Echinoderms and Chordates: Introduction to the phylum and fishes (pp , )

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1 Echinoderms and Chordates: Introduction to the phylum and fishes (pp , ) echinoderms Sharks Bony fishes Lancelet

2 Figure 34.1: phylogeny of the Deuterostomes Deuterostomes Protostomes Animals that are not vertebrates are collectively known as invertebrates. Over 95% of the known animal species are invertebrates, including the echinoderms, hemichordates, and xenoturbellids. Coelom Triploblasty Bilateral symmetry Deuterostome development This phylum includes vertebrates: sharks, bony fishes, amphibians, reptiles (including birds), and mammals

3 Echinoderms have a water vascular system. Podia project from the underside of the body. Opening to exterior Tube foot Podia Podia Figure 34.3

4 Mutable connective tissue Left photo: when first touched or handled, the sea cucumber stiffens its connective tissue. Right photo: after being rubbed vigorously, the body becomes so soft that it flows between the experimenters fingers.

5 Echinoderm diversity: Class Asteroidea (Sea stars)

6 Echinoderm diversity: Class Echinoidea (sea urchins, sand dollars)

7 Sea urchin eating kelp

8 Echinoderm diversity: Class Echinoidea To really understand how cool sea urchins are, I must tell you a story about keystone species: Grams per 0.25 Otter number m 2 (% max. count) (a) Sea otter abundance (b) Sea urchin biomass sea otters as keystone species in the N. Pacific Number per 0.25 m Year Food chain before killer (c) Total kelp density whale involvement in chain Food chain after killer whales started preying on otters

9 Prey shift in killer whales after sea otters numbers have diminished.

10 Echinoderm diversity: Class Holothuroidea (Sea cucumbers)

11 Bizarre defense mechanisms in sea cucumbers: 1. Expel cuverian tubules 2. Eviscerate

12 Tardigrades (water bears) are very small animals that live on moss. They have segmented bodies and unjointed limbs. They grow by molting. Who are they most closely related to? a. arthropods b. platyhelminthes c. annelids d. Mollusks e. nematodes

13 Figure 34.1: The other large Deuterostome phylum, the Chordata Deuterostomes Protostomes Animals that are not vertebrates are collectively known as invertebrates. Over 95% of the known animal species are invertebrates, including the echinoderms, hemichordates, and xenoturbellids. Coelom Triploblasty Bilateral symmetry Deuterostome development This phylum includes vertebrates: sharks, bony fishes, amphibians, reptiles (including birds), and mammals

14 the 4 chordate characteristics

15 Sub-phylum Urochordata: the sea squirts or tunicates They are sessile and often colonial

16 Sea squirts possess pharyngeal slits: Fig 34.5a: But where is the notochord? The dorsal hollow nerve cord? the postanal tail?

17 The larvae has them! Urochordata (tunicates) Water flow Larva Pharyngeal gill slits Fig Adult Dorsal hollow nerve cord Water flow Notochord Pharyngeal gill slits Muscular, post-anal tail

18 Subphylum Cephalochordata: the lancelets Lancelet (Branchiostoma or Amphioxus) Fig. 34.5b

19 Radial symmetry Water vascular system Loss of pharyngeal gill slits Echinoderms Protostomes Outgroups to Chordata Acorn worms Deuterostomes Fig : Vertebrates possess elaborate heads with large brains and a cranium, and a vertebral column. Pharyngeal gill slits Dorsal hollow nerve cord Notochord Muscular, post-anal tail Loss of pharyngeal gill slits Xenoturbella Lancelets Tunicates Hagfish VERTEBRATA Lampreys Vertebrae, cranium Sharks, rays, skates GNATHOSTOMATA Jaws Ray finned fishes SARCOPTERYGII Lungs, internal bone (endoskeleton) Coelacanths Lungfish Lobed fins AMPHIBIA Frogs, toads TETRAPODA Salamanders Limbs Lactation, fur Mammals AMNIOTA Amniotic egg REPTILIA Lizards, snakes Scales with hard keratin Turtles Alligators, crocodiles Birds

20 Lampreys (jawless vertebrates) Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) invaded Lake Ontario in 1830 from the sea. When the Welland Canal was built to bypass Niagara falls (1919), they migrated to the rest of the lakes. The catch of lake trout dropped from 15 million pounds at the beginning of the 20th century to 300,000 in the 60s.

