The Structure of an Atom

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1 CP Biology 2016 Name KEY UNIT 2A: Basic Chemistry Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life 2.1 The Nature of Matter The Structure of an Atom Living things share a major fundamental similarity with nonliving matter. All matter is made up of atoms. *Atom: the basic unit of all matter Atoms are incredibly small in size, yet they themselves are made of even smaller subatomic particles called protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons and Neutrons have about the same mass but not the same electrical charge. Protons and neutrons are bound by strong forces which form the nucleus or center of the atom. The electron is a charged particle with 1/1840 th the mass of a proton. The energy of their constant motion keeps them outside the nucleus, despite their attraction to the nucleus. Because atoms have equal numbers of electrons and protons, their positive and negative charges balance out and atoms themselves are electrically neutral. Complete the Chart Below: Subatomic Electrical Location Particle Charge within atom proton +1 positive nucleus neutron 0 neutral electron -1 negative nucleus Moving rapidly in energy levels (electron cloud) surrounding the nucleus Your personal notes, summary of the lesson, and/or questions that you may have: 1

2 A chemical Element is a pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom. More than 100 elements are known, but only about two dozen are commonly found in living organisms. The Periodic Table of Elements (see picture of periodic table on the last page) The Periodic Table of Elements is a reference tool we use to gain information about different elements. Elements are arranged in order by their atomic number. By using the periodic table we can determine 3 things: 1) Element Name and Symbol a symbol is usually 1 or 2 letter abbreviation for the element s name. 2) Mass Number this is the sum of the protons and the neutrons in the nucleus. The electrons don t count in the mass since their mass is next to nothing. 3) Atomic Number the number of protons in the nucleus of an element. Important Biological Elements The five most abundant elements in living things are: 1. Hydrogen 10% 2. Oxygen 65% 3. Nitrogen 4% 4. Carbon 19% 5. Phosphorus 1% Your personal notes, summary of the lesson, and/or questions that you may have: Element Name and Symbol 1) C is the symbol for Carbon 2) Na is the symbol for Sodium Mass Number You may see a decimal number for the mass on the periodic table because this is the average mass for the atoms of this element. Some atoms differ slightly in mass due to different number of neutrons. These are called isotopes and will be studied next year in Chemistry. For Biology class we will round this number to the nearest whole number. 3) The mass of Oxygen is 16 amu 4) The mass of Chlorine is 35 amu Atomic Number 5) The atomic number of Hydrogen is 1 6) The atomic number of Sodium is 11 Protons and Electrons 7) Carbon has 6 protons and 6 electrons. 8) Lithium has 3 protons and 3 electrons. Label the Important Biological Elements 2

3 Chemical Compounds In nature, it is common to find elements combined with other elements in compounds. *Compounds / molecules: a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions. *Coefficient: tells how many molecules of that substance (the large number BEFORE the formula) *Subscript: goes with the element symbol preceding the number; tells how many atoms of that element within one molecule of the substance (small number WITHIN the formula. The physical and chemical properties of a compound are usually very different from those of the original elements from which it is formed. Example : NaCl (Table Salt) NaCl is formed from one atom of sodium a highly reactive, soft, silver-colored metal AND one atom of chlorine a poisonous yellow-green gas. Chemical formulas tell us: a) They types of elements (atoms) that are present in the compound. b) The number of atoms of each element present in the compound. Your personal notes, summary of the lesson, and/or questions that you may have: We show the composition of chemical compounds by a kind of shorthand known as a chemical formula. Example 1: What is the chemical formula for water which contains two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom? H 2 O Example 2: 6CO 2 a) What is the coefficient? 6 b) What is carbon s subscript? 1 c) What is oxygen s subscript? 2 d) How many molecules of this compound are represented by this formula? 6 e) How many atoms TOTAL are present in this molecule? 18 Use the following information on chemical names and chemical formulas to fill in the chart below: Carbon 1 Hydrogen - 4 Hydrogen 2 Oxygen - 1 Carbon - 1 Oxygen - 2 Nitrogen - 1 Hydrogen - 3 3

