Understanding water analyses

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Understanding water analyses"

Transcription

1 Understanding water analyses Lindi Grobler M.Sc. Soil Science & Plant Nutrition (Pri. Sci. Nat.) Agri-Alchemi Consultation, research and training for agriculture

2 Parameters of water analysis Conversions Discussing parameters individually Growing passion

3 Parameters of water analysis Parameter analysed Full name Unit of analysis ph No unit EC Electrical conductivity ms.m -1 or ms.cm -1 SAR Sodium Adsorption ratio No unit USDA Classification S and C Classification TDS Total dissolved solids mg.l -1 Calcium (Ca 2+ ) Cations Magnesium (Mg 2+ ) Potassium (K + ) Sodium (Na + ) Ammonium (NH 4+ ) mg.l -1 or me.l -1 Sulphate (SO 2-4 ) Anions Nitrate (NO 3- ) Chloride (Cl - ) mg.l -1 or me.l Bicarbonate (HCO -1 Alkalinity (and anions) 3- ) Carbonate (CO 2-3 ) Hardness Calcium Carbonate (CaCO 3 ) Iron (Fe) Micronutrients Boron (B) Manganese (Mn) Fluoride (F) µg.l -1

4 Elemental information for conversions Element Symbol Valency Atomic weight Equivalent weight Calcium Ca Magnesium Mg Cations Potassium K Sodium Na Ammonium NH Sulphate SO Carbonate CO Anions Bicarbonate HCO Nitrate NO Chloride Cl

5 Elemental information for conversions Element Symbol Valency Atomic weight Equivalent weight Calcium Ca Magnesium Mg Cations Potassium K Sodium Na Ammonium NH Sulphate SO Carbonate CO Anions Bicarbonate HCO Nitrate NO Chloride Cl

6 Unit conversions 1 ds.m -1 = 100 ms.m -1 = 100 mmho.m -1 = 1000 µmho.cm -1 1 mg.l -1 = 1 ppm Conversions Equivalent weight Equivalent weight = atomic weight valancy mg. l -1 to me. l -1 me.l -1 = mg.l -1 equivalent weight me. l -1 = mmol. -1 mmol.l -1 = me.l -1 valency TDS REMEMBER TDS = EC (ms.m -1 ) x 6.4 if EC < 500 ms.m -1 Cations = Anions if in me.l -1 Growing passion

7 EC: Electrical Conductivity Electrical Conductivity Amount of dissolved salts or nutrients or concentration of ions in the water NOT a measure of what nutrients are in the water Growing passion

8 EC: Electrical conductivity Use for water Irrigation of open fields Hydroponics Optimal range ms.m -1 < > 176 < > 101 Human consumption < 300 Remarks No chances of sodification Low danger of sodification Chances of sodification Specialist management necessary Serious danger of sodification Ideal Animals (Chickens) < 75 Ideal Usable but crop dependent Specialist management necessary Usable but dependent on salts in water Animals (Sheep/cattle) < 300 Dependant on salts present

9 ph scale

10 ph = Nutrient availability

11 Shattering the myth. Adding acid to reduce ph of water? Perseus and Medusa

12 So, I am not really reducing the ph? Acid do not reduce the ph of water but it neutralizes bicarbonate and carbonate concentration If ph is below 8.3 Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 + H 2 O Ca 2+ ion + HCO 3- ion + OH - ion Calcium + Water calcium + bicarbonate + hydroxide Bicarbonate Mg(HCO 3 ) 2 + H 2 O Mg 2+ ion + HCO 3- ion + OH - ion Magnesium + Water magnesium + bicarbonate + hydroxide Bicarbonate Growing passion

13 So, I am not really reducing the ph? Acid do not reduce the ph of water but it neutralizes bicarbonate and carbonate concentration If ph is above 8.3 CaCO 3 + H 2 O Ca 2+ ion + CO 3- ion + OH - ion Calcium + Water calcium + carbonate + hydroxide Carbonate MgCO 3 + H 2 O Mg 2+ ion + CO 3- ion + OH - ion Magnesium + Water Carbonate magnesium + carbonate + hydroxide Growing passion

14 So, what am I doing? Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 and/or Mg(HCO 3 ) 2 and/or CaCO 3 and/or MgCO 3 (only if ph > 8) When acid is added to water the acid or H + ion neutralize bicarbonate and carbonates If Bicarbonate: H + (from acid) + HCO 3 - CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) If Carbonates: H + (from acid) + CO 3 2- HCO 3 - H + (from acid) + HCO 3 - CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) Water is now UNBUFFERED

15 So, what am I doing? Unbuffered: a solution with an unstable hydrogen ion concentration therefore what ever you add to the water will stabilise the hydrogen ion concentration and thus establish the ph TIME & VOLUME Growing passion

16 I keep adding and adding and nothing happens! ph = - log [H + ] not linier

17 TDS: Total dissolved solids TDS Indicates quantity of salts dissolved in the water Close relationship between TDS and EC 1 ms.m -1 (EC) = 5 7 mg.l -1 TDS TDS (mg.l -1 ) EC (ms.m -1 ) Water quality Excellent Good Moderate Serious > 2500 >401 Unsuitable Growing passion

