Opportunities and Challenges of Lean Combustion in Automotive IC Engines. Russ Durrett GM Global R&D

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1 Opportunities and Challenges of Lean Combustion in Automotive IC Engines Russ Durrett GM Global R&D 1

2 Intro Diesel Advantage Over Gasoline Data from EPA show approximately 30% reduction in gallons/100 miles for diesel (approx. 40% higher MPG) Why is a diesel engine more efficient that a conventional gasoline engine? Common answers: No throttling losses Higher compression ratio These are contributors, but the lean combustion process of the diesel engine is the main factor leading to the efficiency gain Laboratory 55/45 Fuel Consumption vs. Vehicle Weight approx. 30% red. Source: Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2012, EPA,

3 Intro Diesel Advantage Over Gasoline Use cycle simulation to look at the independent effects of: Throttling Compression ratio Lean combustion Engine configuration: 2 liter, in-line 4 cylinder CR = 9.5 Port fuel injected Wiebe heat release Woschni heat transfer Chen-Flynn friction 98% Comb. Efficiency 2000 RPM / 5 bar BMEP operating condition 3

4 Intro Diesel Advantage Over Gasoline Four cases modeled 1. Baseline case throttled, iometric, CR = Un-throttled case - use to un-throttle the engine 3. High CR case - increase CR from 9.5 to Lean case - increase lambda from 1.0 to 2.0 4

5 Percent of Fuel Energy Intro Diesel Advantage Over Gasoline Four cases modeled 1. Baseline case throttled, iometric, CR = Un-throttled case - use to un-throttle the engine 3. High CR case - increase CR from 9.5 to Lean case - increase lambda from 1.0 to 2.0 Effects are cumulative for the 4 cases 100% 90% Bars show percentage of fuel energy going to: 80% 70% Brake work Friction losses Heat transfer losses (coolant) Exhaust thermal losses Exhaust chemical losses 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 29.0 % 30.7 % 32.7 % 37.0 % Exh Chem. Exh Thermal Heat Transfer Friction Brake 0% thrott CR = 9.5 CR = 9.5 CR = 16 lean CR = 16 5

6 Percent of Baseline Fuel Energy Intro Diesel Advantage Over Gasoline Four cases modeled 1. Baseline case throttled, iometric, CR = Un-throttled case - use to un-throttle the engine 3. High CR case - increase CR from 9.5 to Lean case - increase lambda from 1.0 to 2.0 Effects are cumulative for the 4 cases 100% 90% 94.5 % 88.8 % Bars re-scaled to show equal brake work for all cases 80% 70% 78.6 % This reflects the actual fuel energy used in the 4 cases 60% 50% Exh Chem. Exh Thermal 40% 30% Heat Transfer Friction Brake 20% 10% 0% thrott CR = 9.5 CR = 9.5 CR = 16 lean CR = 16 6

7 Percent of Baseline Fuel Energy Intro Diesel Advantage Over Gasoline Four cases modeled 1. Baseline case throttled, iometric, CR = Un-throttled case - use to un-throttle the engine 3. High CR case - increase CR from 9.5 to Lean case - increase lambda from 1.0 to 2.0 Effects are cumulative for the 4 cases 100% 90% 94.5 % 88.8 % Bars re-scaled to show equal brake work for all cases 80% 70% 78.6 % This reflects the actual fuel energy used in the 4 cases 60% 50% Exh Chem. Exh Thermal 40% 30% Heat Transfer Friction Brake 20% 10% 0% thrott CR = 9.5 CR = 9.5 CR = 16 lean CR = 16 7

8 Percent of Baseline Fuel Energy BTE Improvement Over Baseline Intro Diesel Advantage Over Gasoline Cumulative gains in brake thermal efficiency: 6% from un-throttling 7% from increased CR 15% from lean combustion Total gain of 27% 100% 0.0% 5.8% 12.6% 27.3% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Over half of the gain comes from the lean combustion process 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% Exh Chem. Exh Thermal 40% 30% Heat Transfer Friction Brake 20% 10% 0% thrott CR = 9.5 CR = 9.5 CR = 16 lean CR = 16 8

9 Why Lean Combustion Increased dilution improves isentropic efficiency by lowering temperatures and increasing gamma Switching from exhaust dilution to air dilution improves isentropic efficiency by increasing gamma Increased dilution improves the indicated efficiency by lowering temperatures and decreasing heat losses Source: Foster Combustion Engine Efficiency Colloquium DOE,

