CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS

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2 CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS

3 HOW FAR IS CUBA FROM THE COAST OF FLORIDA? 90 MILES

4 AFTER THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR, WHAT COUNTRY S CORPORATIONS CONTROLLED MUCH OF THE COMMERCE OF CUBA? THE UNITED STATES

5 BACKGROUND CUBA, SMALL ISLAND, 90 MILES FROM FL U.S. BUSINESSES CONTROLLED MUCH OF CUBA, U.S. MILITARY BASE (GUANTANAMO) 1959, FIDEL CASTRO OVERTHROWS BATISTA (US- BACKED DICTATOR) Castro enters Havana 1959

6 WHAT HAPPENED THAT WORSENED U.S.-CUBAN RELATIONS AFTER CASTRO TOOK POWER? CASTRO NATIONALIZED U.S. INDUSTRIES, I.E. SUGAR

7 RELATIONS WORSEN CASTRO TAKES OVER U.S. BUSINESSES JANUARY 1961, US BREAKS OFF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS APRIL, 1961, BAY OF PIGS 1,400 ANTI-CUBAN EXILES ATTEMPTED TO OVERTHROW CASTRO BY AUTUMN 1962, CUBA HAS RECEIVED 1000S OF USSR MISSILES, JETS, BOATS & PERSONNEL Kruschev embraces Castro

8 WHY WAS THE USSR INTERESTED IN HELPING CUBA? TO HELP A NEW COMMUNIST STATE TO GET A LAUNCH BASE FOR INTER-CONTINENTAL MISSILES (ICMS) TO TEST STRENGTH OF NEW U.S. PRESIDENT, JFK KHRUSHCHEV WANTED TO FORCE JFK TO BARGAIN OVER U.S. MISSILES IN EUROPE Why does this cartoonist think that Khrushchev was interested in Cuba?

9 14 OCTOBER 1962, U.S. U-2 SPY PLANE TAKES PHOTOS OF SUSPECTED USSR MISSILE SITES IN CUBA

10 MISSILE SITES NEARING COMPLETION, COULD BE READY IN 7 DAYS 20 Soviet ships bound for Cuba carrying missiles!

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12 THE MISSILES:

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15 The world holds its breath.

16 OPTIONS AIR STRIKE AT LEAST AGAINST MISSILE SITES, AND PERHAPS AGAINST WIDER TARGETS MAY PROVOKE A SOVIET RESPONSE IN WEST BERLIN DO NOTHING IGNORE MISSILES IN CUBA. U.S. HAD MILITARY BASES IN 127 DIFFERENT COUNTRIES INCLUDING CUBA. U.S. HAD NUCLEAR MISSILES IN SEVERAL COUNTRIES CLOSE TO THE SOVIET UNION. THEREFORE, ONLY RIGHT THAT THE SOVIET UNION SHOULD BE ALLOWED TO PLACE MISSILES IN CUBA. DIPLOMACY/NEGOTIATE OFFER THE SOVIET UNION A DEAL USSR REMOVE MISSILES IN CUBA U.S. WITHDRAW ITS NUCLEAR MISSILES FROM TURKEY AND ITALY. MILITARY BLOCKADE USE THE US NAVY TO BLOCK ANY MISSILES FROM ARRIVING IN CUBA ANNOUNCE THAT ANY SHIPS COMING INTO CUBA WOULD BE SEARCHED FOR WEAPONS BEFORE ENTERING SOVIET SHIPS COULD DECIDE TO NOT STOP WHEN U.S. SHIPS BLOCKED THEM WHICH COULD TRIGGER GUNFIRE AND POSSIBLE ESCALATION INVASION SEND TROOPS TO OVERTHROW CASTRO MISSILES COULD THEN BE PUT OUT OF ACTION NUCLEAR WEAPONS USE NUCLEAR WEAPONS AGAINST CUBA AND/OR THE SOVIET UNION.