18 SAR SAR: Sodium Adsorption Ratio Indicates the relationship between elements calcium, magnesium and sodium SAR = Na Ca + Mg 2 me.l -1 < 1.00 No problem expected SAR Special attention need to be given to water infiltration into the soil and possible crust formation on the soil > 3.00 Specialist soil and irrigation management is imperative Close relationship between USDA classification

19 SAR & USDA classification SAR USDA classification

20 USDA C-classification C1 C2 Salt concentration ms.cm -1 Water may be used for any application Low salt concentration No additional drainage necessary ms.cm -1 Water may be used for any application Medium salt concentration Small percentage of drainage necessary C3 C4 C ms.cm -1 High salt concentration ms.cm -1 Very high salt concentration > 4.00 ms.cm -1 Exceptionally high salt concentration Should not be used in soils with limited drainage Should only be used of very well drained soil Not suited for irrigation under normal conditions Additional management required Not suited for irrigation

21 USDA S-classification Sodium concentration S1 S2 S3 S4 SAR 0 10 Low sodium concentration SAR Medium sodium concentration SAR High sodium concentration SAR 26 Very high sodium concentration Water may be used for any application No sodification hazard Water has limited application Permeability of water into fine textured soils might be problematic Water has limited application Adversity to be expected on most soils Drainage of great importance Not suited for irrigation

22 C and S classification C2S ms.cm -1 Medium salt concentration Water may be used for any application Small percentage of drainage necessary SAR 0 10 Low sodium concentration may be used for any application No sodification hazard Growing passion

23 Optimal nutrient concentrations Cations Acceptable (mg.l -1 ) Calcium (Ca) Magnesium (Mg) Potassium (K) Sodium (Na) Ammonium (NH 4 ) < 80 < 45 < 1 < 80 < 5 Anions Acceptable (mg.l -1 ) Sulphate (SO 4 ) Chloride (Cl) Nitrate (NO 3 ) Carbonate (CO 3 ) Bicarbonate (HCO 3 ) < 40 < 70 < 5 < 80 (ph) < 122 Water contains nutrients contributes to crop nutrition Example: Water contains 10 g/1000 l Mg (100 ppm or mg.l -1 ) Irrigate l water Equivalent to 40 kg of Mg = 400 kg MgSO 4 Growing passion

24 Chlorides Guideline Example crops Allowable concentration (mg.l -1 ) Chloride free Oven dried tobacco < 25 Chloride sensitive Lettuce < 53 Non-specific to chloride Air dried tobacco < 106 Chloride tolerant Lucerne, Beetroot < 175 Foliar feeds Any < 106 Hydroponics & potted plants Any < 106 Overhead irrigation Tree crops < 175 Any irrigation Grapes, potatoes, tomatoes < 355 Any irrigation Barley, maize < 532 Flood irrigation Any < 142 Sprinklers Any < 106

25 Boron Boron (B) (µg.l -1 ) Class Sensitive crop Moderate crop Tolerant crop Very good < 0.33 < 0.67 < 1 Good Fairly high High Unusable >1.25 > 2.5 > 3.7 Crops Pecan nuts, Prunes, Pears, Apples, Table grapes, Peaches, Citrus, Avocado Sunflowers, Potatoes, Cotton, Tomatoes, Olives, Wheat, Maize, Pumpkins Asparagus, Dates, Beetroot, Onions, Cabbage, Salad, Carrots

26 Alkalinity hardness of water Clarification Alkalinity Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) (mg.l -1 ) Soft 0 50 Marginally soft Slightly hard Hard Very hard Growing passion

LAB 5 - PLANT NUTRITION. Chemical Ionic forms Approximate dry Element symbol Atomic weight Absorbed by plants tissue concentration

LAB 5 - PLANT NUTRITION. Chemical Ionic forms Approximate dry Element symbol Atomic weight Absorbed by plants tissue concentration LAB 5 PLANT NUTRITION I. General Introduction All living organisms require certain elements for their survival. Plants are known to require carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus

More information

Understanding ph management and plant nutrition Part 5: Choosing the best fertilizer

Understanding ph management and plant nutrition Part 5: Choosing the best fertilizer Understanding ph management and plant nutrition Part 5: Choosing the best fertilizer Bill Argo, Ph.D. Blackmore Company, Tel: 800-874-8660, Int l 734-483-8661, E-mail: bargo@blackmoreco.com Originally

More information

Hardness - Multivalent metal ions which will form precipitates with soaps. e.g. Ca 2+ + (soap) Ca(soap) 2 (s)

Hardness - Multivalent metal ions which will form precipitates with soaps. e.g. Ca 2+ + (soap) Ca(soap) 2 (s) Water Softening (Precipitation Softening) (3 rd DC 178; 4 th DC 235) 1. Introduction Hardness - Multivalent metal ions which will form precipitates with soaps. e.g. Ca 2+ + (soap) Ca(soap) 2 (s) Complexation

