The first thing you need to understand is the differences between America and Russia.

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1 Unit 1 Peace and War: International Relations You are studying 3 Sections for this exam. Section 4 How did the Cold War develop? Section 5 Three Cold War crises: Berlin, Cuba and Czechoslovakia c Section 6 Why did the Cold War end? The first thing you need to understand is the differences between America and Russia. America Russia 1. The richest country in the world. 1. The biggest country in the world. 2. A democracy with free elections, led by an elected president. 2. A one-party state led by a dictator. There were elections, but you could only vote for the Communist Party. 3. Freedom of speech and belief. 3. State control: censorship, secret police, terror and purges. 4. Capitalism - private ownership and the right to make money. 5. Led by Truman, who believed that Communism was evil. 6. Had the atomic bomb- but was scared of Russia's conventional army. 7. Feared the spread of communism throughout the world. 8. Angry about the Nazi-Soviet Pact that was a major factor in starting the Second World War. 9. Wanted reconstruction - to make Germany a prosperous democracy and a trading partner. 4. Communism - state ownership of the means of production, and the belief that wealth should be shared. 5. Led by Stalin, who believed that capitalism was evil. 6. Had the biggest army in the world - but was angry that Truman had not warned that he was going to drop the atomic bomb. 7. Was angry because America and Britain had invaded Russia in to try to destroy communism. 8. Believed that America and Britain had delayed opening the second front (attacking France) to let Germany and Russia destroy each other on the eastern front. 9. Wanted to wreck Germany, take huge reparations for the damage done during the war, and set up a buffer of friendly states around Russia to prevent another invasion in the future. 1

2 What was the Grand Alliance? Set up in 1941 to defeat Hitler America, Britain and USSR worked together Once Hitler had been defeated in 1945 alliance became increasingly uneasy. The Tehran Conference 1943 Big three Stalin (USSR), Churchill (Britain) and Roosevelt (USA) Agreed Soviet Union could have sphere of influence in Eastern Europe Disagreements 1. Stalin wanted Germany to pay reparations 2. Churchill and Roosevelt wanted to rebuild Germany The Yalta Conference, February 1945 Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt got on well high point of the alliance Agreements 1. Russian troops would help defeat Japan in the Pacific 2. Countries of Eastern Europe would be allowed to hold free elections 3. Germany and Berlin would be divided into 4 zones, run by USA, Britain, France and USSR Disagreements Over what democracy meant. Stalin believed a democratic government had to be communist, Roosevelt believed it involved a number of different political parties. The Potsdam Conference, July August 1945 Roosevelt died in April 1945 and had been replaced by Truman. During the conference Churchill was replaced by new PM Atlee. These new leaders did not get on as well with Stalin. Agreements 1. Ban the Nazi party and prosecute surviving Nazis as war criminals. 2. Reduce the size of Germany by approx a quarter. 2

3 Disagreements 1. Stalin wanted more reparations than Britain and USA did. Compromise was made each ally would take reparations from the zone they occupied. Stalin was not happy as his zone was poorer than the other countries zones. 2. Stalin set up a communist government in. Truman and Atlee were suspicious of his motives. 3. Atom bomb worsened relations between Truman and Stalin. Stalin believed the USA was using it as a warning to the USSR. Truman believed he had the ultimate weapon which made him determined to stand up to Stalin and stop Soviet expansion. An arms race developed. Why did the Cold War begin? Although elections were held in Eastern Europe, evidence suggests that they were rigged to allow USSR-backed communist parties to take control. By 1948 all Eastern Europe states had communist governments. By 1946 Europe had been divided between capitalism in the west and communism in the east. Churchill called this division the iron curtain. The Long Telegram (1946) was from an American ambassador in Moscow who reported that Stalin was building up his military power and calling for the destruction of capitalism. Novikov s telegram (1946) was from the Soviet Ambassador to America who reported that America wanted to dominate the world and had no interest in co-operation with USSR. Both countries now believed they were facing war. Truman Doctrine 1947 Truman believed that Stalin was going to encourage communist revolutions across Europe, especially in countries such as Italy, France, Greece, Turkey and the UK who had suffered hardships due to the war. Truman responded with the Truman Doctrine which was seen as the unofficial declaration of the Cold War. 1. World had a choice between communist tyranny and democratic freedom 2. America had a responsibility to fight for liberty, no longer staying out of international affairs 3. America would send troops and economic resources to help governments threatened by communism and stop communism gaining territory (containment) 3