4 Chemical Bonds The atoms in compounds are held together by various types of chemical bonds. Bond formation involves the electrons that surround each atomic nucleus. *Valence Electrons: the electrons in an atom that are available to form bonds (these are unpaired electrons which are found in the outermost energy level of the atom s electron cloud). *Octet Rule: the outermost energy level of most atoms will be complete when containing 8 electrons. Atoms will tend to gain, lose, or share electrons to achieve stability by having a full outer energy level (stable octet). Exception: for hydrogen, the Duet rule applies (only 2 electrons are needed in the valence level) ~ Do you think Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Hydrogen are reactive (unstable) atoms? Explain. Yes, in each case, there is a vacancy in the outer energy level. H has one vacancy in the 1 st energy level. O has 2 vacancies in the 2 nd energy level. Nitrogen has 3 vacancies and Carbon has 4. ~ What can reactive /unstable atoms do to become nonreactive /stable? (Recall that a stable atom has a fully filled outer energy level.) They can interact with other atoms by gaining, losing or sharing electrons to complete the atom s valence energy level. The main type of bond that we will study in the unit is the covalent bond. Only reactive atoms are able to form bonds. The reactivity of an atom depends upon the arrangement of electrons in its outmost (or valence) energy level. Your personal notes, summary of the lesson, and/or questions that you may have: 4

5 *Covalent Bonds Formed when nonmetal atoms bond with each other A bond in which moving electrons actually travel about the nuclei of two atoms (at the same time) Electrons are shared between two atoms Example 1: Water (H 2 O) Single Covalent Bond: atoms share 2 electrons (1 pair) Double Covalent Bond: atoms share 4 electrons (2 pairs) Triple Covalent Bond: atoms share 6 electrons (3 pairs) *Molecule: the structure that results when atoms are joined together by covalent bonds. The smallest unit of most compounds. NOTE: Bonds between the biologically important atoms H, O, N, C, & P (all non-metals) will be covalent. Hydrogen will only form Covalent Bonds!! H O N C Molecules can also be represented by Structural Formulas: a drawing that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule Example 2: Methane (CH 4 ) Structural Formulas tell you: a) the types of elements in the molecule b) the number of atoms of each element AND c) the arrangement of atoms and location of covalent bonds. Shows the two dimensional shape of the molecule. Your personal notes, summary of the lesson, and/or questions that you may have: 5

6 NOTE: Structural formulas usually represent covalent bonding so they are used for molecules like H 2 O, but not for formula units like NaCl. In a structural formula, each line between atoms represent a position in which electrons are shared. Therefore, a line represents a single covalent bond. 1) Hydrochloric Acid (Hydrogen Chloride) or HCl 1 atoms of Hydrogen in the molecule 1 atoms of Chlorine in the molecule 2) Ammonia or NH 3 1 atoms of Nitrogen in the molecule 3 atoms of Hydrogen in the molecule H N H H - Cl H 3) Oxygen gas or O 2 2 atoms of Oxygen in the molecule 4) Carbon Dioxide or CO 2 1 atoms of Carbon in the molecule 2 atoms of Oxygen in the molecule O = O O = C = O Your personal notes, summary of the lesson, and/or questions that you may have: 6

7 2.4 Chemical Reactions Note: We will not be discussing Enzymes in this unit. *Chemical Reactions: process that changes or transforms one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals. Involves changes to the chemical bonds that join atoms in compounds. The numbers and types The numbers and types of atoms in the = of atoms in the reactants products Bonds of the reactants are broken and new bonds form in the products. *Reactants: elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction *Products: elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction HINT: Reactants react to produce products! Use the chemical formulas below to determine how many atoms of each element make up each compound. A coefficient indicates the number of molecules present. (coefficient X subscript = the number of atoms) *Chemical Equations: a mathematical representation of a chemical reaction. It shows the numbers and types of compounds involved. *The Law of Conservation of Matter: matter (atoms and elements) in a chemical reaction cannot be created nor destroyed. Only the arrangement of the atoms is changed, NOT the number or types. Your personal notes, summary of the lesson, and/or questions that you may have: 7

8 Consider the following chemical equation for cellular respiration: In the diagram below, fill in the terms products or reactants in the proper blanks. 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O Reactants C 6, H 12, O 18 Products C 6, H 12, O 18 Your personal notes, summary of the lesson, and/or questions that you may have: 8

