The size of the Universe The Big Bang. L[Watts] intensity = Today. How do we determine distances?

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1 Today Announcements: No one got a perfect score on Exam #2, so I will make the exam out of 39 HW#8 is due 26 March at 8:00am. Watch for the chance to vote on the Spring Break Stories. The size of the Universe The Big Bang How do we determine distances? Radar nearby things like the Sun Parallax 1 arcsec motion 1 parsec (pc) = 3.24 ly Spectroscopic parallax use location on the Hertzsrpung Russell diagram ISP209s8 Lecture ISP209s8 Lecture Stellar Parallax Why is there always r 2? I hate r 2. 1 arcsec corresponds to a distance of 1 parsec (pc) = 3.24 ly Distances to 300 ly can be measured this way ISP209s8 Lecture Inverse square law intensity = L[Watts] 2 4π d If we know L the luminosity (measured in watts), and measure the intensity, we can determine d, the distance to the source ISP209s8 Lecture 19-4-

2 Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram Map of the night time sky ISP209s8 Lecture ISP209s8 Lecture The Great Galaxy in Andromeda M31 The Pace of Science Astronomers have studied the sky for thousands of years, but 90% of all astronomical information has been obtained obtained since For example, in 1900 scientists believed that the universe: Was infinitely old Was infinitely large Contained only one galaxy (the Milky Way) Did not change with time Was uniform throughout (problem with Olber s paradox) All of these are false! ISP209s8 Lecture ISP209s8 Lecture 19-8-

3 How do we know how far away galaxies are? Kypteyn Universe study of visible stars The picture people had until 1922 Map of all known stars- Distance guessed based on brightness ISP209s8 Lecture Edwin Hubble In 1922 Edwin Hubble measured the brightness of variable stars in the Andromeda galaxy. He discovered that the Andromeda galaxy was about 2.5 million light years away. He was the first person to demonstrate the size of the Universe and the the Milky Way is not the only galaxy. ISP209s8 Lecture Variable Stars standard candles RR Lyrae The structure of our local set of galaxies You are here Cepheids Once you find a variable star, you know how luminous it is. ISP209s8 Lecture ISP209s8 Lecture

4 Sloan Digital Sky Survey of Galaxies The Universe 2000 Mly Earth The Universe is not uniform. The 200 billion galaxies are clustered into large clumps with vase voids in between Why? Answer: It must have started that way and gravity is slowly pulling things together ISP209s8 Lecture ISP209s8 Lecture Something Else!?! Hubble s Law The further away an object is, the faster it is receding. Speed = H 0 x d The Hubble Constant: H 0 = 77 km/s/mpc ISP209s8 Lecture How Did the Universe Begin? It looks like the Universe started about 14 billion years ago and has been expanding (space stretching) ever since. The model of what happened is called the Big Bang. Why do we think so? There is a lot we don t understand. What came before? What caused the big bang? Why is there more matter than anti-matter in the Universe? ISP209s8 Lecture

5 Evidence for the Big Bang The expansion of the universe: All galaxies appear to be moving away from us. The abundances of the lightest elements produced in the Big Bang: the universe is mostly hydrogen and helium. The cosmic microwave background radiation: It looks like we are in the middle of a big oven with a temperature of ~3 Kelvin. ISP209s8 Lecture Because he was able to measure distance, Hubble observed that on average all galaxies seem to be moving away from us. The speed is related to distance. Galaxies farther away are moving faster. No matter where you are, everything is moving away! Hubble Expansion ISP209s8 Lecture It looks like we are in the middle of an oven The Great Galaxy in Andromeda M31 The spectrum is identical to that of a blackbody at 3 Kelvin! Looking far away is like looking back in time. What is we look very far back? ISP209s8 Lecture ISP209s8 Lecture

6 What we see as we look away from the Earth The History of the Universe Picture of the Universe at 300,000 years old WMAP observatory We are effectively looking back in time. ISP209s8 Lecture ISP209s8 Lecture The pattern indicates that the Universe is 13.7 billion years old. What about the future? Until very recently (past 5 years) we thought it was possible that the Universe might end in a Big Crunch. This would be the case if the mass of the Universe were large enough to halt the expansion and bring everything back together. In this model the Universe could be a neverending cycle of Big Bangs and Big Crunches. The microwave background measured by WMAP points to an ever expanding Universe. ISP209s8 Lecture Big Bang Timeline (the early moments) First nuclei formed Atoms formed ISP209s8 Lecture

7 Inflation of the Universe Why does time always move in one direction? Inflation during the Big Bang resulted in a universe that had a very low entropy, much too low for its size. It was like the Universe started with all heads. Hence, everything in the universe moves toward reaching the correct amount of entropy. Time has a direction because going back in time would imply the entropy could be decreased. That is very improbable. The universe tends toward increasing entropy. What is time? Meters Years since the Big Bang The existence of an unknown scalar field caused the rapid inflation of the Universe Space stretched by times! ISP209s8 Lecture ISP209s8 Lecture

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