for both prevention and response. UOPD and student run campus organizations also provide safety escorts and shuttle services. Safe Ride Shuttle Designated Driver Shuttle UOPD Safety Escorts WHAT IS THE UNIVERSITY DOING TO COMBAT THE PROBLEMS OF ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUGS? In supporting healthy and safe campus environments and reducing substance abuse among college students, the UO promotes a comprehensive approach termed environmental management. This approach is grounded in the social ecological model of public health that acknowledges and attempts to address a broad array of factors that influence individual health decisions and behaviors on the institutional, community, and public policy levels, in addition to those at the individual and group levels. While environmental management encompasses a spectrum of programs and interventions from primary prevention to early intervention and treatment, it stresses the prevention of high- risk behavior through changes to the environment in which students make decisions about their alcohol and other drug use. Environmental management promotes the use of five strategies to address different aspects of the campus environment that give rise to student substance abuse. For each strategy, administrators may consider an array of program and policy options. The environmental management model promotes the following five areas of focus: 1. Offer and promote social, recreational, extracurricular, and public service options that do not include alcohol and other drugs. 2. Create a social, academic, and residential environment that supports healthy norms. 3. Restrict marketing and promotion of clubs, raves and other venues and events that promote other drug use. 4. Limit the availability of drugs both on and off campus. 5. Develop and enforce campus policies and enforce local, state, and federal laws relating to other drug use.
8 The Office of the Dean of Students Substance Abuse Prevention and Education:! Serves as a clearinghouse for campus and community members to address substance abuse on the campus.! Provides services and programs to assist, support and refer students with issues related to substance use and abuse.! Uses data to inform decision making (e.g. data from local law enforcement and campus police reports, alcohol transports, student self- reported data, neighborhood complaints, qualitative information from focus groups, student retention data, etc.).! Provides proactive prevention programs and information related to substance abuse prevention and education.! Monitors and reviews campus alcohol and drug efforts.! Coordinates and make recommendations in developing an overall vision and short- term/long- term goals for the campus regarding substance abuse prevention and education.! Contribute to a social, academic, and residential environment that supports health- promoting norms. Highlights of current efforts include: Chair the UO Substance Abuse Prevention Coalition with members from the campus and Eugene community as well as students, to focus on a comprehensive environmental approach in addressing alcohol and other drug issues on and off the campus. Implements the Drug Free Schools and Campuses recommendations, including the marketing and promotion of alcohol as well as the prevention of substance abuse on campus. AlcoholEdu for College program and Haven (sexual assault prevention) program, for all first year freshmen and transfer students under the age of 21 years. The strategic intervention, aimed at individuals, uses online knowledge tests and surveys to assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and alcohol- related behaviors. Educate student about the misperceptions of drinking norms through collaborative program such as: o AlcoholEdu for College o Social norms campaigns (e.g. ihost, Stay in Bounds, Balance the Buzz) o IntroDUCKtion- the UO s orientation session o Peer Health Education program - presentations to various students and student groups on campus o The University Counseling and Testing Center (e.g. BASICS program) o The UO Collegiate Recovery Community Recently received a $10,000 grant from the Alcohol Beverage medical Research Foundation/ Foundation for Alcohol Research for a new program known as Designated Ducks, a program that will be a collaboration between the Dean of Students and Athletics to teach student athletes about how to prevent high risk alcohol related behaviors and the negative consequences associated with high risk drinking; Oversees the CommUniversity Assistant Program which targets off campus students living in neighborhoods adjacent to the UO and uses community- based strategies of
9 education, policy, and enforcement to assist students in becoming engaged, responsible citizens in the community. This program coordinates and implements the Off- Campus Housing Fair each year to ensure successful transition from first year on campus living to second year off campus living. Collaborates with Lane County Prevention Department to work on the Oregon Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF SIG) and implement the SPF planning model at both the state and community levels in Oregon: target problem, alcohol abuse or dependence resulting from high- risk drinking among years old. Collaborates with Government and Community Relations to create positive, collaborative community relationships and open communication with local government, surrounding neighborhoods, neighborhood associations, civic and community based organizations, and the local business community. Encourages the community to use the Good Neighbor hotline, which addresses problematic behavior occurring in neighborhoods adjacent to the University. Collaborates with the University of Oregon Police Department and Government and Community Relations as members of the Neighborhood Livability Work Group to address town- gown efforts and issues in the Eugene Community including neighborhoods adjacent. Lead efforts to expand campus- based late night, alcohol- free events and activities. Collaborates with Fraternity and Sorority Life to ensure a commitment of holding Greek chapter houses responsible through new standards of accountability that focus on their values of leadership, scholarship, and philanthropy. Work with the Eugene Police Department (EPD) to understand and contribute to Party Patrols efforts that occur on football game weekends, Halloween, and other events and weekends where high- risk alcohol use is anticipated. University Health Service The Health Center'ʹs professional staff evaluates student'ʹs substance use and provides medical consultations, cessation advice and support, and referral services to students who have a substance abuse problem. The health center works closely with the Counseling and Testing Center and refers students to them for further assistance as needed. In addition, the health center staff oversees the peer health education program whereby students go out into their communities to provide their fellow students information on various health topics including substance abuse and prevention. Highlights of current efforts include: Smoke and Tobacco Free University policy, Effective Fall 2012; Peer Health Education program which utilizes peer opinion leaders to influence students behavior in the residence halls; Clinical intake forms include screening for alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs; Free nicotine replacement therapy for students. University Counseling and Testing Center The University Counseling and Testing Center offers screening, assessment, referral and follow- up, individual therapy, support classes for students interested in exploring their relationship with alcohol. A New Directions therapy group (offered Fall and Winter terms) is designed to explore addictive behaviors, raise awareness, and provide skills to change undesired behavior patterns. The Counseling Center has provided several outreach presentations and continues to provide ongoing training related to substance abuse assessment to doctoral interns and permanent clinical staff.
