Chapter 7: Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood. After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

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1 Chapter 7: Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood After reading this chapter, you should be able to: 7.1 Describe changes in body size and proportions during early childhood. (pp ) 7.2 Discuss brain development in early childhood, including the frontal lobes and differences between the cerebral hemispheres. (pp ) 7.3 Identify the leading cause of childhood mortality in industrialized countries; summarize factors related to unintentional childhood injuries, and cite preventive measures. (pp ) 7.4 Cite advances in gross and fine motor development in early childhood, including individual and sex differences. (pp ) 7.5 Describe advances in mental representation during the preschool years, including the changes in and benefits of make-believe play. (pp ) 7.6 Describe the limitations of preoperational thought, including egocentrism, inability to conserve, and irreversibility. (pp ) 7.7 Summarize recent research showing that Piaget underestimated several aspects of preschoolers thought processes. (pp ) 7.8 Describe three educational principles derived from Piaget s theory. (p. 233) 7.9 Contrast Piaget s and Vygotsky s views on the development and significance of children s private speech. (pp ) 7.10 Explain Vygotsky s position on the social origins of cognitive development, including the role of scaffolding. (p. 235) 7.11 Discuss applications of Vygotsky s theory to education, and summarize challenges to his ideas. (pp ) 7.12 Describe the development of attention, planning, and memory during early childhood; explain why children perform poorly on recall tasks and describe their use of scripts for remembering familiar events. (pp ) 7.13 Describe young children s theory of mind. (pp ) 7.14 Describe the impact of home environment, educational programs, child care, and media on mental development in early childhood. (pp ) 7.15 Trace the development of vocabulary, grammar, and conversational skills, and cite factors that support language learning in early childhood. (pp ) 1

2 Note: Answers to practice tests are at the end of this document. Chapter 7 Practice Test 1. During Early Childhood, on average, children grow in height and in weight each year. a. 1 to 2 inches; 3 to 4 pounds c. 3 to 4 inches; 7 pounds b. 2 to 3 inches; 5 pounds d. 4 to 5 inches; 9 pounds 2. Between ages 2 and 6 years, the brain increases from percent of its adult weight. a. 25 to 40 c. 55 to 70 b. 40 to 55 d. 70 to Not usually mastered until around age 6, is often considered to be the most complex selfhelp skill developed in early childhood. a. eating with utensils c. brushing teeth b. fastening buttons d. tying shoes 4. Preschoolers who spend more time at sociodramatic play are generally rated by their teachers as compared to their agemates. a. more socially competent c. more egocentric b. less imaginative d. less animistic 5. Billy s difficulty grasping the principle of conservation helps to explain his: a. inability to see more than one person s point of view at a time b. tendency to draw a picture of a dime three times its normal size c. inability to understand that a Chihuahua and a Great Dane are both dogs d. inability to understand that a short cup and taller, narrower glass hold the same amount 6. Although Piaget s three-mountains task suggests that preoperational children cannot take the perspective of others, recent research has shown that when investigators, 4-year-olds show clear awareness of others vantage points. a. include familiar objects and other assessment methods b. permit children to walk around the display c. use mountains of differing heights d. use picture-selection methods 7. Research indicates that children who use private speech during a challenging activity than their less talkative agemates. a. depend more on help from adults c. are more egocentric b. are less cognitively sophisticated d. tend to do better 8. To remember a given instance of a repeated event, children and adults use, general descriptions of the typical sequence of events in a particular situation. a. hierarchical classification b. scaffolds c. dual representation d. scripts 2