More information

Salinity Management and Soil Amendments for Southwestern Pecan Orchards

Salinity Management and Soil Amendments for Southwestern Pecan Orchards Salinity Management and Soil Amendments for Southwestern Pecan Orchards Thomas L. Thompson, Professor and Soils Specialist James L. Walworth, Associate Professor and Soils Specialist Department of Soil,

More information

Drinking Water Chemistry

Drinking Water Chemistry Drinking Water Chemistry CTB3365x Introduction to water treatment Dr. ir. Doris van Halem Assistant Professor in Drinking Water This lecture Ion balance ph Carbonic acid equilibrium Saturation index (SI)

More information

K+ Soil EC Meter HCO 3. Others types of salts at very low concentrations are: Boron, Silicates, etc

K+ Soil EC Meter HCO 3. Others types of salts at very low concentrations are: Boron, Silicates, etc Electrical Conductivity or Salt Concentration In The Soil By Clarence Chavez EC Meter detects Salt Concentration Na + CA ++ EC - Demo Cations SO -- 4 Mg ++ Cl - K+ Soil EC Meter Anions HCO 3 - CO 3 --

More information

Irrigation Water for Greenhouses and Nurseries

Irrigation Water for Greenhouses and Nurseries Agriculture and Natural Resources Irrigation Water for Greenhouses and Nurseries FSA6061 James Robbins Professor - Ornamentals Arkansas Is Our Campus Visit our web site at: http://www.uaex.edu Both the

More information

Testing Water for Gardening and Lawn Irrigation

Testing Water for Gardening and Lawn Irrigation wellcare information for you about Testing Water for Gardening and Lawn Irrigation Within a household, water may serve many functions beyond everyday household uses such as drinking, cooking, laundry,

More information

Periodic Table, Valency and Formula

Periodic Table, Valency and Formula Periodic Table, Valency and Formula Origins of the Periodic Table Mendelѐѐv in 1869 proposed that a relationship existed between the chemical properties of elements and their atomic masses. He noticed

More information

Irrigation Water Quality for Greenhouse Production

Irrigation Water Quality for Greenhouse Production Agricultural Extension Service The University of Tennessee PB 1617 Irrigation Water Quality for Greenhouse Production 1 Table of Contents Factors Affecting Water Quality 3 ph 3 Alkalinity/Carbonates and

More information

Water Quality Management for Greenhouse Production

Water Quality Management for Greenhouse Production ANR-1158 A dependable irrigation water supply is a vital component of any greenhouse growing operation. In the past, the quality of the water source was not a cultural issue considered by growers. They

More information

Understanding the. Soil Test Report. Client and Sample Identification

Understanding the. Soil Test Report. Client and Sample Identification Understanding the Soil Test Report Page 1 of 7 Crops absorb the nutrients required from soil in order to grow, so ensuring that your soil is meeting the crops needs is critical. Having the proper level

More information

Understanding ph management and plant nutrition Part 3: Fertilizers

Understanding ph management and plant nutrition Part 3: Fertilizers Understanding ph management and plant nutrition Part 3: Fertilizers Bill Argo, Ph.D. Blackmore Company, Tel: 800-874-8660, Int l 734-483-8661, E-mail: bargo@blackmoreco.com Originally printed in 2003 in

More information

Major Ions in Water. Training module # WQ - 28. New Delhi, September 1999

Major Ions in Water. Training module # WQ - 28. New Delhi, September 1999 World Bank & Government of The Netherlands funded Training module # WQ - 28 Major Ions in Water New Delhi, September 1999 CSMRS Building, 4th Floor, Olof Palme Marg, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 11 00 16 India

More information

Understanding ph management and plant nutrition Part 2: Water quality

Understanding ph management and plant nutrition Part 2: Water quality Understanding ph management and plant nutrition Part 2: Water quality Bill Argo, Ph.D. Blackmore Company, Tel: 800-874-8660, Int l 734-483-8661, E-mail: bargo@blackmoreco.com Originally printed in 2003

More information

Managing Irrigation Water Quality

Managing Irrigation Water Quality PNW 597-E August 2007 Managing Irrigation Water Quality for crop production in the Pacific Northwest A Pacific Northwest Extension publication Oregon State University University of Idaho Washington State

More information

Irrigation Water Salinity and Crop Production

Irrigation Water Salinity and Crop Production PUBLICATION 8066 FWQP REFERENCE SHEET 9.10 Irrigation Water Salinity and Crop Production STEPHEN R. GRATTAN, Plant-Water Relations Specialist, University of California, Davis UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Agriculture

More information

AgriLife Extension Solutions

AgriLife Extension Solutions Understanding Water Quality Reports for Your Pond Todd Sink, Ph.D. Extension Fisheries Specialist Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Mikayla House Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Water quality tests

More information

Overall Planning for Developing a New Vineyard: Site Selection and Assessment. Ed Hellman Viticulture Extension Specialist

Overall Planning for Developing a New Vineyard: Site Selection and Assessment. Ed Hellman Viticulture Extension Specialist Overall Planning for Developing a New Vineyard: Site Selection and Assessment Ed Hellman Viticulture Extension Specialist Critical Site Selection Criteria Climate (plant adapted varieties) Diseases and

More information

The component present in larger proportion is known as solvent.

