The Skeletal System PART A. PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College

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1 PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Skeletal System 5 PART A

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4 The Axial Skeleton Forms the longitudinal axis of the body Divided into three parts Skull Vertebral column Bony thorax/thoracic cage

5 The Axial Skeleton Figure 5.6a

6 The Axial Skeleton Figure 5.6b

7 The Skull Two sets of bones 22 bones Cranium (8) Facial bones (14) Bones are joined by sutures interlocking, immovable joints (synarthrotic) Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint (diarthrotic)

8 Skull Facial Bones 1. Maxillae (2) around nose & hard palate - sockets where teeth are embedded 2. Palatine (2) posterior part of hard palate & floor of the nasal cavity 3. Zygomatic (2) cheekbones - temporal process of the zygomatic bone 4. Lacrimal (2) medial walls of orbits - where tears pass

9 Skull, (cont.) 5. Nasal (2) forms bridge of nose 6. Vomer (1) median of nose 7. Inferior Nasal Conchae (2) thin & curved - supports mucous membranes 8. Mandible (1) jaw bone

10 Cranial Bones (8) 1. Frontal (1) forehead 2. Parietal (2) superior skull/separated by suture - sagittal suture where parietal bones meet at the midline - coronal suture where parietal bones meet the frontal bone 1. Occipital (1) dorsal part of skull - foramen magnum large opening for spinal cord 4. Temporal (2) temples - styloid process attaches tongue & larynx muscles - mastoid process attaches neck muscles - external acoustic meatus opening for ear - zygomatic process of the temporal bone

11 Cranial bones (cont,) 5. Sphenoid (1) anterior sides & base of skull/in orbit 6. Ethmoid (1) roof of nasal cavity

12 Human Skull, Lateral View Figure 5.7

13 Human Skull, Superior View Figure 5.8

14 Human Skull, Inferior View Figure 5.9

15 Human Skull, Anterior View Figure 5.11

16 Skull Labeling *Include number of each bone* Parietal Sphenoid Ethmoid Lacrimal Temporal process Frontal Temporal Sagittal suture Coronal suture Foramen magnum Maxillae Palatine Vomer Zygomatic Process Nasal Styloid process Mandible Inferior nasal conchae Occipital Zygomatic External acoustic meatus Mastoid process

17 Paranasal Sinuses Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity Functions of paranasal sinuses Lighten the skull Give resonance and amplification to voice

18 Paranasal Sinuses Figure 5.10a

19 Paranasal Sinuses Figure 5.10b

20 The Fetal Skull The fetal skull is large compared to the infant s total body length Fontanels fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones Allow the brain to grow Convert to bone within 24 months after birth

21 The Fetal Skull Figure 5.13a

22 The Fetal Skull Figure 5.13b

23 The Hyoid Bone The only bone that does not articulate (join) with another bone Serves as a moveable base for the tongue Aids in swallowing and speech

24 The Hyoid Bone Figure 5.12

25 The Vertebral Column 26 in adults and 33 in infants Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location There are 24 single vertebral bones separated by intervertebral discs Seven cervical vertebrae are in the neck Twelve thoracic vertebrae are in the chest region Five lumbar vertebrae are associated with the lower back

26 1. Cervical vertebrae C1-C7-7 cervical vertebrae in the neck a. C1 atlas b. C2 axis

27 2. Thoracic vertebrae T1 T12-12 thoracic vertebrae in the chest 3. Lumbar vertebrae L1 L5-5 lumbar vertebrae in the lower back

28 The Vertebral Column Nine vertebrae fuse to form two composite bones Sacrum Coccyx

29 The Vertebral Column Figure 5.14

30 The Vertebral Column The spine has a normal curvature Primary curvatures are the spinal curvatures of the thoracic and sacral regions Present from birth Secondary curvatures are the spinal curvatures of the cervical and lumbar regions Develop after birth

31 The Vertebral Column Figure 5.15

32 Abnormal Spin Curvatures Homeostatic Imbalance These abnormalities may be; congenital (present at birth) Result from disease Poor posture Unequal muscle pull on the spine

33 The Vertebral Column Lateral curvature humpback swayback

34

35 Vertebrae All vertebrae have a similar structural pattern, their common features include the following: Body or centrum disclike, weight-bearing part of the vertebrae that faces anteriorly Vertebral arch formed from joining of posterior extensions, laminae and pedicles Vertebral foramen canal where spinal cord passes Transverse processes 2 lateral projections from the vertebral arch Spinous process single projection from the posterior aspenct of the vertebral arch Superior and inferior articular processes paired projections lateral to vertebral foramen

36 A Typical Vertebrae, Superior View Figure 5.17

37 Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Figure 5.18a

38 Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Figure 5.18b

39 Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Figure 5.18c

40 Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Figure 5.18d

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