3 9. Theory of mind research indicates that by age 3, children realize that a. a person can think about something without seeing it, touching it, or talking about it b. people continue to think while they are waiting or otherwise not doing something c. people do not always behave in ways that are consistent with their desires d. if you know something you are more certain than if you guessed 10. I hurted myself when I falled down is an example of a. the past imperfect c. overregularization b. literal translation d. egocentric speech Chapter 8: Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood 8.1 Describe Erikson s initiative versus guilt stage, noting major personality changes of early childhood. (p. 256) 8.2 Discuss preschool children s self-understanding, including characteristics of self-concepts and emergence of self-esteem. (pp ) 8.3 Describe changes in the understanding of emotion during early childhood. (pp ) 8.4 Explain how language and temperament contribute to the development of emotional selfregulation during the preschool years, and discuss ways in which adults can help young children manage common fears of early childhood. (p ) 8.5 Discuss the development of self-conscious emotions, empathy, sympathy, and prosocial behavior during early childhood, noting the influence of parenting. (pp ) 8.6 Describe advances in peer sociability in early childhood, with attention to the types of play outlined by Mildred Parten; discuss parental influences on early peer relations. (pp ) 8.7 Compare psychoanalytic, social learning, and cognitive-developmental approaches to moral development, and cite child-rearing practices that support or undermine moral understanding. (pp ) 8.8 Describe the development of aggression in early childhood, distinguishing between its different forms; note the influences of family and television, and cite strategies for controlling aggressive behavior. (pp ) 8.9 Describe preschoolers gender-stereotyped beliefs and behaviors, and discuss genetic and environmental influences on gender-stereotyped beliefs and behavior. (pp ) 8.10 Describe and evaluate the major theories of gender identity development. (pp ) 8.11 Describe the four styles of child rearing, explain why authoritative parenting is effective, and note cultural variations in child-rearing beliefs and practices. (pp ) 8.12 Describe the four forms of child maltreatment and who commits them; discuss the multiple origins of child maltreatment, its consequences for development, and effective prevention. (pp ) 3

4 Chapter 8 Practice Test 1. According to Erikson, the negative outcome of early childhood is an that causes children to feel too much. a. overly strict superego; guilt c. undifferentiated ego; confusion b. overly indulgent id; pleasure d. unrestrained id; greed 2. If you ask 4-year-old Kate to describe herself, she would probably describe herself in terms of a. personality traits c. interests and goals b. mental abilities d. observable characteristics 3. During the preschool years, empathy becomes an important motivator of a. prosocial behavior c. secure attachment b. identity achievement d. self-esteem 4. Vinny and Kaylee are both building towers from the same pile of blocks, but they don t talk to each other or direct each other s activities. They are engaged in play. a. cooperative c. nonsocial b. associative d. parallel 5. Inductive discipline a. sometimes produces overwhelming feelings of guilt in children b. often produces such high levels of fear and stress that children cannot think clearly enough to figure out what they should do c. points out the impact of children s action on others and provides them with reasons for changing their behavior d. may stop unacceptable behavior temporarily, but does not lead to internalization of moral norms 6. Which of the following is supported by research on childhood aggression? a. In early childhood, physical aggression gradually replaces verbal aggression. b. Aggressive outbursts decrease over the course of early childhood. c. Psychologically healthy children never behave aggressively. d. Girls rely more on relational aggression than boys do. 7. Preschoolers gender stereotypes tend to be a. nonexistent until at least kindergarten b. stronger for girls than for boys c. rigid and inflexible d. all of the above 8. Molly says, Only girls can be nurses. Molly a. has not yet attained gender constancy b. has an androgynous gender identity c. is a gender aschematic child d. is a gender schematic child 4

5 9. A(n) child rearing style involves high acceptance and involvement, adaptive control techniques, and appropriate autonomy granting. a. uninvolved c. authoritarian b. permissive d. authoritative 10. Research on child maltreatment shows that a. most parents who were abused as children become abusers b. abusive parents tend to respond to stressful situations with high emotional arousal c. abuse depends more strongly on children s characteristics than on parents characteristics d. all of the above Answers to Practice Tests Ch. 7: 1. b 2. d 3. d 4. a 5. d 6. a 7. d 8. d 9. a 10. c Ch. 8: 1. a 2. d 3. a 4. d 5. c 6. d 7. c 8. d 9. d 10. b 5

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