The component present in larger proportion is known as solvent. 40 Engineering Chemistry and Environmental Studies 2 SOLUTIONS 2. DEFINITION OF SOLUTION, SOLVENT AND SOLUTE When a small amount of sugar (solute) is mixed with water, sugar uniformally dissolves in water

More information

ph is an expression of the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution

ph is an expression of the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution What is Acidity? An acid is a substance that gives off hydrogen ions ( H + ). A base is a substance that gives off hydroxyl ions. ( OH - ). ph is an expression of the concentration of hydrogen ions in

More information

1.85 WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT ENGINEERING HOMEWORK 5

1.85 WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT ENGINEERING HOMEWORK 5 1.85 WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT ENGINEERING HOMEWORK 5 Question 1 (4 points) The water defined by the analysis given below is to be softened by excess-lime (and soda ash) treatment. a. Sketch an meq/l

More information

Dynamic Soil Systems Part A Soil ph and Soil Testing

Dynamic Soil Systems Part A Soil ph and Soil Testing Dynamic Soil Systems Part A Soil ph and Soil Testing Objectives: To measure soil ph and observe conditions which change ph To distinguish between active acidity (soil solution ph) and exchangeable acidity

More information

DEIONIZATION IN A "NUT SHELL"

DEIONIZATION IN A NUT SHELL Deionized Water (DI) DEIONIZATION IN A "NUT SHELL" City water is passed through dark amber colored, caviar sized plastic beads called cation ion exchange resin. The cation resin is in the hydrogen form

More information

19.2 Chemical Formulas

19.2 Chemical Formulas In the previous section, you learned how and why atoms form chemical bonds with one another. You also know that atoms combine in certain ratios with other atoms. These ratios determine the chemical formula

More information

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA For ionic compounds, the chemical formula must be worked out. You will no longer have the list of ions in the exam (like at GCSE). Instead you must learn some and work out others.

More information

Summer Assignment Coversheet

Summer Assignment Coversheet Summer Assignment Coversheet Course: A.P. Chemistry Teachers Names: Mary Engels Assignment Title: Summer Assignment A Review Assignment Summary/Purpose: To review the Rules for Solubility, Oxidation Numbers,

More information

Interpreting Plant Analysis Reports

Interpreting Plant Analysis Reports Hwy P.O. Box 51 Northwood, ND 5827 (71) 587-1 Fax (71) 587-13 Home page: agvise.com 92 13th t. N. P.O. Box 187 Benson, MN 52 (32) 843-419 Fax (32) 843-274 Interpreting Plant Analysis Reports N Zn P.O.

More information

ENE 806, Project Report 3 CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION: WATER SOFTENING. Grégoire Seyrig Wenqian Shan

ENE 806, Project Report 3 CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION: WATER SOFTENING. Grégoire Seyrig Wenqian Shan ENE 806, Project Report 3 CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION: WATER SOFTENING Grégoire Seyrig Wenqian Shan College of Engineering, Michigan State University Spring 2007 ABSTRACT The groundwater with high level initial

More information

Editor's Note: This article is the first in a three-part series on water quality issues.

Editor's Note: This article is the first in a three-part series on water quality issues. Treating the Cause, Not the Symptoms Irrigation water treatment for better infiltration. by R. N. CARROW, R. R. DUNCAN, and M. HUCK Editor's Note: This article is the first in a three-part series on water

More information

Water Softening for Hardness Removal. Hardness in Water. Methods of Removing Hardness 5/1/15. WTRG18 Water Softening and Hardness

Water Softening for Hardness Removal. Hardness in Water. Methods of Removing Hardness 5/1/15. WTRG18 Water Softening and Hardness Water Softening for Removal 1 in Water High concentration of calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions in water cause hardness Generally, water containing more than 100 mg/l of hardness expressed as calcium

More information

Water quality can have a huge impact on plant

Water quality can have a huge impact on plant COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND ENVIRONMENT, LEXINGTON, KY, 40546 HO-111 Understanding Irrigation Water Test Results and Their Implications on Nursery

More information

Interpretation of Soil and Water Analysis

Interpretation of Soil and Water Analysis 15 1 1 5 Interpretation of Soil and Water Analysis W i l l i a m L. P e a c o c k a n d L. P e t e r C h r i s t e n s e n Grapevines are sensitive to high levels of soluble salts and toxic ions in both

More information

Fertility Needs of No-Till Corn, Soybean and Wheat. Raymond C. Ward Ward Laboratories, Inc Kearney, NE

Fertility Needs of No-Till Corn, Soybean and Wheat. Raymond C. Ward Ward Laboratories, Inc Kearney, NE Fertility Needs of No-Till Corn, Soybean and Wheat Raymond C. Ward Ward Laboratories, Inc Kearney, NE www.wardlab.com Soil Sample for Fertility Dry or Frozen Ground Uniform Slice Top and Subsoil Sampling

