Gravity slows down the expansion

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1 Key Concepts: Lecture 33: The Big Bang! Age of the Universe and distances from H 0 Gravity slows down the expansion Closed, Flat and Open Universes Evidence for the Big Bang (Galactic Evolution; Microwave Background; Nucleosynthesis) Modern Theory for Galaxy Formation and Evolution Inflation and the very early Universe The final fate of the Universe So the age of the Universe would be less than we estimated based on constant velocities, because velocities were faster in the past. If there is enough mass (in other words if the density of the Universe is above a critical value) then perhaps the expansion can be reversed: the future of the Universe depends on this. (Like the escape speed from a planet: do the galaxies have enough speed to overcome their gravitational attraction?) Big Crunch Hubble s Constant Fate and Geometry of the Universe depends on its contents Also gives us an estimate of the age of the universe Trace expansion back to size=0 Age = time of expansion = τ o = d/v = 1/H o H o =70km/s/Mpc τ o =14 billion Years Also, once we know H 0 this allows us to measure cosmic distances by measuring velocity from Redshift (Dopper shift) of spectral lines: v = H o d so d = v / H 0 Big Bang Big Crunch

2 Recall General Relativity: matter causes space to curve So what kind of Universe do we live in? The critical density is very small: about 9x10-27 kg/m3. However, when we add up all the mass in the Universe (including Dark Matter) the density is less than this. Therefore the Universe will expand forever. The Geometry of Space If density > critical density Closed Universe: Space curves in on itself Described by spherical geometry No parallel lines Finite ( closed ) in volume, but has no boundaries (no edge ). Like surface of a sphere, but in 3 dimensions The Universe will turn around and collapse to Big Crunch If density = critical density Spatially Flat Universe (Euclidean geometry) Infinite in volume The universe expands forever, but just barely If density < critical density Open Universe Infinite in volume Easily expands forever Cosmic Acceleration and Dark Energy In the late 1990s astronomers found tentative evidence that the Universe is accelerating rather than decelerating: the expansion is getting faster! Requires a new force, known as Dark Energy (also known as the Cosmological Constant - as it appears in Einstein s equations) Can be thought of as an energy field that fills all space and acts as a sort of pressure that pushes the universe apart. The nature of Dark Energy is still very mysterious, but it seems even more likely that the Universe will expand forever (no Big Crunch - phew!).

3 Overall composition of the Universe Did the Big Bang really occur? An alternative view is the Steady State theory of the Universe: the galaxies are always moving away from each other, but new matter is continually created to keep the density constant. Thus there is no beginning to the Universe (it is infinitely old), and there was no Big Bang. We can look back in time to test between the Big Bang and Steady State theories Observed expansion of the universe (the receding galaxies) suggests a beginning in a Big Bang Looking Back to See the Past Due to the finite speed of light We observe objects as they appeared when they emitted their light More distant objects are further back in time The time it takes for the light to reach us is the look back time Big Bang EVIDENCE FOR BIG BANG THEORY: 1. The Universe looks different in the past - More Quasars than there are now - Galaxies are smaller, forming stars more quickly - We have not detected any object with a look back time > 13 billion years

4 Recall: Active Galaxies The Hubble Ultra Deep Field Quasars were the first type found in the 1960s Normal Galaxies Gas, dust & stars Star formation Active Galaxies Powerful compact energy source in nucleus AGN (Active Galactic Nucleus) can outshine entire galaxy Not due to normal stars NGC 4151 Manifestations Variable luminosity: changes over several years Strong & broad emission line spectra Radio emission and jets This is the deepest image (i.e. showing the faintest objects) that humankind has made Galaxies and AGN were very different in the past X-rays, gamma rays, UV emission The black hole paradigm to explain AGN Supermassive hole = Msun Release gravitational energy as matter falls in Rotating matter organizes into a disk Hot inner parts of disk emit brightly in x-ray-optical Rotating BH acts like particle accelerator to produce radio jets More evidence for the Big Bang: 2. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) - The Big Bang model predicts the Universe was very dense and HOT during its early stages. - If we look back far enough in time we should be able to see this hot gas in every direction. - This gas should have a temperature of about 3000K (because at this temperature H starts to become ionized, so only the cooler, more recent times are transparent to light). - So we should see blackbody radiation from a 3000K gas. - But because of the expansion of the Universe, this radiation is redshifted to much longer wavelengths.