4 The Marshall Plan 1947 Committed to economic recovery of Europe to prevent spread of communism. $13 billion was sent to rebuild shattered economies of Europe between Aim: make Europe prosperous so communism was not an attraction. Terms of the plan you had to agree to trade freely with America. 16 countries accepted it all western European states. Stalin refused Marshall Aid and banned Eastern European countries for accepting it and responded by setting up Cominform and Comecon. Cominform 1947 Alliance of communist countries under direction of USSR. Ensured loyalty of Eastern European countries by removing opposition, investigating government ministers and employees, and removing those not loyal to Stalin. Comecon 1949 Bizonia Set up to co-ordinate trade and production in Eastern Europe countries. Aim: encourage economic development of Eastern Europe and prevent trade with Western Europe By 1947 British and American zones were operating as one and became known as Bizonia, which later became known as Trizonia (1948) when the French zone joined. This became known as West Germany in Berlin Blockade and airlift, Causes Marshall Aid was helping West Germany to recover; people were leaving the poverty stricken East Germany as WG seemed a better place to live. Stalin felt that the Allies were building up West Germany to attack him, when they introduced the new currency in West Germany he decided to act. 4

5 Events Results Stalin tried to blockade Berlin, cutting off all road and rail connections from Berlin to West Germany. Aim: force Western Allies out of the city. Two choices for USA and UK. 1. Withdraw but this would be humiliating and encourage Stalin to think he could invade West Germany. 2. Lift supplies into West Berlin by air. The airlift lasted until spring It provided West Berliners with food, clothing, oil and building supplies. At its height April 1,398 flights landed nearly 13,000 tonnes of supplies in 24 hours. By 1949 USSR lifted the blockade. It was a propaganda success for USA. In August 1949 Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) was created and in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) was created. The Formation of NATO, 1949 Military alliance which was between USA and Western European countries. Its purpose was to defend its members; if one was attacked the other members would help to defend it. The Warsaw Pact 1955 A communist version of NATO The Arms Race USA was the only country to possess atomic weapons USSR successfully tested an atomic bomb USA detonated its first hydrogen bomb 1953 USSR tested its own hydrogen bomb. Arms race is significant as it prevented a war in Europe. Neither country wanted to risk a nuclear war. 5

6 Hungarian Uprising, 1956 Causes Events Results Communist government had been established under Rakosi, who called himself Stalin s best pupil. Hungarians hated him and his secret police that had imprisoned 387,000 and was responsible for more than 2,000 deaths. There were protests against falling standard of living and increased poverty which they blamed on the Soviet policies. Protests got worse and Stalin s statue was pulled down. Rakosi was forced to resign and Soviet troops moved in. Nagy (a more liberal leader) was made the new leader, he wanted reform. He proposed that. 1. Hungary should leave the Warsaw pact. 2. Communist government should end. 3. Hungary should become a western style democracy with free elections. 4. Hungary should ask the UN for protection from Russia. Khrushchev (new Soviet leader) responded by sending in Soviet tanks and 1000 tanks to crush the uprising. Nagy appealed to the West for help but none came. Two weeks of fighting followed. Nagy was captured and shot. Between ,000 Hungarians (mostly civilians were killed) Over 200,000 refugees fled Hungary and settled in the West. No active support for the uprising in the West. New pro-soviet government was set up under Kadar, he re-established communist control of Hungary. Other satellite states in eastern Europe did not dare to challenge Soviet authority 6