More information

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface

More information

Chapter 5 - Molecules and Compounds

Chapter 5 - Molecules and Compounds Chapter 5 - Molecules and Compounds How do we represent molecules? In pictures In formula In name Ionic compounds Molecular compounds On the course website, you will find a list of ions that I would like

More information

Substrate ph: Getting it Right for Your Greenhouse Crops

Substrate ph: Getting it Right for Your Greenhouse Crops Substrate ph: Getting it Right for Your Greenhouse Crops Neil Mattson Assistant professor and Floriculture Extension Specialist, Department of Horticulture Cornell University, 134A Plant Sciences Bldg,

More information

Estimation of Hardness of Water by EDTA Method

Estimation of Hardness of Water by EDTA Method Estimation of Hardness of Water by EDTA Method 1 EXPERIMENT 1 Estimation of Hardness of Water by EDTA Method INTRODUCTION Water hardness is the traditional measure of the capacity of water to precipitate

More information

Ionic Compounds and Ionic Bonding

Ionic Compounds and Ionic Bonding Ionic Compounds and Ionic Bonding 1 Chemical Bonds There are three basic types of bonds: Ionic The electrostatic attraction between ions Covalent The sharing of electrons between atoms Metallic Each metal

More information

ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES. An introduction

ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES. An introduction ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES An introduction Water Water is a liquid. Water is made of water molecules (formula H 2 O). All natural waters contain some foreign substances, usually in small amounts. The water

More information

Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds

Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds are composed of ions. An ion is an atom or molecule with an electrical charge. Monatomic ions are formed from single atoms that have gained or lost electrons.

More information

FERTILIZER CALCULATIONS AND PRACTICE QUESTIONS

FERTILIZER CALCULATIONS AND PRACTICE QUESTIONS FERTILIZER CALCULATIONS AND PRACTICE QUESTIONS Neil Mattson, Ph.D. Floriculture Extension Specialist phone: (607) 255-0621 email: nsm47@cornell.edu Department of Horticulture 134A Plant Science Building

More information

Introductory Vegetable Production Part 1. F.I.R.S.T. Planning F.I.R.S.T. STEPS. PRODUCTION Plan. MARKETING Plan. Veg Production Pt1 - Overview

Introductory Vegetable Production Part 1. F.I.R.S.T. Planning F.I.R.S.T. STEPS. PRODUCTION Plan. MARKETING Plan. Veg Production Pt1 - Overview Veg Production Pt1 - Overview Introductory Vegetable Production Part 1 Site Selection / Soil / Water / Crop Planning / Equipment First Steps Site Selection Soil Water / Irrigation Crop Planning Equipment

More information

Naming Compounds Handout

Naming Compounds Handout Naming Compounds Handout IONIC COMPOUNDS versus MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS ionic compound: consist of cations (positive ions) and anions (negative ions) held together by electrostatic attraction usually metal

More information

Ion Exchange Design Hand calculation. Brian Windsor (Purolite International Ltd)

Ion Exchange Design Hand calculation. Brian Windsor (Purolite International Ltd) Ion Exchange Design Hand calculation Brian Windsor (Purolite International Ltd) Introduction Before design programmes were introduced, every engineer had to calculate the design by hand using resin manufacturers

More information

Nitrogen: All Forms Are Not Equal

Nitrogen: All Forms Are Not Equal Reprinted from the June 2009 Edition of GMPro Magazine Nitrogen: All Forms Are Not Equal Summary: By understanding the different chemical forms of nitrogen, you can manage rootzone ph and avoid toxic buildup

More information

Decomposition. Composition

Decomposition. Composition Decomposition 1. Solid ammonium carbonate is heated. 2. Solid calcium carbonate is heated. 3. Solid calcium sulfite is heated in a vacuum. Composition 1. Barium oxide is added to distilled water. 2. Phosphorus

More information

Topic 4 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Formulae, Equations, Balancing Equations and The Mole

Topic 4 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Formulae, Equations, Balancing Equations and The Mole Topic 4 National Chemistry Summary Notes Formulae, Equations, Balancing Equations and The Mole LI 1 The chemical formula of a covalent molecular compound tells us the number of atoms of each element present

More information

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following correctly represents 360 g of water? (i) 2 moles of H 2 0 (ii) 20 moles of water (iii) 6.022 10 23 molecules of water (iv)

More information

Monatomic Ions. A. Monatomic Ions In order to determine the charge of monatomic ions, you can use the periodic table as a guide:

Monatomic Ions. A. Monatomic Ions In order to determine the charge of monatomic ions, you can use the periodic table as a guide: Monatomic Ions Ions are atoms that have either lost or gained electrons. While atoms are neutral, ions are charged particles. A loss of electrons results in a positive ion or cation (pronounced cat-eye-on

More information

Total Suspended Solids Total Dissolved Solids Hardness

Total Suspended Solids Total Dissolved Solids Hardness Total Suspended Solids (TSS) are solids in water that can be trapped by a filter. TSS can include a wide variety of material, such as silt, decaying plant and animal matter, industrial wastes, and sewage.