5 Recombination T=3000 K, ~400,000 years after Big Bang Atoms are ionized when T>3000K Before (T>3000K) Photons could not travel far Electrons would scatter photons After (T<3000K) Electrons RECOMBINE with nuclei to form neutral atoms Now only certain energies of photons interact with matter The universe is transparent to light This time or recombination defines the limit of the observable universe The Cosmic Microwave Background Robert Wilson & Arno Penzias Found radio emission in all directions (1964) Won 1978 Nobel Prize Shows dipole (red shift one direction blue shift the other) Due to motion of the Earth, Sun, Galaxy Perfect Black Body <1% deviation Originally T=3000 K black body Cooled by universal expansion to T=2.7K Recall Wien s Law Fluctuations in the CMB Small fluctuations (1 part in 100,000) in the CMB were first seen in the early 1990s Caused because some parts of the Universe are slightly denser and hotter than others. What causes this? We don t really know: these are the primordial fluctuations of our Universe. The dense regions collapsed to form galaxies and clusters of galaxies, while the low density regions became the voids (regions with very few galaxies). More evidence for the Big Bang: 3. Nucleosynthesis (fusion) in the early Universe - Earlier in the Universe s history the temperature would have been even higher than 3000K. - For a few minutes after the Big Bang, the temperature was greater than 10 million K: hot enough for H to fuse into He (recall the main sequence of stars). - The Big Bang model predicts there was enough time to fuse about 25% of the H nuclei into He. - Thus everywhere we look in the Universe today should have at least 1/4 of its mass in He. This is what we see!

6 Recall the fusion process: The Big Bang model also makes a successful prediction for the amounts of deuterium and Helium-3 (the intermediate products of the reaction). However, this model requires that most matter was not in the form of protons and neutrons: more evidence for DARK MATTER. History of the Universe in 1 slide Modern Theory of Galaxy Formation and Evolution Galaxies form from gas that is collected by the gravitational pull of dark matter halos. The gas typically settles into rotating disks. Initially all the non dark matter mass is hydrogen and helium gas. Stars form from this gas at a fast rate. As they undergo stellar evolution, heavy elements (like carbon, oxygen, silicon, iron) are made and returned to the gas. Supermassive black holes form and grow at the centers of most galaxies. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis: the first 3 minutes Large galaxies were built up from smaller ones by collisions and mergers, often triggering a starburst (burst of star formation) and black hole growth. Mergers are most common in groups and clusters of galaxies. Most large galaxies today have used up most of their gas and have relatively little ongoing star formation.

7 Illustris simulation video Inflation GUT (Grand Unified Theory) phase transition: seconds, T=10 28 K Before, all forces of nature except gravity were the same (unified) The nuclear strong force The electromagnetic force The weak force After transition strong force is no longer unified False vacuum adds pressure to universe Similar to super cooling water: phase transition of liquid to solid - energy is released Universe grows by a factor of in seconds! Problems for the Standard Big Bang Theory Horizon problem: why is the Cosmic Microwave Background so homogeneous (the same temperature in every direction)? How did opposite sides of the observable Universe know about each other? Flatness problem: why is the density of the Universe so close to the critical value? Deviations away from the critical density grow and are amplified as the Universe expands, so the present density requires initial conditions that were tuned VERY precisely (to 1 part in 10 15!) Inflation Solves Horizon problem Rapid expansion means entire observable universe was close together at one time Thus the universe was causally connected

8 Inflation Solves Flatness problem Curvature before inflation is expanded Grossly inflated universe will be nearly flat The Fate of the Universe: Eternal Expansion (This slide will not be tested on the exam) Black Hole Era : only black holes remain Stellar mass black holes evaporate by yr 10 6 M sun BHs evaporate by yr Largest BHs evaporate by yr The Dark Era : photons, neutrinos, electrons, positrons - very low density. Do we live in a special time? Or can life continue in the far future? (Copernican Time Principle - Freeman Dyson) The Fate of the Universe: Eternal Expansion (This slide will not be tested on the exam) We are living in a special Stelliferous Era : there are lots of stars. Sun becomes White Dwarf in 7x10 9 yr from now. Current M-type (very low-mass) stars become white dwarfs by t=10 13 yr Gas supply of galaxies exhausted and last M-type stars become white dwarfs by t=10 14 yr Degenerate Era : cold brown dwarfs, white dwarfs (-> black dwarfs), neutron stars, planets, black holes. Most stars and planets ejected from galaxies by yr Black holes swallow most remaining objects in galaxies by yr All remaining objects except BHs decay by yr because of proton decay (probably)

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