PANTAI 2 SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT FEDERAL TERRITORY OF KUALA LUMPUR EEC

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2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS We have seen from the earlier presentation the project is a new Sewage Treatment Plant with the underground STP concept and with leisure and recreational park on top. At the conceptual/preliminary design stage, the Structural Engineers, Geotechnical Engineers, Architects and design team members of other disciplines developed the type of structure the depth and size, and the Construction method to be adopted. Some of the considerations taken into account are : Site constraints, available spaces, Existing facilities, Temporary facilities for continual operation of the Treatment Plant Geotechnical data, the depth of the rock formation have a great impact on the design Construction Time frame Cost effective solutions Conditions and requirements stipulated in the need statements Various Authorities requirements and guidelines Environmental considerations Codes of Practice 2

3 This part of Presentation on the Structural Design aspects of the Underground Structure 3

4 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE The overall dimension of the underground structure are : 260.5m Length 182.4m Width And 15m deep measured from the general ground level to the deepest point 4

5 ABOVE GROUND BUILDINGS RECREATIONAL PARK 260.5m UNDERGROUND TREATMENT PLANT PARK 182.4m ADMINISTRATION BUILDING PANTAI 2 STP LAYOUT PLAN 5

6 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE (cont d) There are 3 major levels Base slab level Maintenance Floor level Roof Deck 6

7 SKYLIGHT VENTILATION VENTILATION VENTILATION FOOT BALL FIELD VENTILATION SKYRIVER VENTILATION VENTILATION VENTILATION VENTILATION SKYLIGHT FUTSAL COURTS FUTSAL COURTS ROOF LEVEL - PLAN OF RECREATIONAL PARK 7

8 PARK UNDERPASS UNDERPASS UNDERPASS MAINTENANCE FLOOR LEVEL - PLAN 8

9 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE (cont d) The Underground Treatment Plant is made up of 4 major components Pre-treatment Balancing Tanks AAO Bio Reactors Clarifiers The AAO Bio Reactors and Clarifiers are made up of 4 Tanks with internal separation walls. 9

10 CLARIFIER AAO BIO REACTOR BALANCING TANK BALANCING TANK BASE SLAB LEVEL - PLAN 10

11 80500 Clarifier Clarifier BASE SLAB LEVEL PLAN SHOWING PART OF CLARIFIER 11

12 Roof Deck Skylight Ventilation SkyRiver Maintenance Floor UNDERPASS UNDERPASS Bio Reactor 1 Bio Reactor 2 Pipe Bio Reactor 3 Bio Reactor 4 Pipe Base Slab Gallery Gallery DEFORMATION JOINTS LANDSCAPE ROOF Ventilation Shaft UNDERPASS Bio Reactor 5 Bio Reactor 6 Pipe Bio Reactor 7 Bio Reactor 8 Gallery DEFORMATION JOINTS CROSS SECTION OF AAO BIO REACTOR 12

13 RL27.0 UNDERPASS ENTRANCE LANDSCAPE ROOF CLARIFIER SFL SFL UNDERPASS ENTRANCE SFL AAO BIO REACTOR BALANCING TANK SFL LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE 13

14 BASIC DESIGN PHILOSOPHY Although the Underground Treatment Plant is made up of numerous smaller tanks, the initial design consideration is to treat it as one big Tank to check overall flotation and lateral forces then subsequently the detail design is carried out in smaller sections. The structural frame work is developed to resist the various loading conditions as follows : There are 3 major loading conditions 1) Vertical loads Dead load of structure Live loads Equipment loads Dead loads from landscaped roof deck 2) Horizontal loads Earth pressure Water pressure Dynamic loads from Equipments 3) Flotation Buoyancy force 14

15 BASIC DESIGN PHILOSOPHY (cont d) LOADING CONDITIONS 1)Tank full and earth not backfilled 2)Tank empty and earth backfilled with groundwater 1m below general ground level 15

16 DEVELOPING THE STRUCTURAL MODEL VERTICAL LOADS The size of Tanks and position of walls are determined by Treatment Process requirements, and the positions and spacing of columns are thus influenced by Process/Mechanical requirements Supports spacing, type and magnitude of loadings, speed of construction and cost are factors that determine the floor system HORIZONTAL LOADS Another important consideration is the need to transfer lateral forces from earth / water pressure from one side of the Underground Structure to the other. Beams and slab of adequate stiffness are provided, this in turn allows the tank walls to be designed as Propped cantilever. 16

17 DEVELOPING THE STRUCTURAL MODEL ( con t ) FLOTATION The dead weight, calculated from the weight of the concrete underground structure is used to overcome the buoyancy load. BS8007 requires that a safety factor of 1.1 be provided against flotation. For the structure here, this dead weight is less than the buoyancy load. As such ground anchors tied to the floor slab are provided to meet the safety factor requirement. TYPE OF STRUCTURE ADOPTED Conventional reinforced concrete beam and slab system for the Roof Deck and Maintenance Floor Level. Conventional reinforced concrete wall and base slab for the underground structure. 17

18 Imposed live load Soil load Additional Dead load Water Pressure Earth Pressure Water Pressure Buoyancy SIMPLIFIED LOADING DIAGRAM 18

19 COMPUTER ASSISTED DESIGN MODEL Computer structural analysis programs were used to carry out the analysis of the structure. 3D FINITE ELEMENT MODEL Although it is possible to model the whole structure as one model with the current powerful software and hardware, however this was not done. Such a large model would be very cumbersome and prone to input errors and time consuming to analyse. The underground structure is made up of many smaller tanks with deformation joints between some of them. Therefore we identified and selected suitable sections for developing into 3D finite element models. 19