10 Why Lean Combustion Increased dilution improves isentropic efficiency by lowering temperatures and increasing gamma Switching from exhaust dilution to air dilution improves isentropic efficiency by increasing gamma Increased dilution improves the indicated efficiency by lowering temperatures and decreasing heat losses Ignition and flame propagation limit the potential of traditional homogeneous, flame propagation based combustion systems Operating lean with high levels of dilution can improve vehicle-level efficiency by about 15% Lean w/o EGR Lean w/ EGR Stoichiometric w/ EGR Source: Foster Combustion Engine Efficiency Colloquium DOE, 2010 Stoichiometric w/o EGR 10

11 Why Lean Combustion To maximize efficiency we must migrate to air dilution and use levels of dilution beyond the limits of traditional homogeneous ignition and flame propagation Operating lean with high levels of dilution can improve vehicle-level efficiency by about 15% Lean w/ EGR Isentropic Stoichiometric w/ EGR Indicated Stoichiometric w/o EGR 13% 3% 11

12 Challenges of Lean Combustion Lean combustion offers a significant efficiency advantage as described However, there are also several challenges associated with implementing the technology in a practical light duty automotive application: Combustion stability and robustness over a wide operating range Boosting system requirements Controls requirements (including sensors & actuators) Low exhaust temperature Advanced lean aftertreatment Cold start and transient operation 12

13 Lean Combustion Alternatives To maximize ICE efficiency it is necessary to operate lean (air dilution) with overall dilution levels beyond the limits of traditional homogeneous flame propagation combustion modes Combustion Technology Lean SI Gasoline Lean SI Stratified Charge Gasoline SI-HCCI Gasoline Gasoline CIDI RCCI CIDI PCCI / LTC Diesel CIDI Traditional Diesel CIDI Key Challenges Ignition and flame propagation limits along with emission challenges Combustion robustness and emission challenges Combustion control and NVH challenges Combustion control and NVH challenges Multi-fuel requirement and emission challenges Emission and NVH challenges Emissions challenges 13

14 Equivalence Ratio (phi) The Combustion Control Challenge To maximize the fuel economy potential of the ICE while minimizing emissions we must operate in a narrow range of equivalence ratios and temperatures We must avoid rich diffusion flames We must avoid high temperature homogeneous propagating flames We must maintain sufficient temperature for complete oxidations We must maintain these ideal conditions over all operating conditions Soot reduction via increased mixing CO / UHC oxidation limit Soot formation zone NOx reduction via dilution NOx zone Temperature (K) Source: Kamimoto and Bae SAE

15 The Lean Combustion NVH Challenge To meet the goals of advanced lean combustion, the global community is exploring a range of LTC concepts SI-HCCI, Gasoline CIDI, PCCI, RCCI All these concepts are challenged by operating domain constraints combustion issues at low loads & temperatures and dilution/noise issues at high loads All these concepts require sophisticated injection and control systems to regulate in-cylinder conditions All these concepts are sensitive to ambient conditions and fuel properties RCCI Mapping, Curran, Gao, Wagner, Oak Ridge National Labs 15

16 The Exhaust Temperature Challenge Increasing the fraction of fuel energy that does useful work means reducing the energy in the exhaust and this poses aftertreatment performance challenges 16

17 Fuel Efficiency The Exhaust Oxygen Challenge Increasing the extent of lean operation to enhance fuel economy poses significant aftertreatment cost and robustness challenges Lean NO x Trap High PGM cost Sulfur poisoning Desulfation required Narrow temperature window Conventional TWC Poor NO x efficiency with DFCO/Lean-idle Urea-Free SCR Low PGM cost No sulfur poisoning No secondary tank Urea-SCR Secondary urea tank with injection system; high urea consumption for gasoline Urea solution freezing Exhaust Oxygen Content 17

18 Conclusions and Future Research Needs Developing robust, cost-effective, lean combustion technologies for automotive gasoline engines will be challenging but the fuel economy benefits are significant In-cylinder emissions control is important Challenges for engine optimization: Robust combustion control over all operating conditions Robust emissions control over all operating conditions Good fuel consumption under real world driving conditions Low combustion noise Exhaust temperature This will require a coordinated effort between air handling, combustion, aftertreatment and controls a system optimization approach In order to do this work effectively it is important to focus research on fundamental insights that have long-term value critical to achieving upper-bound efficiency and lower-bound emissions 18

19 Questions? 19

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