More information

Elements and Compounds. Chemical Bonds compounds are made of atoms held together by chemical bonds bonds are forces of attraction between atoms

Elements and Compounds. Chemical Bonds compounds are made of atoms held together by chemical bonds bonds are forces of attraction between atoms Elements and Compounds elements combine together to make an almost limitless number of compounds the properties of the compound are totally different from the constituent elements Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular

More information

Calculation of Molar Masses. Molar Mass. Solutions. Solutions

Calculation of Molar Masses. Molar Mass. Solutions. Solutions Molar Mass Molar mass = Mass in grams of one mole of any element, numerically equal to its atomic weight Molar mass of molecules can be determined from the chemical formula and molar masses of elements

More information

NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAPEVINES. Andrew Teubes Viticultural Consultant

NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAPEVINES. Andrew Teubes Viticultural Consultant NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAPEVINES Andrew Teubes Viticultural Consultant Nutrient requirements Five (5) critical aspects of importance for grapevine nutrition Which elements are required by the vine

More information

Lime Softening LIME ADDITION. Hardness Lime Precipitate CO 2. + Ca(OH) 2 -> CaCO 3 + H 2 O. Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 + Ca(OH) 2 -> 2CaCO 3 + 2H 2 0

Lime Softening LIME ADDITION. Hardness Lime Precipitate CO 2. + Ca(OH) 2 -> CaCO 3 + H 2 O. Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 + Ca(OH) 2 -> 2CaCO 3 + 2H 2 0 Lime Softening Chemical precipitation is one of the more common methods used to soften water. Chemicals normally used are lime (calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH) 2 ) and soda ash (sodium carbonate, Na 2 CO 3 ).

More information

CHAPTER 3 COMPOUNDS AND MOLECULES

CHAPTER 3 COMPOUNDS AND MOLECULES Chapter 3 Compounds and Molecules Page 1 CHAPTER 3 COMPOUNDS AND MOLECULES 3-1. Octane, a component of gasoline, has eight carbon atoms and eighteen hydrogen atoms per molecule. Its formula is written

More information

Multi-K Potassium Nitrate is superior to Potassium Sulfate (SOP)

Multi-K Potassium Nitrate is superior to Potassium Sulfate (SOP) Multi-K Potassium Nitrate is superior to Potassium Sulfate (SOP) Multi-K vs. SOP Summary Nutritional value Solubility Compatibility K-accompanying anion Reaction in water Nutritional value Multi-K potassium

More information

Experiment 16-Acids, Bases and ph

Experiment 16-Acids, Bases and ph Definitions acid-an ionic compound that releases or reacts with water to form hydrogen ion (H + ) in aqueous solution. They taste sour and turn litmus red. Acids react with certain metals such as zinc,

More information

Nomenclature and Formulas of Ionic Compounds. Section I: Writing the Name from the Formula

Nomenclature and Formulas of Ionic Compounds. Section I: Writing the Name from the Formula Purpose: Theory: Nomenclature and Formulas of Ionic Compounds 1. To become familiar with the rules of chemical nomenclature, based on the classification of compounds. 2. To write the proper name of the

More information

Three Reasons to Broaden Your Fertigation Knowledge

Three Reasons to Broaden Your Fertigation Knowledge Three Reasons to Broaden Your Fertigation Knowledge While the benefits of fertigation are being recognized by more irrigation managers today than ever before, the staff of Irrigation Business & Technology

More information

Magnesium (II), Sodium (I), Potassium (I), Ammonium (I)

Magnesium (II), Sodium (I), Potassium (I), Ammonium (I) s (The Soluble Group) Magnesium (II), Sodium (I), Potassium (I), Ammonium (I) The salts of the cations of group V, with few exceptions, are quite soluble, this accounts for the fact that there is no common

More information

Forest Nursery Notes Summer 2009

Forest Nursery Notes Summer 2009 Fertigation - Injecting Soluble Fertilizers into the Irrigation System by Thomas D. Landis, Jeremy R. Pinto, and Anthony S. Davis Introduction Fertigation (fertilization + irrigation) is the newest way

More information

Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

More information

Write chemical equations for the following reactions: Reactants Products Unbalanced. Water H 2 O. and

Write chemical equations for the following reactions: Reactants Products Unbalanced. Water H 2 O. and Chemical Equations 17.2 Chemical symbols provide us with a shorth method of writing the name of an element. Chemical formulas do the same for compounds. But what about chemical reactions? To write out,

More information

Basic chemistry for A level Biology

Basic chemistry for A level Biology Basic chemistry for A level Biology Make a list of the missing words from the text please. Chose from this list; MISSING WORDS Neutrons, arrangement, carbon-14, charge, weak, alkaline, covalently, number,

More information

Eric Cook Hydroponics NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT FOR HYDROPONICS

Eric Cook Hydroponics NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT FOR HYDROPONICS Eric Cook ericccook@yahoo.com eccook@alaska.edu 907-460- 1316 1 Hydroponics NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT FOR HYDROPONICS Nutrient Delivery is Controlled in Hydroponics No complex Soil Chemistry Controlled Nutrient

More information

The Chemistry Name Game

The Chemistry Name Game The Chemistry Name Game Contributed by Butane: The Carroll College Chemistry Club Main Science Idea for Kids As students play the Chemistry Name Game, they will learn why compounds form as they do. They

More information

Soil contamination and remediation. Introduction to soil chemistry

Soil contamination and remediation. Introduction to soil chemistry Soil contamination and remediation Introduction to soil chemistry Chemistry background History chemical reactions Colloids - soil ph soil s buffer capacity Chemistry - background atom, molecule, chem.