20 3D FINITE ELEMENT MODEL 20

21 TYPICAL ANALYSIS RESULTS OF WALL MOMENTS FROM 3D FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 21

22 2D PLANE FRAME MODELS COMPUTER ASSISTED DESIGN MODEL ( con t ) Most of the tanks are long compared to its width and height, therefore the end walls have very little influence beyond 2 times the tank height. A 2D Plane Frame model along the central portion of the tank is used to check the results of the 3D model. REINFORCEMENT DETAILING PROGRAM The walls and base are designed based on the results of the 3D model and the reinforcement are detailed manually. The conventional beam and slab floors are detailed with the assistance of reinforcement detailing softwares. 22

23 SIMPLIFIED 2D MODEL 23

24 X-Moments for Load Case SEP Y X TYPICAL ANALYSIS RESULTS OF WALL MOMENTS FROM 2D PLANE FRAME MODEL 24

25 TYPICAL ANALYSIS RESULTS OF WALL MOMENTS FROM 2D PLANE FRAME MOMENT ( BLOW-UP DETAIL ) 25

26 DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE The underground concrete structure are designed based on the Code of Practice for Design of Concrete Structures for Retaining Aqueous Liquids : BS8007:1987 The structures are checked for compliance with the requirements for strength at the ultimate limit state using factored loads with maximum liquid levels. Compliance to deflection and crack width were checked based on service load conditions. The code allows two methods of design to satisfy the requirements for the crack width. One method is based on use of reduced allowable steel stresses for serviceability limit state as provided in Table 3.1 of the code. The other method is based on checking of crack width as provided in Appendix B of the code. In general the use of reduced allowable steel stresses yield higher areas of reinforcement for the section, and as such for the design here, crack width is checked in accordance with Appendix B of the code 26

27 The design and detailing of liquid retaining structures should comply with BS8110 : Structural Use of Concrete except where the recommendations of BS8007:1987 Design of concrete structures for retaining aqueous liquids vary the requirements. The main variations are : The maximum calculated design crack widths are either 0.2mm or 0.1mm depending on the exposure conditions, instead of 0.3mm. The basis of design is the serviceability limit state of cracking rather than the ultimate limit state. Various provisions in respect of joints, nominal cover, exposure conditions, minimum areas of reinforcement, concrete grade and spacing of bar reinforcement The design ultimate anchorage bond length in sections subject to direct tension should not exceed 0.7 times the values obtained from BS

28 CODES AND STANDARDS BS 648 Schedule of weights of Building Materials BS 1377 Methods of test for soil for civil engineering BS 5400 Steel, concrete and composite bridges BS 5930 Code of practice for site investigation BS 5950 Structural Use of Steelworks in Building BS 6031 Code of practice for earthworks BS 6399 : Part 1 Code of Practice for Dead and Imposed Loads BS 6399 : Part 2 Wind Loads BS 6399 : Part 3 Code of Practice for Imposed Roof Loads BS 8002 Code of Practice for earth retaining structures BS 8006 Code of practice for strengthened/reinforced soils and other fills BS 8004 Foundations BS 8081 Code of practice for ground anchorage BS 8110 Structural Use of Concrete ASTM American Society of Testing and Materials ACI American Concrete Institute UBBL 1984 Uniform Building By-Laws ( Malaysia ) 1984 BS 8007 Code of practice for the design of concrete structures for retaining aqueous liquids Arahan Teknik Jalan, JKR Road Note 29 A guide to the Structural Design of Pavements for New Roads 28

29 DESIGN PROCEDURE The basic design flow is : Estimate concrete member sizes Calculate the reinforcement required to limit the design crack widths to the required value Check strength Check other limit states Repeat as necessary With liquid retaining structures, crack width calculations usually control the thickness of the member, therefore the required thickness cannot be calculated directly, hence the procedure is a form of interactive process. The overall thickness should be no greater than necessary, as extra thickness will cause higher thermal stresses. The main considerations are : Ease of construction Structural arrangement Avoidance of excessive deflections Adequate strength Avoidance of excessive crack widths 29

30 CONCRETE Concrete for reinforced, non-prestressed, cast in place construction of water retaining structures is designated as Grade 35A concrete, having a characteristic strength of 35N/mm 2 at 28 days, with a minimum cement content of 325kg/m 3 and a maximum water/cement ratio of The cement contents of the mix should not exceed 400kg/m 2 because of the increase in rate and extend of shrinkage and heat evolution High temperature caused by heat of hydration in thick concrete sections ( over 800mm ) induce thermal stress within the concrete that leads to cracking. Cement replacements such as pulverized-fuel ashes ( pfa ) and ground granulated blastfurnace slags ( ggbs ) are used to replace a portion of the ordinary portland cement (OPC), thus reducing the heat of hydration In addition to using low heat cement, a chilled water plant is also set up on site to ensure a lower concrete placing temperature 30

31 SIZES OF SOME MAJOR STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS Base Slab : between 1200mm to 1500mm thick External wall : 1800mm at the base 1200mm up to maintenance floor level 500mm above maintenance floor level Internal walls : 800 to 1000mm Floor Slabs : 300mm thick Transfer Beams : 1000 x 1200 Columns : 800 x

32 500 Rook Deck Level Maintenance Floor Level Base Slab Level TYPICAL SECTION 32

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34 34

35 35

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