9 CP Biology Name PRACTICE PACKET General Chemistry

10 #1 Periodic Table Use the following terms to fill in the blanks for questions 1-8: protons mass number neutrons energy levels nucleus symbol electrons atomic number 1) The periodic table is arranged in general order of increasing a), b) and, c). 2) Each element in the table has a different a), b), c), and d). 3) The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is the same as the a), and b). 4) The large letter(s) that represent each element is called a. Complete the diagram by labeling all the parts. 5) 6) Made up of 7) and 8) 9) 12) Complete the following table by placing a check in each box that makes the statement true: Characteristic Electron Proton Neutron Has nearly no mass Positively charged Found in the nucleus Moves in energy levels Added together to make the mass number or atomic mass (weight) Does not have an electrical charge Negatively charged

11 13) Use the Periodic Table of the Elements to complete the following table. Note: Add the names and information for three elements of your own choosing: ELEMENT SYMBOL ATOMIC NUMBER MASS NUMBER * NUMBER OF PROTONS NUMBER OF ELECTRONS HYDROGEN H 1 NITROGEN CARBON 12 Na CHLORINE Cl 17 SILVER Pick 3 more elements: *Note: Remember to round off the atomic weight to obtain the mass number or atomic mass. In any neutral atom, the number of is always equal to the number of.

12 #2 Subatomic Particles You will become more familiar with the atomic structure of some atoms by completing the chart below. For each element, you have been given enough information to fill in all the blanks. Use the periodic Table. Element Symbol Atomic Number Mass Number Number of Protons Numbers of Neutrons Number of Electrons Helium He Iodine I Neon Ne Zirconium Zr Aluminum Al Zn Kr Calcium 40 B 5 Sodium ion Na S 2- Chlorine Ion Hydrogen Ion 1 0 (no, it s not a typo)

13 #3 Reactivity of Atoms In biology we are concerned about how atoms join each other to form molecules like hydrogen gas (H 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ). The tendency of atoms to bond with each other depends on their reactivity. The reactivity or combining capacity of an atom depends upon the arrangement of electrons in the outermost energy level, known as the valence. Circle the correct term in parenthesis for each sentence below. 1. If an atom s outermost energy level is completely filled with electrons (no vacancies), the atom considered ( stable / unstable ) and nonreactive. Therefore, it ( will / will not ) form bonds with other atoms. List three examples of nonreactive elements: On the Periodic Table, where do we find the nonreactive elements? Nonreactive elements are also known as the Gases. 2. If an atom s outermost energy level is not completely filled with electrons (vacancies present), the atom is considered ( stable / unstable ) and reactive. Therefore, it ( will / will not ) combine with other atoms. Examples of reactive atoms: Element Symbol Atomic Number # electrons Draw the electrons in their energy levels Reactive (R) or non-reactive (NR) Carbon C Hydrogen H Oxygen O Nitrogen N Magnesium Mg Silicon Si Chlorine Cl Argon Ar

14 #4 Electrons and the Reactivity of Atoms Directions: Place the answer to the following questions on the line provided. 1. Energy levels are: a. the charge of protons c. the definite locations of electrons b. the charge of atoms d. the probable locations of electrons 2. If an atom is reactive, how does it become stable? a. join a water molecule b. join the nuclei of other atoms c. form energy levels with other subatomic particles d. form bonds with other reactive atoms Directions: Smiley Cyrus was a student at Livingston High School. Below are her drawings of Bohr models for atoms of three different elements. Check Smiley Cyrus s work each diagram has TWO mistakes. Your task is to fix her errors. * P=protons N=neutrons E= Electrons = electrons in energy levels Nitrogen Argon Hydrogen Circle the atom(s) below that are reactive. Put a triangle around the atom(s) below that are nonreactive. N Ar H K C O He How many electron vacancies are in the valence of each of the following atoms? N Ar H K C O He

15 #5 Bohr Models and Lewis Dot Structures 1. What is the maximum number of electrons that can be found in the first energy level? 2. What is the maximum number of electrons that can be found in the second energy level? 3. For any atom with an atomic number greater than 2, the maximum number of electrons that can be found in the outermost energy level (valence) is:. This is known as the Octet Rule. An atom with a full valence is nonreactive and stable. 4. Draw a Bohr Model and Lewis Dot Structure for each element below. Follow the example given. Element Bohr Model Lewis Dot Structure Number of electron vacancies in valence Sulfur (S) 2 Phosphorous(P) Fluorine (F) Neon (Ne) Lithium (Li)