21 Spread of lampreys

22 Radial symmetry Water vascular system Loss of pharyngeal gill slits Echinoderms Protostomes Outgroups to Chordata Acorn worms Deuterostomes Fig : Vertebrates possess elaborate heads with large brains and a cranium and a vertebral column. Pharyngeal gill slits Dorsal hollow nerve cord Notochord Muscular, post-anal tail Loss of pharyngeal gill slits Xenoturbella Lancelets Tunicates Hagfish VERTEBRATA Lampreys The Gnathostomata are vertebrates that possess jaws. Vertebrae, cranium Jaws Lungs, internal bone (endoskeleton) Sharks, rays, skates Ray finned fishes Coelacanths GNATHOSTOMATA SARCOPTERYGII Lungfish Lobed fins AMPHIBIA Frogs, toads TETRAPODA Salamanders Limbs Lactation, fur Mammals AMNIOTA Amniotic egg REPTILIA Lizards, snakes Scales with hard keratin Turtles Alligators, crocodiles Birds

23 EVOLUTION OF THE JAW Jawless vertebrate Fig : The vertebrate jaw likely evolved from 2 pairs of gill arches (skeletal structures that supported the phayrngeal gill slits) Gill arches Intermediate form (fossil acanthodian fish) Gill arches Mouth Jaw Fossil shark Gill arches Jaw

24 While snorkeling, you come across an animal that is bilaterally symmetrical, has segments, a coelom, does not molt, and whose blastopore forms the mouth. The animal could be a/an: a. Chordate b. annelid c. mollusk d. arthropod e. echinoderm

25 Class Chondrichthyes: Sharks, rays, and chimeras. chimeras rays sharks 750 species of the cartilagenous fishes.

26 The lateral line system that is used to detect tiny vibrations in the water Neuromasts (tiny pores that open into the lateral line)

27 Sharks have internal fertilization and a diversity of reproductive modes Claspers are paired sperm-transfer organs of male sharks Mating bull sharks viviparous oviparous: Shark eggs

28 Human propaganda..

29 Bony Vertebrates This clade include 3 taxa (classes) of fishes and tetrapods (amphibians, reptiles and mammals). Examples of fishes : Hypopocampus erectus

30 Radial symmetry Water vascular system Loss of pharyngeal gill slits Echinoderms Protostomes Outgroups to Chordata Acorn worms Deuterostomes Fig : Bony Vertebrates include 3 taxa of fish, and tetrapods (amphibians, mammals and reptiles): Pharyngeal gill slits Dorsal hollow nerve cord Notochord Muscular, post-anal tail Loss of pharyngeal gill slits Xenoturbella Lancelets Tunicates Hagfish VERTEBRATA Lampreys Vertebrae, cranium Sharks, rays, skates GNATHOSTOMATA Jaws Ray finned fishes SARCOPTERYGII Lungs, internal bone (endoskeleton) Coelacanths Lungfish Lobed fins AMPHIBIA Frogs, toads TETRAPODA Salamanders Limbs Lactation, fur Mammals AMNIOTA Amniotic egg REPTILIA Lizards, snakes Scales with hard keratin Turtles Alligators, crocodiles Birds

