During the 1600s, England moved from a government with little constraints on the power of the monarchy to a representative constitutional monarchy.

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1 During the 1600s, England moved from a government with little constraints on the power of the monarchy to a representative constitutional monarchy.

2 Means The Great Charter Signed in 1215 by King John Limited the power of English kings Only Parliament could tax, not the king Gave Parliament the power of the purse

3 Elizabeth I died without an heir so the throne goes to the nearest male relative James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England Rules Scotland and England at the same time Begins the Stuart Dynasty in England

4 Arrogant, tactless personalities clashed with Parliament Showed friendliness to Spain Leaned towards Catholicism Heavily taxed the middle class Ignored English law Raised money without Parliament Coat of arms of James I

5 Believed in divine right of kings Average ruler who did England no harm Jamestown (1607) Had the Bible translated King James version

6 James I dies and his son inherits the throne Charles I continued the policies of his father and tensions between king and Parliament increase

7 Charles is married to a French noblewoman, Henrietta Maria Charles is suspected to be a secret Catholic

8 Charles needed money to fight a war with Spain and France Parliament refused to give him money until he signed the Petition of Right

9 Petition of Right restated what a monarch could not do Could not tax without Parliament s consent Could not jail someone without a charge (habeas corpus) or with a jury trial If Charles signed this document, he was admitting that Parliament had some control over him.

10 Charles signed Petition of Right and then dismissed Parliament No meeting of Parliament for 11 years

11 Conditions get worse as Charles Ignores the Petition of Right Rules more harshly Persecution of Puritans is so bad many leave England in the Great Migration ( ) Most come to New England

12 Tries to force Scotland to accept the Anglican Church Scotland rebels Now needs money to put down Scottish rebellion

13 Charles calls a meeting of Parliament to ask for money Parliament uncooperative so after 3 weeks Charles dismisses them

14 Charles still needs funds so has to call Parliament back Parliament begins to pass laws to limit the power of king

15 1642 Charles attempts to arrest the leaders of Parliament Rebellion breaks out

16 AKA The Puritan Revolution Sides Roundheads Members of the middle class, small landowners, Puritans, and Scots Supported Parliament Led by Oliver Cromwell

17 Cavaliers/Royalists Members of the nobility, wealthy landowners, high Anglican clergy, and Catholics Supporters of the King

18 Naseby (1645) Final defeat of Cavaliers Charles fled to Scotland but was turned over to Parliament Charles I loses the Civil War and his throne

19 Charles was put on trial by Parliament Convicted of treason, murder, and tyranny Was executed in 1649

20

21 Charles bloodstained shirt

22 Cromwell ruled as military dictator Became known as the Lord Protector Ruled successfully but was not popular Instilled Puritan values After his death, no other strong leader emerged

23 Charles II was invited back to rule but had to agree to certain reforms Called the Merry Monarch His court famous for its social life Supported arts and sciences Rule was at the beginning of the Scientific Revolution

24 Had charm, poise, and political skills (unlike his father) Favored religious toleration Had secret Catholic sympathies Realized that he could not repeat the mistakes of his father

25 Religion still an issue Backlash against Puritans Charles was a secret Catholic Charles made sure to appear cooperative with Parliament and accept limitations on his power Parliament passed some laws to protect the rights of Englishmen like.

26 Parliament passed the Habeas Corpus Act No one can be held without being charged with a crime and given a trial

27 After death of Charles II, his brother, James II came to the throne James was Catholic James tried to revive divine right and dominate Parliament

28 Had none of the political skills of his brother, Charles II Bigoted Catholic who managed to offend even strong supporters of the monarchy Provoked the revolution that Charles II had been able to avoid

29 James unpopularity led to the formation of the first political parties in England Whigs members of Parliament who wanted to exclude James II from the monarchy

30 Tory members of Parliament who supported hereditary monarchy

31 Although James was unpopular, most people were willing to wait until his Protestant daughter, Mary could inherit the throne BUT..

32 James second wife (a Catholic) had a son!

33 Parliament sends a joint Whig and Tory invitation to William of Orange and his wife Mary offering the crown to them

34 1688--William invades but James, realizing he has no support, flees to France

35 Parliament declares William and Mary to be joint rulers of England (with limitations)

36 This bloodless revolution ended divine right in England and Parliament becomes more powerful than the monarchy Considered a bloodless revolution England is now a full constitutional monarchy

37 Parliament passed the English Bill of Rights Protects the rights of citizens and Parliament English Bill of Rights will be a model of the US Bill of Rights

38 Act of Settlement prevents any Catholic from inheriting the throne Toleration Act (1689) granted freedom of worship to non-anglican Protestant sects

39 Anne succeeded William Developed a small group of advisors from the House of Commons (Cabinet) Remember: the Parliament is made of the House of Lords and the House of Commons

40 The Cabinet developed into the type of government Britain has today Head of the Cabinet is also the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons Prime Minister is the head of the Cabinet Prime Minister gradually took over the duties and responsibilities of the monarch

41 Act of Union (1707) Officially joins Scotland and England as one country United Kingdom

42 Anne was the last of the Stuart Dynasty English throne then goes to George I of Hanover (Germany) George III (1 st of the Georges to speak without a German accent) was king during the French and Indian War and the American Revolution

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