17 WHAT WOULD YOU HAVE DONE? 1. Air Strike 2. Do Nothing 3. Diplomacy/Negotiate 4. Military Blockade 5. Invasion 6. Nuclear Weapons With a partner, rank the options from your most preferred option to your least preferred option

18 WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENED? 10/20--JFK DECIDES TO BLOCKADE CUBA 10/22-- PUBLICLY CALLS ON KHRUSHCHEV TO REMOVE WEAPONS

19 10/24 SOVIET SHIPS (ACCOMPANIED BY SUBMARINE) APPROACH BLOCKADE ZONE 10/24, 10:32 AM, SOVIET SHIPS STOP & TURN ROUND

20 WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? 10/25-- PHOTOS SHOW CONTINUED CONSTRUCTION OF MISSILE SITES 10/26--KENNEDY RECEIVES OFFER: WE LL REMOVE MISSILES IF YOU END BLOCKADE & PROMISE NOT TO INVADE CUBA 10/27--JFK RECEIVES 2 ND LETTER CALLING FOR WITHDRAWAL OF US MISSILES IN TURKEY TOO

21 10/28--KHRUSHCHEV AGREES TO DISMANTLE SOVIET MISSILES IN CUBA U.S. PUBLICLY DECLARES IT WILL NEVER INVADE CUBA & SECRETLY AGREES TO DISMANTLE MISSILES IN TURKEY What is this cartoonist trying to say about the difficulties facing Kennedy during the Crisis?

22 OUTCOME CUBA REMAINED COMMUNIST & HEAVILY ARMED, BUT WITHOUT NUCLEAR MISSILES WORLD SAW THE FUTILITY OF THE IDEA OF MUTUALLY ASSURED DESTRUCTION (MAD) SUPPORTED THEORY OF CONTAINMENT & CO-EXISTENCE BECAUSE ALTERNATIVES UNIMAGINABLE PERMANENT HOTLINE BETWEEN WHITE HOUSE & KREMLIN SET UP U.S. & U.S.S.R NEGOTIATE A NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY

23 SS5H8 THE STUDENT WILL DESCRIBE THE IMPORTANCE OF KEY PEOPLE, EVENTS, AND DEVELOPMENTS BETWEEN a. DISCUSS THE IMPORTANCE OF THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS AND THE VIETNAM WAR. HOW SUCCESSFUL WAS THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER NATIONS IN EQ. WHY DID THE US HELP SOUTH VIETNAM? LIMITING AND CONTAINING COMMUNISM OR SOCIALISM IN THE WORLD? HOW WAS VIETNAM UNLIKE ANY WAR WE HAD FOUGHT?

24 THE VIETNAM WAR (DURING THE COLD WAR) Pages 422 through 427 MAIN IDEA The US fought a war against communism in Vietnam. ( ) Vietnam was a French colony. France and Vietnam decided to split the country into: -North Vietnam (became communist) -South Vietnam (became free) A group of communist in South Vietnam tried to overthrow South Vietnam's free government. --Communist fighters in the south were called the Vietcong. They were supported by North Vietnam. -At first, the US only sent advisors and supplies. -In 1965, the US started sending troops. US INVOLVEMENT EQ. What did the Vietcong do to fight against the technology of the US?

25 THE VIETNAM WAR (DURING THE COLD WAR) FIGHTING INCREASES THE ANTIWAR MOVEMENT OPINIONS PROTESTING & DEMONSTRATIONS The North Vietnamese army joined the Vietcong in attacks against US troops. As fighting increased, Lyndon B. Johnson sent more troops to help South Vietnam. The US had advanced technology: tanks, bombers, helicopters The Vietcong did not have advanced weapons. They fought in small groups, used tunnels and the jungle to hide. (The Vietcong were fast moving.) Even the US had better technology, the Vietcong controlled most of the south. Anti=against Main Idea Many people in the US were against the war. Reasons for the antiwar movement Losing troops and cost of the war TV brought images of the war into US homes every night. What people saw - difficult battles, effects of US bombing on civilians, Stop communism vs. stay out of the war Draft-when needed, the US chose which young men would go to war. This upset many people. Many citizens participated in demonstrations against the war. EQ. What did the Vietcong do to fight against the technology of the US?

