ESS55: EARTH S ATMOSPHERE / Homework # 3 / (due 4/24/2014)

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1 ESS55: EARTH S ATMOSPHERE / Homework # 3 / (due 4/24/2014) Name Student ID: version: (1) (21) (41) (2) (22) (42) (3) (23) (43) (4) (24) (44) (5) (25) (45) (6) (26) (46) (7) (27) (47) (8) (28) (48) (9) (29) (49) (10) (30) (50) (11) (31) (12) (32) (13) (33) (14) (34) (15) (35) (16) (36) (17) (37) (18) (38) (19) (39) (20) (40)

2 2 ESS55: EARTH S ATMOSPHERE / Homework # 3 / (due 4/24/2014) 1. During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere, the "land of the midnight sun" would be found a. at high latitudes. b. at middle latitudes. c. near the equator. d. in the desert southwest. e. on the West Coast. 2. In the Northern Hemisphere, which of the following days has the fewest hours of daylight? a. summer solstice b. winter solstice c. vernal equinox d. autumnal equinox 3. During an equinox, a. the days and nights are of equal length except at the poles. b. at noon the sun is overhead at the equator. c. the earth is not tilted toward or away from the sun. 4. During the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, a. astronomical winter begins in the Northern Hemisphere. b. the noon sun is overhead at 23.5 S latitude. c. at middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, this marks the longest night of the year. 5. Which latitude below would experience the fewest hours of daylight on Dec. 22? a. 60 S b. 20 S c. 0 (Equator) d. 20 N e. 60 N 6. Considering each hemisphere as a whole, seasonal temperature variation in the Southern Hemisphere is that in the Northern Hemisphere. a. greater than b. about the same as c. less than 7. Which of the following helps to explain why even though northern latitudes experience 24 hours of sunlight on June 22, they are not warmer than latitudes further south? a. Solar energy is spread over a larger area in northern latitudes. b. Some of the sun's energy is reflected by snow and ice in the northern latitudes. c. Increased cloud cover reflects solar energy in the northern latitudes. d. Solar energy is used to melt frozen soil in the northern latitudes. e. all of the above

3 3 8. The sun is directly overhead at Mexico City (latitude 19 N) a. once a year. b. twice a year. c. four times a year. d. never. 9. The north-facing side of a hill in a mountainous region in the US tends to a. receive less sunlight during a year than the south-facing side. b. grow a variety of trees that are typically observed at higher elevation. c. be a better location for a ski run than the south-facing side. d. have snow on the ground for a longer period of time in winter compared to the southfacing side. e. all of the above 10. On what day would you expect the sun to be overhead at Lima, Peru (latitude 12 S)? a. August 15 b. December 22 c. February 4 d. March 10 e. April The maximum in daytime surface temperature typically occurs the earth receives its most intense solar radiation. a. before b. after c. exactly when 12. When it is January and winter in the Northern Hemisphere, it is and in the Southern Hemisphere. a. January, summer b. January, winter c. July, winter d. July, summer 13. The most important reason why summers in the Southern Hemisphere are not warmer than summers in the Northern Hemisphere is that a. the earth is closer to the sun in January. b. the earth is farther from the sun in July. c. over 80 percent of the Southern Hemisphere is covered with water. d. the sun's energy is less intense in the Southern Hemisphere. 14. For maximum winter warmth, in the Northern Hemisphere, large windows in a house should face a. north. b. south. c. east. d. west. 15. During a radiation inversion, wind machines a. bring warm air down toward the surface.

4 4 b. life cool, surface air to higher altitudes. c. mix the air near the ground. 16. Our seasons are caused by a. the changing distance between the earth and the sun. b. the angle at which sunlight reaches the earth. c. the length of the daylight hours. e. b and c 17. Incoming solar radiation in middle latitudes is less in winter than in summer because a. the sun's rays slant more and spread their energy over a larger area. b. the sun's rays are weakened by passing through a greater thickness of atmosphere. c. the cold dense air lowers the intensity of the sun's rays. e. a and b 18. Using sprinklers to prevent crop damage from cold air works best when a. the air is fairly humid. b. the air is fairly dry. 19. The earth is tilted at an angle of 23.5 with respect to the plane of its orbit around the sun. If the amount of tilt were increased to 40, we would expect in middle latitudes a. hotter summers and colder winters than at present. b. cooler summers and milder winters than at present. c. hotter summers and milder winters than at present. d. cooler summers and colder winters than at present. e. no appreciable change from present conditions. 20. Although the polar regions radiate away more heat energy than they receive by insolation in the course of a year, they are prevented from becoming progressively colder each year by the a. conduction of heat through the interior of the earth. b. concentration of earth's magnetic field lines at the poles. c. circulation of heat by the atmosphere and oceans. d. the insulating properties of snow. e. release of latent heat to the atmosphere when polar ice melts. 21. In July, at middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, the day is long and is with each passing day. a. less than 12 hours, getting longer b. less than 12 hours, getting shorter c. more than 12 hours, getting longer d. more than 12 hours, getting shorter 22. During the afternoon, the greatest temperature difference between the surface air and the air several meters above occurs on a a. clear, calm afternoon. b. clear, windy afternoon.