More information

Atomic Theory and Bonding

Atomic Theory and Bonding Atomic Theory and Bonding Textbook pages 168 183 Section 4.1 Summary Before You Read What do you already know about Bohr diagrams? Record your answer in the lines below. What are atoms? An atom is the

More information

Learning Guide 3A Salts Chem 1010. If you could look at them more closely, here's what you would see.

Learning Guide 3A Salts Chem 1010. If you could look at them more closely, here's what you would see. Introduction Learning Guide 3A Salts Chem 1010 Look at the samples in the two bottles you were given. What observations can you make about them? A: B: If you could look at them more closely, here's what

More information

Chapter 5. Chapter 5. Naming Ionic Compounds. Objectives. Chapter 5. Chapter 5

Chapter 5. Chapter 5. Naming Ionic Compounds. Objectives. Chapter 5. Chapter 5 Objectives Name cations, anions, and ionic compounds. Write chemical formulas for ionic compounds such that an overall neutral charge is maintained. Explain how polyatomic ions and their salts are named

More information

GROUP II ELEMENTS. Beryllium to Barium

GROUP II ELEMENTS. Beryllium to Barium 1 GROUP II ELEMENTS Beryllium to Barium Introduction Elements in Group I (alkali metals) and Group II (alkaline earths) are known as s-block elements because their valence (bonding) electrons are in s

More information

SOIL TESTS & INTERPRETATION

SOIL TESTS & INTERPRETATION SOIL TESTS & INTERPRETATION This technical note discusses most of the soil tests used at Hill Laboratories, and gives very general interpretive information for each. Information for this Technical Note

More information

Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key

Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key 1) How many are there in 24 grams of FeF 3? 1.28 x 10 23 2) How many are there in 450 grams of Na 2 SO 4? 1.91 x 10 24 3) How many grams are there in 2.3

More information

Lecture 23. Acid rain.

Lecture 23. Acid rain. Lecture 23. Acid rain. Part2. Effects of acid rain. Objectives: 1. Alkalinity: The acid buffer. 2. Effects of acid rain. Readings: Turco: p. 278-284 ; Brimblecombe: p. 178-184 1. Alkalinity: The acid buffer.

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations

Balancing Chemical Equations Balancing Chemical Equations Academic Success Center Science Tutoring Area Science Tutoring Area Law of Conservation of Mass Matter cannot be created nor destroyed Therefore the number of each type of

More information

General Chemistry II Chapter 20

General Chemistry II Chapter 20 1 General Chemistry II Chapter 0 Ionic Equilibria: Principle There are many compounds that appear to be insoluble in aqueous solution (nonelectrolytes). That is, when we add a certain compound to water

More information

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Volume 2, No 3, 2012. Copyright 2010 All rights reserved Integrated Publishing Association

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Volume 2, No 3, 2012. Copyright 2010 All rights reserved Integrated Publishing Association INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Volume 2, No 3, 212 Copyright 21 All rights reserved Integrated Publishing Association Research article ISSN 976 442 Impact of chemical fertilizers on water

More information

Elements, Compounds, subscript, superscript, coefficient Periodic Table o Periods, groups, etc. o Metals o Non-metals o Metalloids

Elements, Compounds, subscript, superscript, coefficient Periodic Table o Periods, groups, etc. o Metals o Non-metals o Metalloids Chemistry Elements, Compounds, subscript, superscript, coefficient Periodic Table o Periods, groups, etc. o Metals o Non-metals o Metalloids The patterns are related to the chemical properties of the element.

More information

Managing the Root Zone in Soilless Culture

Managing the Root Zone in Soilless Culture Managing the Root Zone in Soilless Culture Author: Eyal Ronen Haifa Chemicals Chief Agronomist In solid growing media, there are five important parameters that should be monitored around the root zone

More information

Question Bank Electrolysis

Question Bank Electrolysis Question Bank Electrolysis 1. (a) What do you understand by the terms (i) electrolytes (ii) non-electrolytes? (b) Arrange electrolytes and non-electrolytes from the following substances (i) sugar solution

More information

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases The position of hydrogen in the reactivity series Hydrogen, although not a metal, is included in the reactivity series because it, like metals, can be displaced from aqueous solution, only this time the

More information

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet Name: Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet The purpose of this worksheet is to get you to recap some of the fundamental concepts that you studied at GCSE and introduce some of the concepts that will be part

More information

Fertility Management Corn on Corn

Fertility Management Corn on Corn Fertility Management Corn on Corn Ray Ward Ward Laboratories, Inc Kearney Nebraska www.wardlab.com Guiding Producers Today to Feed the World Tomorrow Topics Nutrient loss from crop mining Evaluation of

More information

St. Augustine Orchid Society Choosing Your Fertilizer Based on Your Water Quality by Sue Bottom,

St. Augustine Orchid Society  Choosing Your Fertilizer Based on Your Water Quality by Sue Bottom, Most of the well water and public water supply in the St. Augustine area are derived from wells in shell strata and limestone so the water tends to be moderately to very alkaline. This will cause white

More information

The Behavior of Two Families in the Periodic Table

The Behavior of Two Families in the Periodic Table The Behavior of Two Families in the Periodic Table The Periodic Table arranges the elements in order of increasing atomic number in horizontal rows of such length that elements with similar properties

More information

What is soil quality?