26 THE VIETNAM WAR (DURING THE COLD WAR) GETTING OUT OF THE WAR President Richard Nixon started bringing troops home, at the same time the US increased bombing N. Vietnam, S. Vietnam, & the US signed a cease-fire. US soldiers came home. Communist kept attacking. N. Vietnam defeated South Vietnam. Over 55,000 US troops died. The US lost this war against the spread of communism in Vietnam. EQ. What did the Vietcong do to fight against the technology of the US?

27 THE VIETNAM WAR

28 THE CONFLICT IN VIETNAM DURING THE COLD WAR (1950S-1960S) THE UNITED STATES TRIED TO STOP THE SPREAD OF COMMUNISM. VIETNAM WANTED INDEPENDENCE FROM THE FRENCH AND WON IT IN 1954 VIETNAM WAS SPLIT INTO NORTH AND SOUTH VIETNAM NORTH VIETNAM WAS COMMUNIST. SOUTH VIETNAM WAS NON-COMMUNIST IN THE 1960S, A GROUP OF COMMUNISTS IN SOUTH VIETNAM WANTED TO REMOVE THE NON COMMUNIST GOVERNMENT CONFLICT

29 THE FIGHTING THE COMMUNIST FIGHTERS IN SOUTH VIETNAM WERE CALLED THE VIETCONG AT FIRST, THE UNITED STATES MILITARY HELP THEM WITH ADVISORS AND SUPPLIES IN 1965, THE USA BEGAN SENDING SOLDIERS TO FIGHT IN VIETNAM THE U.S TROOPS USED ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY: HELICOPTERS, TANKS AND BOMBERS. DESPITE THE U.S POWERFUL WEAPONS, THE VIETCONG CONTROLLED MOST OF SOUTH VIETNAM

30 THE VIETCONG LIVED AMONG CIVILIANS IN VIETNAMESE CITIES AND VILLAGES. WHO IS THE ENEMY? THE VIETCONG USED GUERILLA TACTICS TO COMBAT U.S. MILITARY SUPERIORITY. JUNGLES MADE FIGHTING DIFFICULT.

31 FIGHTING THE WAR IN VIETNAM

32 THE U.S TACTICS TO FIGHT THE U S MILITARY USED A VARIETY OF TACTICS TO FIGHT THE WAR IN VIETNAM. THE WAR SOLDIERS WERE SENT ON DEADLY SEARCH & DESTROY MISSIONS INTO THE JUNGLES TO FIND THE VIETCONG. IN THE US, TV BROADCASTS REPORTED DEATHS, ATROCITIES, DECLINING TROOP MORALE, & LACK OF GAINS IN THE WAR. MY LAI MASSACRE 1968.

33 U.S TROOPS IN VIETNAM

34 A VICIOUS WAR

35 AS THE FIGHTING IN VIETNAM CONTINUED, THE COSTS OF THE WAR GREW (BILLIONS OF DOLLARS SPENT) THE ANTIWAR MOVEMENT MORE AND MORE SOLDIERS WERE DYING. THE MEDIA SHOWED THE TERRIBLE EFFECT OF THE UNITED STATES AIR BOMBINGS ON CIVILIANS. AMERICANS PROTESTED AT ANTIWAR MARCHES AND DEMONSTRATIONS.

36 THE PROTESTS

37 GETTING OUT OF VIETNAM AND NORTH VIETNAM TAKES OVER RICHARD NIXON BECAME PRESIDENT IN JANUARY HE BEGAN TO BRING TROOPS HOME FROM VIETNAM. IN 1973, NORTH VIETNAM, SOUTH VIETNAM AND THE UNITED SATES SIGNED A CEASE-FIRE: (AN AGREEMENT TO STOP THE FIGHTING) ONCE THE U.S TROOPS WERE GONE, THE COMMUNISTS BEGAN ATTACKING AGAIN. TWO YEARS LATER, NORTH VIETNAM DEFEATED SOUTH VIETNAM.

38 IN THE END OVER 55,000 AMERICANS HAD DIED. THE NATION HAD LOST ITS BATTLE TO STOP COMMUNISM IN VIETNAM. THE VIETNAM WAR DEEPLY DIVIDED PEOPLE AND COST MANY AMERICANS AND VIETNAMESE LIVES.

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