7 Section 5 Three Cold War crises: Berlin, Cuba and Czechoslovakia c Berlin Why was Berlin such an area of conflict? Berlin was within the Soviet zone of Germany West Berliners had a high standard of living, which reminded the communist East Berliners of their poor living conditions. Between an estimated 3 million East Berliners crossed to the West. Most of these were skilled workers. This was a propaganda disaster for Khrushchev because it proved people preferred the Capitalist West. Khrushchev s response In November 1958, Khrushchev declared that the whole of Berlin belonged to East Germany and gave USA troops 6 months to leave. Eisenhower s response He did not want war or to lose West Berlin so international meetings were held. At the first two summits nothing was agreed. The third summit (1960 Paris Conference) was a disaster. Just before the conference a USA spy plane had been shot down by the USSR. Khrushchev walked out of the conference angry at the USA (new president Kennedy) devious attempts to discover Soviet secrets. Final conference (Geneva 1961) Khrushchev challenged Kennedy to withdraw troops or declare war. Kennedy prepares for war Kennedy refused to back down and increased the defence budget to an additional $3.2 billion and began to prepare America for war. Building the Wall Without warning Khrushchev responded by building the Berlin Wall on the night of 12 August It began as a barbed wire fence but by 17 August it was a stone wall. All movement between East and West Berlin ceased. Immediate effects It ended the refugee problem Western nations won a propaganda victory as it appeared Communist states needed to build a wall to keep their citizens in. 7

8 Long term effects It became a symbol of the division between capitalist West and Communist East. Kennedy made a visit to Berlin in 1963 declaring the city was a struggle between forces of freedom and Communist World. Cuba 8

9 This was the most serious conflict of the Cold War. The Cuban Revolution, 1959 It overthrew the pro American government. Castro (new leader) wanted more independence from America and took over all their property in Cuba. America responded by banning import of Cuban sugar which nearly bankrupted Cuba. Cuba turned to USSR for help. Khrushchev was pleased to have an ally only 145 km away from America. He offered economic aid. The Bay of Pigs, April 1961 Kennedy s plan was a CIA backed revolution to overthrow Cuba s communist government. Kennedy believed Castro government was unpopular and therefore the Cuban people would join the revolution. But the Cuban people supported Castro s government and the American backed force was defeated within 2 days. Cuba s response Castro feared another attack so asked Khrushchev for help. August 1961, he decided to station nuclear weapons on Cuban soil. This would prevent attack from America and have Russian missiles within striking distance from America. The events 9

10 Day Tuesday 16 Tuesday 23 Wednesday 24 Thursday 25 Friday 26 Saturday 27 Sunday 28 Tuesday 20 November Events Kennedy was told that Khrushchev intended to build missile sites in Cuba Khrushchev explains that the missile sites are "solely to defend Cuba against the attack of an aggressor". Twenty Russian ships head for Cuba. Khrushchev tells the captains to ignore the blockade. Khrushchev warns that Russia will have "a fitting reply to the aggressor". The first Russian ship reaches the naval blockade. It is an oil ship and is allowed through. The other Russian ships turn back. Secretly, the US government floats the idea of removing the missiles in Turkey in exchange for those in Cuba. Russia is still building the missile bases. In the morning, Kennedy considers an invasion of Cuba. It seems that war is about to break out. But at 6pm, Kennedy gets a telegram from Khrushchev offering to dismantle the sites if Kennedy lifts the blockade and promises not to invade Cuba. However, at 11am Khrushchev sends a second letter, demanding that Kennedy also dismantles American missile bases in Turkey. At noon on the same day, a U2 plane is shot down over Cuba. It looks as if a war is about to start after all. At 8.05pm, Kennedy sends a letter to Khrushchev, offering that if Khrushchev dismantles the missile bases in Cuba, America will lift the blockade and promise not to invade Cuba - and also dismantle the Turkish missile bases (as long as this is kept a secret). Khrushchev agrees to Kennedy's proposals. The crisis is over. Russian bombers leave Cuba, and Kennedy lifts the naval blockade. 10