16 #6 Bonding Patterns 1) What is the purpose of bonding? 2) Is one atom of carbon stable? Why or why not? 3) How many electrons will an atom of carbon share with another atom in order to become stable? 4) List the two most common types of bonds that can form between atoms: a) (sharing of e-) b) (transfer of e-) 5) A is a shorthand way of showing the types and numbers of atoms in a molecule or compound. For example, H 2 O indicates that one atom of oxygen has bonded with two atoms of hydrogen. Circle the correct term in parenthesis: The ( coefficient, subscript ) indicates how many atoms of the preceding element are found in the molecule. The (coefficient, subscript ) indicates how many molecules of each compound are present. In order to determine the number of atoms in a formula with a coefficient, ( multiply, add, divide ) the coefficient and the subscript. Any time you don t see a coefficient, you can assume it is 1 ; the same is true for a subscript. (example: the chemical formula CO 2 indicates one molecule of carbon dioxide which contains one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen). Complete in the following chart: Chemical Formula 2H 2 O CaCO 3 2H 2 O 6H 2 SO 4 Total Number of atoms of each element Four hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms. Directions for drawing structural formulas: A structural formula is a drawing of the atoms in a compound and the number of bonds between atoms. The short lines in a structural formula represent a covalent bond (or a shared pair of e-) that has formed between two atoms. A single bond is represented by a single line (-). A double bond is shown with two lines (=). A triple bond would contain 3 lines ( ). Example H 2 O or water : One water molecule contains atom(s) of hydrogen and atom(s) of oxygen. Hydrogen (H) has one electron and one vacancy in its valence. So, it needs bond(s) to be stable. Oxygen (O) has six electrons in its valence (which means 2 vacancies). So, it needs bond(s) to be stable. By joining together, the atoms can share electrons in a way that makes all three atoms stable, each with a full valence. The compound is stable and neutral overall because the total #p is still equal to the total #e-. The way to represent this is to draw: H O H In this way, the two atoms of hydrogen are bonded with one atom of oxygen. The hydrogen atoms each have one bond and the oxygen atom has two bonds.

17 Try these examples: Draw the structural formulas for the following compound. Follow the models. H 2 # bonds each hydrogen can form? 1 N 2 # bonds each nitrogen can form? H H CH 4 # bonds carbon can form? each hydrogen? H 2 O 2 # bonds each hydrogen can form? each oxygen? PCl 3 # bonds needed by each phosphorus? each Cl? O 2 # bonds needed by each oxygen? HCN (Hydrogen cyanide) H 2 O

18 #7 Counting Atoms Calculate how many atoms of each element are present in each of the following (as written). 1. 3NaHCO C 2 H 4 O Mg(OH) H 3 PO 4 5. H 2 SO 4 6. (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 7. C 6 H 12 O CaCO 3

19 #8 Recognizing Balanced Equations Remember, in a balanced chemical equation, the number of atoms of each element in the reactants will equal the number of atoms of each element in the products. EQUATION IS IT BALANCED, as written? (Y/N) A. 2C 2 H 6 + 5O 2 --> 2CO 2 + 6H 2 O B. 2H 2 O 2 --> 2H 2 O + O 2 C. Na + O 2 --> 2Na 2 O D. N 2 + 3H 2 --> 2NH 3 E. P 4 + 5O 2 --> P 4 O 10 F. 3Fe + 4H 2 O --> Fe 3 O 4 + 4H 2 G. C + 2H 2 --> CH 4 H. Al 2 O 3 --> Al + 3O 2 I. H 2 + O 2 --> H 2 O 2 J. Na 2 SO 4 + CaCl 2 --> CaSO 4 + 2NaCl

20 #9 Balancing Equations Answer the following questions. Use complete sentences when given one or more lines to respond. State the Law of Conservation of Matter: To balance an equation, coefficient(s) may be added/removed/changed but subscripts cannot. Balance each of the following equations. H 2 + Cl 2 HCl Fe + O 2 Fe 2 O 3 C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 O + Cl 2 O 3 HClO 2 C 6 H 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 1) What is meant by the terms: products and reactants in a chemical equation? How do we know which is which? 2) Explain what the subscript indicates. What does it mean if there is no subscript? 3) Explain what the coefficient indicates. What does it mean if there is no coefficient? 4) Explain why chemical equations must be balanced.

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