The Skeletal System. Skull, Vertebral Column and Girdles Pages 27-29

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1 The Skeletal System Skull, Vertebral Column and Girdles Pages 27-29

2 Vertebral column Skull Thoracic cage (ribs and sternum) Sacrum Cranium Facial bones Clavicle Scapula Sternum Rib Humerus Vertebra Radius Ulna Carpals Phalanges Metacarpals Femur Patella Tibia Fibula (a) Anterior view Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges Figure 7.1a

3 Functions of the Skull Support Movement Protection

4 The Skull 22 bones, 2 groups 1. Cranial bones (8) Enclose the brain in the cranial cavity Provide sites of attachment for head and neck muscles Provide support

5 The Skull 2. Facial bones (14 bones) Framework of face Cavities for special sense organs of sight, taste, and smell Openings for air and food passage Sites of attachment for teeth and muscles of facial expression

6 Bones of cranium (cranial vault) Coronal suture Squamous suture Lambdoid suture Facial bones (a) Cranial and facial divisions of the skull Figure 7.2a

7 Frontal bone Parietal bone Nasal bone Sphenoid bone Temporal bone Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mandible Mental foramen (a) Anterior view Middle nasal concha Perpendicular plate Vomer Ethmoid bone Figure 7.4a

8 Coronal suture Parietal bone Temporal bone Lambdoid suture Squamous suture Occipital bone Zygomatic process Occipitomastoid suture External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Mandibular condyle Mandibular notch Mandibular ramus Mandibular angle Frontal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Alveolar margins Mandible Mental foramen Coronoid process (a) External anatomy of the right side of the skull Figure 7.5a

9 Cranial Bones Frontal bone Parietal bones (2) Occipital bone Temporal bones (2) Sphenoid bone Ethmoid bone

10 Facial Bones Mandible Maxillary bones (maxillae) (2) Zygomatic bones (2) Nasal bones (2) Lacrimal bones (2) Palatine bones (2) Vomer Inferior nasal conchae (2)

11 Sutures Immovable joints Become more complex with age Fontanelles Soft regions of connective tissue holding bones together at birth Permits Brain growth Entry into birth canal Normally replaced by bone by about 1 year of age

12 Foramina Allow passage of blood vessels and nerves About 85 named openings (foramina, canals, fissures) Largest is the foramen magnum

13 Ethmoid bone Cribriform plate Crista galli Frontal bone Olfactory foramina Sphenoid Lesser wing Greater wing Optic canal Hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica Temporal bone Internal acoustic meatus Parietal bone Foramen magnum View Occipital bone (a) Superior view of the skull, calvaria removed Figure 7.7a

14 Sinuses Lined with mucous membranes and ciliated epithelium Cavities in skull bones Frontal sinus Sphenoidal sinus Maxillary sinus Ethmoid air cells

15 Paranasal Sinuses Frontal sinus Ethmoidal air cells (sinus) Sphenoid sinus Maxillary sinus Frontal sinus Ethmoidal air cells Sphenoid sinus Maxillary sinus (a) Anterior aspect (b) Medial aspect Figure 7.15

16 Sinuses Sinusitis Paranasal sinuses Lighten the skull Resonation chambers for the voice

17 Hyoid bone Not technically part of the skull Suspended by muscles and ligaments Greater horn Lesser horn Body Figure 7.12

18 Vertebral Column Structure Vertebrae (26 bones) Intervertebral discs Functions Protection Support Movement

19 Transverse process Lamina Posterior Spinous process Vertebral arch Superior articular process and facet Pedicle Anterior Vertebral foramen Body (centrum) Figure 7.18

20 Supraspinous ligament Transverse process Sectioned spinous process Ligamentum flavum Interspinous ligament Intervertebral disc Anterior longitudinal ligament Intervertebral foramen Posterior longitudinal ligament Anulus fibrosus Nucleus pulposus Inferior articular process Sectioned body of vertebra Median section of three vertebrae, illustrating the composition of the discs and the ligaments Figure 7.17a

21 Spina Bifida

22 Vertebral Column Curvatures Increase the resilience and flexibility of the spine 2 posteriorly concave curvatures Cervical and lumbar 2 posteriorly convex curvatures Thoracic and sacral

23 C 1 Cervical curvature (concave) 7 vertebrae, C 1 C 7 Spinous process Transverse processes Thoracic curvature (convex) 12 vertebrae, T 1 T 12 Intervertebral discs Intervertebral foramen Lumbar curvature (concave) 5 vertebrae, L 1 L 5 Anterior view Sacral curvature (convex) 5 fused vertebrae sacrum Coccyx 4 fused vertebrae Right lateral view Figure 7.16

24 Vertebral Column Abnormal spine curvatures Scoliosis (abnormal lateral curve) Kyphosis (hunchback) Lordosis (swayback)

25 Questions?

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