10 Highlights of current efforts include: Ongoing alcohol and other drug intervention provided by the University Counseling and Testing Center through the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention of College Students (BASICS) program Implements theoretical orientation to address substance abuse which includes the following: (1) Harm Reduction, (2) American Society of Addiction Medicine Criteria, (3) Continuum of Addiction, (4) Motivational Interviewing, and (5) Stages of Change University of Oregon Police Department The safety and well being of our students, faculty, and staff is a primary concern of the UOPD. In support of this purpose, the UOPD provides timely and courteous service in the areas of public safety, building security, emergency response, information, instruction and training, prevention and investigation of crimes, parking administration and enforcement, and building access control. Substance Abuse Prevention Program (SAPP) The Substance Abuse Prevention Program (SAPP) is designed to provide education and increased awareness in the areas of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug prevention, treatment, and recovery. All courses are open to community members, students, and professionals. Contact SAPP if you are interested in state credentialing opportunities, an area of concentration certificate, or practicum experience. Student Conduct and Community Standards Using an educational approach, Student Conduct and Community Standards works with students to find solutions to issues around alcohol and other drug abuse. HOW ARE PARENTS INVOLVED IN YOUR EFFORTS? Several units, including Family Programs and University Housing urge students, whenever feasible, to involve their parents in problems and their solutions. On a more programmatic level, there are several avenues for informing parents about issues. Here are a few examples: Parent orientation, including a talk facilitated by the Dean of Students that offers suggestions for discussing salient health issues, including alcohol and other drug issues, with students before their arrival at campus. Take AlcoholEdu for College to understand the program, talking points and prevention efforts for their student (see contact information below to find out more details about taking the parent version of the AlcoholEdu for College program). Presentations about alcohol and other drug prevention at events such as Family Weekend. Articles in publications geared towards parents and families, such as the Parent & Family Association monthly electronic newsletter.
11 FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT: Jennifer Summers, MHS Director of Substance Abuse Prevention and Student Success Office of the Dean of Students University of Oregon (541) References: American College Health Association, National College Health Assessment (Spring 2010), University Health Center, University of Oregon CDC. Vital signs: binge drinking prevalence, frequency, and intensity among adults U.S., MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2012; 61(1):14 9. Harvard (Wechsler) College Alcohol Study website: Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention: Johnston, L., O Malley, P., Bachman, J., Schulenberg, J. (2012) Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, Volume II: College students and adults ages Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, the University of Michigan. Available from: overview2010.pdf National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2004). NIAAA council approves definition of binge drinking NIAAA Newsletter, 3, p. 3. NIAAA website: Patrick, M., Schulenberg, J., Martz, M., Maggs, J., O Malley, P, Johnston, L. (2013). Extreme Binge Drinking among 12 th Grade Students in the U.S.: Prevalence and Predictors. Journal of American Medical Association Pediatrics, 35(2), Available from: Wechsler, H., Lee, J.E., Meichun, K., and Lee, H., Nelson, T.F., Seibring, M. (2002). Trends in College Binge Drinking During a Period of Increased Prevention Efforts. Journal of American College Health, 50(5), pp University of Oregon References: Substance Abuse Prevention and Student Success AlcoholEdu for College Program Office of the Dean of Students University of Oregon
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