5 5 c. cloudy, calm afternoon. d. cloudy, windy afternoon. 23. The greatest variation in daily temperature usually occurs a. at the ground. b. about 5 feet above the ground. c. at the top of a high-rise apartment complex. d. at the level where thermals stop rising. 24. The daily minimum temperature is usually observed a. at the time of sunset. b. near midnight. c. several hours before sunrise. d. around sunrise. e. several hours after sunrise. 25. In clear weather, the air next to the ground is usually than the air above during the night and than the air above during the day. a. colder, warmer b. colder, colder c. warmer, colder d. warmer, warmer 26. Suppose yesterday morning you noticed ice crystals (frost) on the grass, yet the minimum temperature reported in the newspaper was only 35 F. The most likely reason for this apparent discrepancy is that a. temperature readings are taken in instrument shelters more than 5 feet above the ground. b. the thermometer was in error. c. the newspaper reported the wrong temperature. d. the thermometer was read before the minimum temperature was reached for that day. e. the thermometer was read incorrectly. 27. At what time during a 24-hour day would a radiation temperature inversion best be developed? a. at sunset b. near sunrise c. toward the end of the morning d. between 3 and 5 p.m. when the air temperature reaches a maximum 28. The lag in daily temperature refers to the time lag between the a. time of maximum solar radiation and the time of maximum temperature. b. time of minimum temperature and the time of maximum solar radiation. c. minimum and maximum temperature for a day. d. minimum and maximum solar energy received at the surface for a given day. e. sunrise and sunset. 29. Ideal conditions for a strong radiation inversion are a a. clear, calm, dry, winter night. b. clear, calm, moist, summer night. c. cloudy, calm, moist, winter night.

6 6 d. cloudy, windy, moist, summer night. e. clear, windy, dry, summer night. 30. On a clear, calm night, the ground and air above cool mainly by which process? a. evaporation b. reflection c. convection d. conduction e. radiation 31. In a hilly region, the best place to plant crops that are sensitive to low temperatures is a. on the valley floor. b. along the hillsides. c. on the top of the highest hill. d. in any dry location. 32. One would expect the lowest temperatures to be found next to the ground on a a. clear, damp, windy night. b. cloudy night. c. clear, dry, calm night. d. clear, dry, windy night. e. rainy night. 33. If tonight's temperature is going to drop into the middle 20s ( F) and a fairly stiff wind is predicted, probably the best way to protect an orchard against a hard freeze is to (assume that cost is not a factor) a. use helicopters. b. use wind machines. c. sprinkle the crops with water. d. put orchard heaters to work. e. pray for clouds. 34. An important reason for the large daily temperature range over deserts is a. there is little water vapor in the air to absorb and re-radiate infrared radiation. b. the light-colored sand radiates heat very rapidly at night. c. dry air is a very poor heat conductor. d. free convection cells are unable to form above the hot desert ground. e. the ozone content of desert air is very low. 35. Two objects, A and B, have the same mass but the specific heat of A is larger than B. If both objects absorb equal amounts of energy, a. A will become warmer than B. b. B will become warmer than A. c. both A and B will warm at the same rate. d. A will get warmer, but B will get colder. 36. Which of the following is NOT a reason why water warms and cools much more slowly than land? a. Solar energy penetrates more deeply into water.

7 7 b. Heat energy is mixed in a deeper layer of water. c. Water has a higher heat capacity. d. A portion of the solar energy that strikes water is used to evaporate it. e. It takes more heat to raise the temperature of a given amount of soil 1 C than it does to raise the temperature of water 1 C. 37. Over the earth as a whole, one would expect to observe the smallest variation in temperature from day to day and from month to month a. at the North Pole. b. in the center of a large land mass. c. along the Pacific coast of North America. d. high in the mountains in the middle of a continent. e. on a small island near the equator. 38. Hypothermia is most common in a. hot, humid weather. b. cold, wet weather. c. hot, dry weather. d. cold, dry weather. 39. The wind-chill factor a. relates body heat loss with wind to an equivalent temperature with no wind. b. indicates the temperature at which water freezes on exposed skin. c. takes into account humidity and air temperature in expressing the current air temperature. d. tells farmers when to protect crops from a freeze. e. determines how low the air temperature will be on any given day. 40. When a liquid thermometer is held in direct sunlight, a. it will accurately measure the air temperature. b. it will measure a much higher temperature than that of the air. c. it will measure a much lower temperature than that of the air. d. it will measure the temperature of the sun rather than the air. 41. An ideal shelter for housing a temperature-measurement instrument should be a. white. b. black. c. in the shade. d. both white and in the shade. e. both black and in the shade. 42. During summer near the North Pole, the sun is above the horizon in the mid-latitudes. a. for a longer period of time than b. for a shorter period of time than c. for the same amount of time as 43. On the summer solstice, the altitude of the noonday sun is highest a. near the North Pole. b. in the mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere. c. in the mid-latitudes of the southern hemisphere.

8 8 d. near the South Pole. 44. Longer days are generally associated with a. less insolation. b. fewer heating degree days. c. more insolation. 45. Which of the following latitudes is closer to the earth's axis? a. 0 N b. 40 N c. 60 N d. 90 N 46. At any given time, of the earth is illuminated by the sun. a. one-fourth b. one-third c. one-half d. two-thirds 47. In the northern hemisphere, north-facing hillsides have a growing season than south-facing hillsides. a. shorter b. longer 48. In the northern hemisphere, a solar panel should be placed on the side of the roof facing a. east. b. west. c. north. d. south. 49. Maximum daily temperatures under hazy skies are typically than those under clear skies. a. greater than b. less than 50. Water heats up and cools off than land. a. more quickly, more quickly b. more quickly, more slowly c. more slowly, more quickly d. more slowly, more slowly

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