SOFTENING. Water Treatment

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1 SOFTENING AAiT.CED Zerihun Alemayehu

2 INTRODUCTION Sedimentation, coagulation and filtration suspended solids Chemical precipitation: The removal of dissolved objectionable substances from water by the addition of some chemicals to convert them into insoluble substances Softening is the removal of hardness from water. Measurements of hardness are given in terms of the calcium carbonate equivalent.

3 DEGREE OF HARDNESS Mg/L as CaCO > 300 Degree of hardness Soft Moderately hard Hard Very hard Water softening is needed when hardness is above mg/l; Hardness is acceptable in treated water.

4 TYPES OF HARDNESS Carbonate hardness compounds (temporary hardness) Non-carbonate hardness compounds (permanent hardness) Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) Calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ) Magnesium carbonate (MgCO 3 ) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) Calcium bicarbonate (Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 ) Calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) Magnesium bicarbonate (Mg(HCO 3 ) 2 ) Magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 ) Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH) 2 )

5 TOTAL HARDNESS Total Hardness (TH) = [Ca 2+ ] + [Mg 2+ ]as mg/l of CaCO 3 Total Hardness (as CaCO 3 ) = (eq/l of cation charge) x (50g CaCO 3 /Charge eq) x 1000mg/g TH = CH +NCH

6 SOFTENING METHODS Boiling Boiling reduces only calcium carbonate hardness but not noncarbonate hardness. Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 CaCO 3 + H 2 O + CO 2 Lime treatment Lime-soda process Ion-exchange method

7 SOFTENING CHEMISTRY Ca CO 3 2- CaCO 3 (s) ph must be raised to 10.3 Mg OH - Mg(OH) 2 (s) ph must be raised to 11 We have to provide CO 3 2+ if no HCO 3 - is present. We increase conc. Of CO 3 2- /OH - by addition of chemicals, and derive the reactions to the right. HCO OH - CO H 2 0 Source of OH - CaO + H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 + heat When carbonate ions must be provided we used soda ash (Na 2 CO 3 )

8 LIME TREATMENT Addition of lime to hardwater converts soluble bicarbonate into insoluble CaCO 3. If CO 2 is present in water, some amount of lime is required to neutralize it. CO 2 : CO 2 + Ca(OH) 2 CaCO 3 + H 2 0 Calcium carbonate hardness: Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 + Ca(OH) 2 2 CaCO H 2 O Magnesium carbonate hardness: Mg(HCO 3 ) 2 + Ca(OH) 2 CaCO 3 + MgCO H 2 O Excess lime treatment: MgCO 3 + Ca(OH) 2 Mg(OH) 2 + CaCO 3 Noncarbonate hardness: MgSO 4 + Ca(OH) 2 Mg(OH) 2 + CaSO 4 MgCl 2 + Ca(OH) 2 Mg(OH) 2 + CaCl 2

9 PROCESS LIMITATIONS Lime-soda softening cannot produce a water completely free of hardness because of the solubility of CaCO 3 and Mg(OH) 2 The physical limitation of mixing and contact The lack of sufficient time for reactions to go completion. Thus, Min Ca hardness = 30 mg/l as CaCO 3 Min Mg Hardness = 10 mg/l as CaCO 3 Our goal is from 75 to 120 mg/l as CaCO 3 Add min. excess lime of 20 mg/l as CaCO 3 Max Mg = 40 mg/l as CaCO 3

10 PROCESS LIMITATIONS Excess lime needed for Mg to be removed < 20 mg/l excess lime = 20 mg/l as CaCO3 From 20 to 40 mg/l = equal to Mg to be removed >40 = 40 mg/l as CaCO3 Chemical addition Reason Lime = CO 2 Destroy H 2 CO 3 Lime = HCO - 3 Raise ph; convert HCO - 3 to CO 2-3 Lime = Mg 2+ to be removed Raise ph; precipitate Mg(OH) 2 Lime = required excess Derive reaction Soda = noncarbonate hardness to be removed Provide CO 3 2-

11 EXAMPLE From the water analysis presented below, determine the amount of line and soda (in mg/l as CaCO 3 ) necessary to soften the water to mg/l hardness as CaCO 3. Water composition (mg/l) Ca 2+ : CO 2 : HCO 3- : Mg 2+ : SO 2-4 : Na + : Cl - : 67.81

12 SOLUTION First convert the elements and compounds to CaCO 3 equivalents. Ion mg/l as ion EW CaCO 3 /EW ion mg/l as CaCO 3 Ca 2+ : Mg 2+ : Na + : HCO 3- : SO 2-4 : Cl - : CO 2 :

13 SOLUTION Draw a bar chart Ca 2+ CO 2 HCO - 3 SO 4 - Mg 2+ Na + Cl - Mg/L as CaCO Mg/L as CaCO 3

14 SOLUTION From the bar chart we notice that Total hardness (TH) = mg/l The carbonate hardness (CH) = mg/l The noncarbonate hardness (NCH) = TH CH NCH = = mg/l

15 SOLUTION Chemical addition Lime = CO Lime = HCO Lime = Mg = Lime = excess 20 Total lime required NCH needed to be removed NCH left = Final hardness (80.00 mg/l) CH left due limitations (40.00 mg/l): NCH f = mg/l Thus, mg/l may be left NCH removed = NCH initial NCH left NCH R = = mg/l Thus, soda to be added is mg/l as CaCO3 Dose (mg/l as CaCO3)

16 SPLIT TREATMENT

17 OTHER TREATMENT METHODS Ion exchange Fluoridation Iron & Manganese removal Activated Carbon Adsorption Air striping Dissolved air floatation Aeration Reverse osmosis and Nanofiltration Membrane filtration

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