What is soil quality? USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service Indicator? Test? Function? Soil Quality Indicators Physical, Chemical and Biological Indicators for Soil Quality Assessment and Management A series of information

More information

Perspectives of water efficient and saline agriculture. November 25th, Greet Blom-Zandstra

Perspectives of water efficient and saline agriculture. November 25th, Greet Blom-Zandstra Perspectives of water efficient and saline agriculture November 25th, Greet Blom-Zandstra Outline Current and future problems Effects of drought or salinity on plants Plant responses Anticipation in agricultural

More information

Number of moles of solute = Concentration (mol. L ) x Volume of solution (litres) or n = C x V

Number of moles of solute = Concentration (mol. L ) x Volume of solution (litres) or n = C x V 44 CALCULATIONS INVOLVING SOLUTIONS INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Many chemical reactions take place in aqueous (water) solution. Quantities of such solutions are measured as volumes, while the amounts

More information

1. Inspection and monitoring... 3

1. Inspection and monitoring... 3 1 Index 1. Inspection and monitoring... 3 1.1 Handling of new elements... 3 1.1.1 Storage of original packaged RO elements... 3 1.1.2 Packing... 3 1.2 Initial start- up checks of a plant... 3 1.2.1 Preparation

More information

EXPERIMENT 5: CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS

EXPERIMENT 5: CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS PURPOSE EXPERIMENT 5: CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS To perform and observe simple chemical reactions. To identify the products of chemical reactions and write balanced equations for those reactions.

More information

WHAT IS IN FERTILIZER OTHER THAN NUTRIENTS?

WHAT IS IN FERTILIZER OTHER THAN NUTRIENTS? WHAT IS IN FERTILIZER OTHER THAN NUTRIENTS? Raymond C. Ward Ward Laboratories Inc. Kearney, NE Commercial fertilizer is a source of plant nutrients that can be applied to soil to nourish crops when the

More information

Sample Exercise 2.1 Illustrating the Size of an Atom

Sample Exercise 2.1 Illustrating the Size of an Atom Sample Exercise 2.1 Illustrating the Size of an Atom The diameter of a US penny is 19 mm. The diameter of a silver atom, by comparison, is only 2.88 Å. How many silver atoms could be arranged side by side

More information

Soil, Plant and Water Analytical Laboratories for Montana Agriculture

Soil, Plant and Water Analytical Laboratories for Montana Agriculture Soil, Plant and Water Analytical Laboratories for Montana Agriculture Contents Preface...2 Introduction and Objectives...2 Survey Overview...3 Soil Analysis Services...6 Soil analysis units...7 Basic Soil

More information

Temperature N Source and Rate CEC (less when high) Application method + H +

Temperature N Source and Rate CEC (less when high) Application method + H + Ammonia Volatilization Urease activity Air Exchange Temperature N Source and Rate CEC (less when high) Application method NH 4 NH 3 H Urea If ph and temperature can be kept low, little potential exists

More information

Chapter 2 Part 2 Honors Review

Chapter 2 Part 2 Honors Review Chapter 2 Part 2 Honors Review Student: 1. An anion is defined as A. a charged atom or group of atoms with a net negative charge. B. a stable atom. C. a group of stable atoms. D. an atom or group of atoms

More information

Section B: Some Essential Background Chemistry

Section B: Some Essential Background Chemistry Section B: Some Essential Background Chemistry Soluble and insoluble salts The importance of knowing whether a salt is soluble or insoluble in water You will remember that acids react with carbonates to

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Student Instructions 1. Identify the reactants and products and write a word equation. 2. Write the correct chemical formula for each of the reactants and the products.

More information

Test 3 Formula and math of formula review. 2. The oxide of metal X has the formula XO. Which group in the Periodic Table contains metal X?

Test 3 Formula and math of formula review. 2. The oxide of metal X has the formula XO. Which group in the Periodic Table contains metal X? Name: Sunday, November 04, 2007 Test 3 Formula and math of formula review 1. Which is an example of a binary compound? 1. acetic acid 3. potassium hydroxide 2. nitric acid 4. potassium oxide 2. The oxide

More information

T u r f g r a s s P r o g r a m

T u r f g r a s s P r o g r a m C L E M S O N U N I V E R S I T Y T u r f g r a s s P r o g r a m (www.clemson.edu/turfornamental/) Irrigation Water Quality James Camberato Clemson University Irrigation Water Quality: Part I. Salinity

More information