11 Day Tuesday 16 Tuesday 23 Wednesday 24 Thursday 25 Friday 26 Saturday 27 Sunday 28 Tuesday 20 November Events Kennedy was told that Khrushchev intended to build missile sites in Cuba Khrushchev explains that the missile sites are "solely to defend Cuba against the attack of an aggressor". Twenty Russian ships head for Cuba. Khrushchev tells the captains to ignore the blockade. Khrushchev warns that Russia will have "a fitting reply to the aggressor". The first Russian ship reaches the naval blockade. It is an oil ship and is allowed through. The other Russian ships turn back. Secretly, the US government floats the idea of removing the missiles in Turkey in exchange for those in Cuba. Russia is still building the missile bases. In the morning, Kennedy considers an invasion of Cuba. It seems that war is about to break out. But at 6pm, Kennedy gets a telegram from Khrushchev offering to dismantle the sites if Kennedy lifts the blockade and promises not to invade Cuba. However, at 11am Khrushchev sends a second letter, demanding that Kennedy also dismantles American missile bases in Turkey. At noon on the same day, a U2 plane is shot down over Cuba. It looks as if a war is about to start after all. At 8.05pm, Kennedy sends a letter to Khrushchev, offering that if Khrushchev dismantles the missile bases in Cuba, America will lift the blockade and promise not to invade Cuba - and also dismantle the Turkish missile bases (as long as this is kept a secret). Khrushchev agrees to Kennedy's proposals. The crisis is over. Russian bombers leave Cuba, and Kennedy lifts the naval blockade. Results of the crisis 11

12 Leaders of both countries realised that nuclear war had been a real possibility and it was vital a similar crisis should not happen again. A telephone hotline was set up as a direct communications link between Washington and Moscow, June Limited Test Ban Treaty, July 1963 agreement to ban the testing of all nuclear weapons in space, sea and above ground. By 1965 USSR were on equal footing with USA in the Arms race. They both knew that a nuclear war would destroy both countries (Mutually Assured Destruction MAD) therefore was an excellent reason to avoid war. Czechoslovakia In 1967 Alexander Dubcek became Communist leader in Czechoslovakia. The events of the Prague Spring, April 1968 This was the name for the liberal changes introduced by Dubcek. Plan was to create socialism with a human face He introduced different reforms: 1. Relaxation of press censorship 2. Other political parties were allowed 3. Some political prisoners were released 4. Czech citizens given more freedom to travel abroad. These reforms were welcomed by students, intellectuals, workers and young members of Communist party; however the older Czech Communists were horrified. Soviet reaction Brezhnev (new leader of USSR) saw these reforms as a huge threat. He justified the invasion (Brezhnev Doctrine) by saying it threatened the security of the whole Eastern Bloc. August 1968, 400,000 Warsaw Pact troops entered Czechoslovakia, arresting leading reformers and seized key towns and cities. Many Czech people responded with non-violent civil disobedience. Dubcek was taken to Moscow for talks 27 August he returned and announced reforms were to stop and censorship reintroduced. Dubcek resigned 1969 and was replaced by Husak. Reaction from the rest of the world America publicly condemned the invasion, but offered no military support. 12

13 America was fighting in Vietnam, so Brezhnev knew that America would not get involved in Czechoslovakia as long as USSR did not get involved in Vietnam. Western European governments condemned invasion but offered no military support. Brezhnev s actions also led to discontent in Eastern Europe. Yugoslavia and Romania condemned the invasion and formed alliances with China, the other major communist power. The doctrine and the Soviet actions in Czechoslovakia did nothing to improve relations between USA and USSR. The Brezhnev Doctrine declared that force would be used whenever necessary to keep the Soviet satellites firmly under Soviet control. Détente Section 6 Why did the Cold War end? 13

14 The policy of détente refers to the time in the 1960s-1970s when the two superpowers eased tension and tried to cooperate to avoid conflict in the Cold War. 1. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT 1) 1969 USA and USSR began negotiations to control the arms race. In 1972 SALT 1 was signed. Agreed to no further production of strategic ballistic missiles Significant because first agreement that limited number of nuclear weapons. 2. Co-operation in space, July 1975 Joint space mission in which an American Apollo spacecraft and a Russian Soyuz spacecraft docked together in orbit around the earth. Marked the beginning of co-operation in space. 3. Helsinki Conference, August countries including USSR and USA signed this agreement. High point for Détente Western powers recognised frontiers of Eastern Europe and Soviet influence in the area. West Germany officially recognised East Germany Soviets agreed to buy USA grain and to export oil to the West All countries agreed to improve human rights throughout the world. (Not all resolutions were put into force - abuses of human rights continued in USSR and other countries after 1975) The Kabul Revolution, April 1978 The collapse of Détente Brezhnev saw the communist revolution in Afghanistan as a chance to extend his power in the oil rich Middle East. The Soviet Invasion, December 1979 Brezhnev believed that America would allow the invasion, as it had done in Czechoslovakia USSR was concerned that the civil war would lead to a creation of an Islamic state and influence nearby Soviet republics to do the same. USA secretly began to send very large shipments of money, arms and equipment to the Mujahidin rebels who were fighting the Soviet troops. The war was a disaster for the Soviet Union, it lasted 10 years and around 1.5 million people died. It was a severe drain on their finances. The American response 14

