1 Aquatic Animal Biosecurity: FAO s s Mission, Vision and Activities Rohana Subasinghe Melba Reantaso FAO, Rome
2 What is Biosecurity? FAO defines Biosecurity as a strategic and integrated approach that encompasses the policy and regulatory frameworks for analysing and managing relevant risks to human, animal and plant life and health, and associated risks to the environment.
3 What is Biosecurity? Biosecurity covers food safety, zoonoses, introduction of animal and plant diseases and pests, introduction and release of living modified organisms (LMOs) and their products, and introduction and management of invasive alien species.
4 What is Biosecurity? Therefore, biosecurity is a holistic concept of direct relevance to the sustainability of agriculture (food production), wide-ranging aspects of public health and the protection of the environment including biological diversity.
5 Goal of Biosecurity The overarching goal of biosecurity is to prevent, control and/or manage risks to life and health as appropriate to the particular biosecurity sector. In this regard, biosecurity is an essential element of sustainable agricultural (food production) development.
6 Factors Influencing Biosecurity There are many factors which influence biosecurity: Globalization, New technologies, Increased trade, travel and movement across borders, Advances in communications, Greater public attention to biodiversity, the environment and the impact of agriculture (food production), and Legal obligations of the governments as signatories to relevant international agreements (e.g. WTO s SPS Agreement and TBT Agreement, CBD and Cartagena Protocol on Food Safety)
7 Factors Influencing Biosecurity All above factors and issues demand for a shift from country-independence to countryinterdependence for effective biosecurity This requires an integrated approach to biosecurity
8 Integrated Approach to Biosecurity Other Government Activities Competent Authorities Public Opinion Science Research Academia Integrated Biosecurity Approach Industry NGOs Civil Society Groups Media Primary Producers
9 Biosecurity Linkages Improved Public Health Enhanced International Trade Cross-sectoral sectoral Biosecurity Improved Agricultural Production Protection of the Environment
10 A change! Therefore, effective and efficient implementation of biosecurity requires a strong and clear shift towards an integrated risk-based approach!
11 Who is driving this change? A number of interconnected factors drive the moves towards a harmonized and integrated food chain approach to biosecurity in food production at the national level. Greater awareness of the consequences of a breakdown in security at one point in the food chain for the rest of the chain is a core driver.
12 Who is driving for change? This is particularly relevant when production systems are specialized, concentrated and connected, Increasing numbers of people, animals and goods are crossing borders, The global food trade is continuing to expand, and The general public is taking more interest in sanitary and phytosanitary issues.
13 Who is driving for change? The increasing convergence of human, animal, plant and environmental health issues is motivating some governments to: share scarce biosecurity technical resources, develop nationally integrated responses to biosecurity problems and develop new international strategic alliances.
14 As I mentioned earlier... Biosecurity covers food safety, zoonoses, the introduction of animal and plant diseases and pests, the introduction and release of living modified organisms (LMOs) and their products, and the introduction and management of invasive alien species and environmental protection. Let s look at the ones important to us... the fish people...
15 Food Safety Biosecurity systems for food safety must control hazards of biological, chemical and physical origin in imported food, food produced domestically and food that is exported. This is a different scenario to other biosecurity sectors where controls are developed primarily for biological hazards only.
16 Food Safety Despite considerable investment by governments in food safety, illnesses arising from biological hazards in the global food supply are still common. The occurrence of some of these seems to have increased significantly in recent years FAO works closely with WHO and host the Secretariat for the CAC, which sets global standards for food safety.
17 Zoonoses There are a number of possible means of transmission of zoonoses, but food and water are by far the most common vehicles. There are many emerging zoonoses FAO works closely with OIE and WHO on addressing the global zoonoses and responding to emergencies.
18 Animal Health Animal health biosecurity is concerned with import, domestic and export health controls. Veterinary administrations have generally been the competent authority responsible for animal health, although fisheries authorities take responsibility for aquatic animal health in many countries. While OIE sets global standards on aquatic animal health, FAO provides assistance to countries to improve compliance and address national and regional animal health management needs.
19 LMOs and their Products LMOs are increasingly being released on a worldwide basis. While there are many potential benefits for human well-being and achieving sustainable economic development, their proliferation could have unintended adverse effects.
20 LMOs and their Products Regulatory requirements covering the safe transfer, handling and use of LMOs resulting from modern biotechnology are a new focus point in biosecurity. Such requirements trigger strong cross-sectoral interest in more holistic approaches to their management. FAO runs the Secretariat on World Animal Genetic Resources.
21 Invasive Alien Species Protection of biodiversity includes the introduction, control or eradication of exotic, invasive species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or other species. Strategic emphasis is therefore placed on prevention of introductions, rather than eradication, mitigation or containment once an invasive alien species is established. FAO works with CBD in addressing global IAS issues and assist members to deal with them.
22 Environmental Protection Environmental protection in a broad sense is also a biosecurity activity, especially during management of biological resources to ensure sustainable agriculture development. FAO address environmental issues of food production, an all sectors, including animal production.
23 Aquatic Animal Biosecurity Aquatic animal biosecurity encompasses all above mentioned aspects: Animal health Food safety LMOs and GMOs Invasive alien species Introduction and movement of species Environmental protection Therefore, it is highly cross-secroral and also requires an integrated approach!
