Echinoderms and Chordates

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1 Echinoderms and Chordates

2 Echinoderms Sea stars and most other echinoderms are slowmoving or sessile marine animals A thin epidermis covers an endoskeleton of hard calcareous plates Echinoderms have a unique water vascular system, a network of hydraulic canals branching into tube feet that function in locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange Males and females are usually separate, and sexual reproduction is external

3 Fig Central disk Digestive glands Anus Stomach Spine Gills Madreporite Ring canal Gonads Radial nerve Radial canal Tube feet Ampulla Podium

4 Living echinoderms are divided into six classes: Asteroidia (sea stars) Ophiuroidea (brittle stars) Echinoidea (sea urchins and sand dollars) Crinoidea (sea lilies and feather stars) Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers) Concentricycloidea (sea daisies)

5 Fig (a) A sea star (class Asteroidea) (b) A brittle star (class Ophiuroidea) (c) A sea urchin (class Echinoidea) (d) A feather star (class Crinoidea) (e) A sea cucumber (class Holothuroidea) (f) A sea daisy (class Concentricycloidea)

6 Sea Stars Sea stars, class Asteroidea, have multiple arms radiating from a central disk The undersurfaces of the arms bear tube feet, each of which can act like a suction disk Sea stars can regrow lost arms

7 Fig a (a) A sea star (class Asteroidea)

8 Chordates Phylum Chordata consists of two subphyla of invertebrates as well as hagfishes and vertebrates Chordates share many features of embryonic development with echinoderms, but have evolved separately for at least 500 million years

9 Chordates have a notochord and a dorsal, hollow nerve cord Vertebrates are a subphylum within the phylum Chordata Chordates are bilaterian animals that belong to the clade of animals known as Deuterostomia Two groups of invertebrate deuterostomes, the urochordates and cephalochordates, are more closely related to vertebrates than to other invertebrates

10 Derived Characters of Chordates All chordates share a set of derived characters Some species have some of these traits only during embryonic development Four key characters of chordates: Notochord Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Pharyngeal slits or clefts Muscular, post-anal tail

11 Lancelets Lancelets (Cephalochordata) are named for their bladelike shape They are marine suspension feeders that retain characteristics of the chordate body plan as adults

12 Fig Cirri 2 cm Mouth Pharyngeal slits Atrium Notochord Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Digestive tract Atriopore Segmental muscles Anus Tail

13 Tunicates Tunicates (Urochordata) are more closely related to other chordates than are lancelets They are marine suspension feeders commonly called sea squirts As an adult, a tunicate draws in water through an incurrent siphon, filtering food particles

14 Fig An adult tunicate Incurrent siphon to mouth Excurrent siphon Atrium Pharynx with slits Tunic Water flow Excurrent siphon Anus Intestine Esophagus Stomach Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Incurrent siphon Excurrent siphon Pharynx with slits A tunicate larva Notochord Atrium Tail Muscle segments Intestine Stomach

15 Tunicates most resemble chordates during their larval stage, which may last only a few minutes

16 Derived Characters of Vertebrates Vertebrates have the following derived characters: Vertebrae enclosing a spinal cord An elaborate skull Pectoral and pelvic appendages

17 Jawless fish- Class Agnatha Lampreys represent the oldest living lineage of vertebrates They are jawless vertebrates inhabiting various marine and freshwater habitats They have cartilaginous segments surrounding the notochord and arching partly over the nerve cord

18 Fig

19 Chondrichthyans (Sharks, Rays, and Their Relatives) Chondrichthyans (Chondrichthyes) have a skeleton composed primarily of cartilage The cartilaginous skeleton evolved secondarily from an ancestral mineralized skeleton The largest and most diverse group of chondrichthyans includes the sharks, rays, and skates Placoid dermal scales Lateral line sense vibrations

20 Fig Pectoral fins Pelvic fins (a) Blacktip reef shark (Carcharhinus melanopterus) (b) Southern stingray (Dasyatis americana) (c) Spotted ratfish (Hydrolagus colliei)

21 Class Osteichthyes ---- Bony Fish Nearly all living osteichthyans have a bony endoskeleton Aquatic osteichthyans are the vertebrates we informally call fishes Most fishes breathe by drawing water over gills protected by an operculum Fishes control their buoyancy with an air sac known as a swim bladder

22 Fig Brain Spinal cord Swim bladder Dorsal fin Adipose fin (characteristic of trout) Caudal fin Nostril Cut edge of operculum Gills Kidney Heart Liver Stomach Intestine Gonad Pelvic fin Anus Urinary bladder Lateral line Anal fin

23 Class Amphibia Amphibians (class Amphibia) are represented by about 6,150 species

24 Amphibian means both ways of life, referring to the metamorphosis of an aquatic larva into a terrestrial adult Most amphibians have moist skin that complements the lungs in gas exchange Fertilization is external in most species, and the eggs require a moist environment

25 Fig (a) Tadpole (b) During metamorphosis (c) Mating adults

26 Class Reptilia The reptiles includes the tuataras, lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodilians, birds, and the extinct dinosaurs Reptiles have scales that create a waterproof barrier They lay shelled eggs on land: amniotic eggs

27 Fig (a) Tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) (b) Australian thorny devil lizard (Moloch horridus) (c) Wagler s pit viper (Tropidolaemus wagleri) (d) Eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) (e) American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)

28 Most reptiles are ectothermic, absorbing external heat as the main source of body heat and poikilothermic Birds are endothermic, capable of keeping the body warm through metabolism and homeothermic

29 Birds: Class Aves Almost every feature of their reptilian anatomy has undergone modification in their adaptation to flight

30 Derived Characters of Birds Many characters of birds are adaptations that facilitate flight The major adaptation is wings with keratin feathers Other adaptations include lack of a urinary bladder, females with only one ovary, small gonads, and loss of teeth

31 Derived Characters of Class Mammalia Mammals have Mammary glands, which produce milk Hair A larger brain than other vertebrates of equivalent size Differentiated teeth Homeothermic endothermic Most have placenta Diaphragm separating abdominal and thoracic cavities

32 Monotremes Monotremes are a small group of egg-laying mammals consisting of echidnas and the platypus

33 Marsupials Marsupials include oppossums, kangaroos, and koalas The embryo develops within a placenta in the mother s uterus A marsupial is born very early in its development It completes its embryonic development while nursing in a maternal pouch called a marsupium

34 Eutherians (Placental Mammals) Compared with marsupials, eutherians have a longer period of pregnancy Young eutherians complete their embryonic development within a uterus, joined to the mother by the placenta

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