15 President Carter was appalled at the Soviet aggression which he viewed as an invasion that could not be justified. The Soviets defended their actions and said they have been invited to restore order. The Carter Doctrine USA would not allow the USSR to gain control of territory in the oil rich Middle East. Carter stopped virtually all trade with the USSR and ended diplomatic relations. The End of Détente Carter withdrew from the SALT II negotiations which would have further limited the number of nuclear weapons Carter led a boycott which involved 60 countries of the 1980 Moscow Olympics. USSR responded by boycotting the Los Angeles Olympics along with 14 communist countries. Carter formed an alliance with China to support Afghan rebels. By 1980 Détente was dead and relations were at their lowest point since 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. The period after the invasion is often described as the Second Cold War. President Reagan and the Second Cold War He rejected the idea of peaceful co-existence, and felt the USA needed to get tough. In a speech in 1983 he described the USSR as that evil empire. He argued that the Cold War was a fight between good and evil. He believed that the USA could win the Cold War. Star Wars He believed that the USSR should be forced to disarm by a new initiative SDI (Strategic Defence Initiative) nicknamed Star Wars. It was a satellite anti-missile system that would orbit the earth to protect the USA from any Soviet missiles. Satellites equipped with powerful lasers would act as a nuclear umbrella against Soviet nuclear weapons. This was a turning point in the arms race. USSR could not compete. They did not have enough wealth and they did not have the development of computers that was needed. President Gorbachev and the end of the Second World War Became leader of USSR in He wanted to reform the old Soviet system. He believed the USSR could no longer compete and needed to reform. He introduced: 15

16 1. Perestroika economic reforms designed to make Soviet economy more efficient and allow more competition. 2. Glasnost openness of the government and censorship of the press was to be relaxed. Improving relations Gorbachev realised the USSR could not continue the Cold War because: 1. It was still fighting in Afghanistan; 2. Economy could not afford to increase defence spending; 3. USA was ahead in space and computer technology; 4. USA was ahead in the arms race; 5. Growing discontent in Soviet states with Soviet control. Gorbachev and Reagan met in Geneva in November 1985, but there was no formal agreement on arms limitations. Met again at Reykjavik but because Reagan refused to drop SDI no agreement was made INF (Intermediate range Nuclear forces) treaty, 1987 signed which removed all medium range nuclear weapons from Europe. Gorbachev signed the treaty because: 1. He believed this would increase his popularity in the West; 2. Soviet economy could not recover due to amount being spent on nuclear weapons; 3. Reagan told Gorbachev he had no intention of invading USSR. During 1989 Gorbachev and new American president Bush met and announced the end of the Cold War. The Break-up of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe 16

17 It became apparent that the Soviet Union no longer had the power to prevent changes. Poland Free elections held in June Non Communist leader Walesa was elected. East Germany tried to prevent change but troops refused to fire on demonstrators and in November 1989 Berlin Wall was pulled down. Czechoslovakia November 1989 anti-communist demonstrations. Free elections in Romania revolution December 1989 unpopular communist leader was shot Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia declared themselves independent of the Soviet Union. The fall of the Berlin Wall Symbolised the end of the Cold War. 9 th November 1989 the East German government announced much greater freedom of travel for East German citizens, including crossing into West Germany. East Berliners fled to the checkpoints and border guards let them pass East and West Germany became a single country. The fall of the Soviet Union Gorbachev was seen as weak within the Soviet Union and a group of senior communist officials (gang of eight) organised a coup on 19 August 1991 which removed Gorbachev from power. Boris Yeltsin (future president of Russia) helped to defeat the coup. Gorbachev returned but his authority had been damaged. He tried to introduce a new constitution but this was unsuccessful and he announced the dissolution of the Soviet Union on 25 December This was the end of the Cold War. 17

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