31 Radial symmetry Water vascular system Loss of pharyngeal gill slits Echinoderms Protostomes Outgroups to Chordata Acorn worms Deuterostomes Fig : Bony Vertebrates include 3 taxa of fish, and tetrapods (amphibians, mammals and reptiles): Pharyngeal gill slits Dorsal hollow nerve cord Notochord Muscular, post-anal tail Loss of pharyngeal gill slits Xenoturbella Lancelets Tunicates Hagfish VERTEBRATA Lampreys How would you describe the phylogeny of fish (highlighted in blue)? a. Aphyletic b. Monophyletic c. Oligophyletic d. Paraphyletic e. polyphyletic Vertebrae, cranium Jaws Lungs, internal bone (endoskeleton) Lobed fins Limbs Amniotic egg Scales with hard keratin Lactation, fur Sharks, rays, skates Ray finned fishes Coelacanths Lungfish AMPHIBIA Frogs, toads Salamanders Mammals REPTILIA Lizards, snakes Turtles Alligators, crocodiles GNATHOSTOMATA SARCOPTERYGII TETRAPODA AMNIOTA Birds

32 Radial symmetry Water vascular system Loss of pharyngeal gill slits Echinoderms Protostomes Outgroups to Chordata Acorn worms Deuterostomes Fig : Bony Vertebrates include the fish, and tetrapods (amphibians, mammals and reptiles): Pharyngeal gill slits Dorsal hollow nerve cord Notochord Muscular, post-anal tail Loss of pharyngeal gill slits Xenoturbella Lancelets Tunicates Hagfish VERTEBRATA Lampreys How would you describe the phylogeny of Chondricthyes (sharks)? a. Aphyletic b. Monophyletic c. Oligophyletic d. Paraphyletic e. polyphyletic Vertebrae, cranium Jaws Lungs, internal bone (endoskeleton) Lobed fins Limbs Amniotic egg Scales with hard keratin Lactation, fur Sharks, rays, skates Ray finned fishes Coelacanths Lungfish AMPHIBIA Frogs, toads Salamanders Mammals REPTILIA Lizards, snakes Turtles Alligators, crocodiles GNATHOSTOMATA SARCOPTERYGII TETRAPODA AMNIOTA Birds

33 Radial symmetry Water vascular system Loss of pharyngeal gill slits Echinoderms Protostomes Outgroups to Chordata Acorn worms Deuterostomes Fig : Bony Vertebrates include the fish, and tetrapods (amphibians, mammals and reptiles): Pharyngeal gill slits Dorsal hollow nerve cord Notochord Muscular, post-anal tail Loss of pharyngeal gill slits Xenoturbella Lancelets Tunicates Hagfish VERTEBRATA Lampreys Although, fishes are paraphyletic,the fish are composed of 6 monophyletic lineages (see 6 blue lines) Vertebrae, cranium Jaws Lungs, internal bone (endoskeleton) Lobed fins Sharks, rays, skates Ray finned fishes Coelacanths Lungfish AMPHIBIA Frogs, toads Salamanders GNATHOSTOMATA SARCOPTERYGII TETRAPODA Limbs Lactation, fur Mammals AMNIOTA Amniotic egg REPTILIA Lizards, snakes Scales with hard keratin Turtles Alligators, crocodiles Birds

34 operculum The ray-finned fishes have all sorts of fins that can be greatly modified. triggerfish Scorpion fish

35 Traits of ray-finned fishes: gills swimbladder

36 Radial symmetry Water vascular system Loss of pharyngeal gill slits Echinoderms Protostomes Outgroups to Chordata Acorn worms Deuterostomes Fig : The aquatic bony vertebrates also include the lungfishes (a lobe-finned fish). Pharyngeal gill slits Dorsal hollow nerve cord Notochord Muscular, post-anal tail Loss of pharyngeal gill slits Xenoturbella Lancelets Tunicates Hagfish VERTEBRATA Lampreys Vertebrae, cranium Sharks, rays, skates GNATHOSTOMATA Jaws Ray finned fishes SARCOPTERYGII Lungs, internal bone (endoskeleton) Coelacanths Lungfish Lobed fins AMPHIBIA Frogs, toads TETRAPODA Salamanders Limbs Lactation, fur Mammals AMNIOTA Amniotic egg REPTILIA Lizards, snakes Scales with hard keratin Turtles Alligators, crocodiles Birds

37 Lungfishes (6 species) are found in Africa, South America, and Australia. All have a pair of lungs.

38 Barreleye fish have a transparent forehead and eyes that can pivot!

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