24 Why Aquatic Animal Biosecurity is Important? Aquatic animal biosecurity has become important mainly due to global increase in aquatic food production through aquaculture,, potential disease threats to the industry and increasing trade in aquatic food products.
25 Aquaculture Aquaculture still is the fastest growing food producing sector in the world. Aquaculture now accounts for almost 50% of the global food fish. In million tonnes of aquatic animals worth USD 78.8 billion were produced globally.
26 Aquaculture Given the projected population growth, an additional 27 million tonnes of aquatic food will be required by 2030,, at least to maintain the current per caput consumption. This additional volume has to come from AQUACULTURE!
27 Aquaculture Contribution of aquaculture to food-fish supply % Supply from aquaculture Supply from capture Share of aquaculture (%) 45% 40% 35% Million tonnes % 25% 20% 15% 20 10% 5% %
28 FAO Activities in Aquatic Animal Biosecurity FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF) provides provisions for improving national, regional and global aquatic animal biosecurity
29 FAO Activities in Aquatic Animal Biosecurity FAO provides technical assistance and advice to members to implement the provisions given in the CCRF.
30 FAO Activities in Aquatic Animal Biosecurity FAO assist members to improve national aquatic animal biosecurity frameworks policy, legal and institutional frameworks better risk analysis capacity building and training in the competent authorities and enhance linkages for international standard setting.
31 Specific Examples White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in penaeid shrimp Koi Herpes Virus (KHV) in Indonesia Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) in Africa
32 Global Distribution of WSSV USA Mexico Colombia Ecuador Guatemala Honduras Nicaragua Panama Peru Brazil India, Bangladesh, Iran, Sri Lanka China Thailand Malaysia Indonesia Myanmar Philippines Japan Taiwan South Korea
33 WSSV in Penaeid Shrimp FAO provided grant and technical assistance to many countries to develop measures to deal with national situations Capacity Manuals SOPs BMPs
34 WSSV in Penaeid Shrimp Small-scale shrimp farm cluster management programme and BMP application in Asia Joint activity Based on epidemiological approach to health management
35 Expansion to 5 states 2001 Survey 365 ponds Nellore n West God. Risk factors BMPs Farm level demonstr ation 5 farmers 10 ponds 7 Ha 4 tonnes Contract hatchery Seed Production Village level extension 1 Village 1 Aquaclub 58 farmers 108 ponds 58 Ha 22 tonnes Pilot traceability Creek level extension 6 Villages 7 Aquaclubs 130 farmers 254 ponds 173 Ha 40 tonnes 2005 Expansion to other states AP KA GU 2005 State level expansion 3 States 19 Aquaclubs 736 farmers 1187 ponds 663 Ha 672 tonnes OR AP 2006 TN States 28 Aquaclubs 730 farmers 1370 ponds 813 Ha 870 t KA GU NaCSA National Centre for Sustainable Aquaculture 100 societies t
36 KHV in Indonesia KHV is a classical example of a disease that originated from an ornamental fish to cultured fish to wild fisheries A strong evidence of ornamental fish as a significant vector for viral diseases Ornamental fish trade is unregulated An outbreak of KHV occurred in Indonesia in 2003
37 FAO assisted in: KHV in Indonesia Advice on reducing the risk of spreading the disease Infrastructure development Improving policy and legal frameworks Risk assessment, surveillance, epidemiology and diagnosis Capacity building and training
38 KHV in Indonesia The KHV outbreak in Indonesia led to a securing a regional approach to emergency preparedness and response to aquatic animal disease outbreaks.
39 EUS in Africa Zambezi River is the 4th longest river in Africa River flows through Angola, Zambia, Namibia, Botswana, Malawi, Zimbabwe and Mozambique 32 million people inhabiting the river valley; 80 percent dependant on agriculture Almost all of them involved in river fishing and fisheries
42 EUS in Africa River is very important for local livelihood, riverine fish for food and nutrition Home to more than 200 fish species A major fish-kill occurred in Chobe part of Zambezi river in late On the request of Botswana and Namibia, in May 2007, FAO formed a Task Force in collaboration with the OIE Reference Laboratory on EUS in Thailand and fielded an investigation mission
43 EUS in Africa
44 EUS in Africa
45 EUS in Africa EUS in Chobe Zambezi was confirmed by OIE Reference Laboratory for EUS, in June 2007 FAO provided a regional emergency project which included; basic training on diagnosis of EUS targeted surveillance for EUS capacity building on basic health management risk analysis in aquaculture health management, etc. FAO works closely with OIE and OIE-Africa on improving aquatic veterinary capacity in the Zambezi countries
46 EUS in Africa
47 EUS in Africa
48 USA since 1978 Africa: since 2006 Asia: since 1971
49 EUS in Africa FAO is now working with OIE and will hold a High-Level Meeting of Fisheries and Veterinary Authorities in Zambezi basin in October 2009 in Namibia to discuss development of a Regional Biosecurity Strategy and a Framework towards strengthening national policy and legal frameworks and enhancing national veterinary capacity.
50 More FAO Work!
51 More FAO Work!
52 More FAO Work!
53 More FAO Work!
54 More FAO Work!
55 Plan to attend: Thank You! 9-12 June, 2010 Bangkok, Thailand