Speech Perception in Noisy Environments. Speech Perception in Noisy Environments. Overview. Stimuli and Task. Attention in Multi-talker Environments

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1 NEURAL BASES OF SPEECH RECOGNITION IN NOISE: INTEGRATING WHAT WE HEAR, SEE, AND KNOW Speech Perception in Noisy Environments Speech is the most important everyday stimulus for humans Prone to corruption Lee M. Miller Center for Mind & Brain and Department of Neurobiology, Physiology, & Behavior Univ. of California, Davis Practically: Understanding speech-in-noise is most common complaint of hearing impaired, I can hear you but I can t understand you. (though most of our results from young adults with healthy hearing) Scientifically: How brains identify an intelligible signal from degraded sensory inputs Speech Perception in Noisy Environments -6dB SNR 0dB SNR Then the bartender says: But I was talking to the pigeon! We study neural bases of speech perception (fmri, EEG), when intelligibility relies on what we... 1) Hear: Acoustic cues (attending to pitch and space; suppressing echoes) 2) See: Audiovisual integration (often more benefit than aids) 3) Know: Top-down inference (prior knowledge of words, meanings, syntax) (Kevin Hill) What neural systems coordinate attention to one speaker among many, based on different acoustic attributes (space, pitch)? (Chris Bishop) (Tony Shahin) Attention in Multi-talker Environments Stimuli and Task Experimental question: What neural systems coordinate attention to one speaker among many, based on different attributes (space, pitch)? 1) Attentional control networks ( sources of attention) candidates: superior parietal & prefrontal 2) Attentional selection ( targets of attention) candidates: space dorsal stream; pitch ventral stream three simultaneous talkers differ in pitch and location continuous, meaningful sentences (Harvard/IEEE corpus) location in virtual acoustic space (head-related transfer function: HRTF) subjects press button at sentence boundaries for target talker 1

2 Trial Structure and Performance Attribute-general activity precedes stimuli (Control) front right Accuracy Inferior Frontal Gyrus dorsal Precentral Sulcus event-related fmri two-part trials: cue (pitch, location, or rest) and stimuli Space Pitch performance using pitch and space equalized adaptively, pre-scan same stimuli, same performance: fmri results cannot be attributed to different acoustics or effort Intraparietal Sulcus [Attention Cues > Rest Cue]: pitch, space, or both Superior Parietal Lobule attentional control towards either attribute activates same general network with biases to pitch (inferior frontal) or space (superior frontal-parietal) Attribute-specific activity during stimuli (Selection) [Talker streamed by location & Talker streamed by pitch] attentional and speech areas generally all active for both conditions but streaming by different attributes leads to differential activation in: posterior parietal for space ( where stream) superior temporal sulcus for pitch ( what stream) top front IFG bias toward using pitch as cue Summary: Multi-talker Attention Attribute-general fronto-parietal control network Superior Temporal bottom up areas modulated more when selecting by pitch Superior frontoparietal bias toward using location as cue Posterior Parietal bottom up areas modulated more when selecting by space Hill & Miller, Cereb Ctx 2009 What neural systems coordinate attention to one speaker among many, based on different acoustic attributes (space, pitch)? 2

3 Hearing vs Understanding Experimental question: What neural systems distinguish understanding from merely hearing speech? (Naturalistic conditions: auditory & audiovisual) mixed block/event-related fmri Design 4 vowel-consonant-vowels (VCVs) in 16-talker babble. Task: Heard vs Understood conditions: Auditory-only or Audiovisual (synch or offset) video averaged across VCVs temporal cues preserved same stimuli, different percept: adaptively rove VCV signal-to-noise ratio near threshold 1) We know little about the neural bases of this crucial perceptual distinction candidates: STS, posterior temporal Understood Heard 2) We do not know how visual speech contributes to improved understanding candidate: visual motion MT+ Speech SNR (db) Trial # Understanding Speech in Noise Visual Contribution to Understanding MT bilateral LTO (lateral temporooccipital boundary) left IPS left MTL (medial temporal lobe) Understanding > Hearing for all conditions left Anterior STS reflects perceptual, not stimulus-driven distinction left STS primarily reflects auditory-only understanding LTO adjacent to functionally-identified visual motion area bilateral LTO left Medial Temporal Lobe these areas reflect improvement in intelligibility with vision: Understanding > Hearing and Audiovisual Synchronous > Offset LTO may use integration of physical stimulus attributes (motion) MTL may use integration of more abstract properties (e.g. identity) does not include anterior STS Functional Connectivity of Visual Contribution functional connectivity by correlating activity estimates across trials among LTO, left MTL, and anterior STS: Understanding > Hearing Summary: Understanding Speech in Noise Visual Improvement increased communication between left LTO, left MTL, STS STS X LTO anterior STS (understanding via auditory speech) MT+ LTO (understanding via multisensory integration of motion and acoustics) MTL audiovisual contribution to understanding communicated between left LTO MTL and left MTL STS Medial Temporal Lobe (understanding via more abstract multisensory integration, verbal recognition memory) Bishop et al. J Cogn Neurosci

4 f Both anterior and posterior temporal areas reflect understanding; LTO and MTL use audiovisual integration to improve it. Phonemic Restoration Experiment phonemic restoration illusion of continuity, even if speech artificially removed from signal this temporal filling in a general mechanism across stimuli, species Psychophysics suggests two dissociable mechanisms 1) Unconscious repair: reconstructing low-level sensory representation ti 2) Continuity illusion: perceptual evaluation of stimulus coherence freq SPL Stimuli and Task STIMULUS CONTINUOUS STIMULUS INTERRUPTED time time aggressor Experimental questions: Are Continuity and Repair neurally dissociable mechanisms? Can we distinguish areas that apply high-level prior knowledge (word-level templates)? 230 tri-syllabic English words with 1-3 fricatives/affricates two stimulus conditions: fricative/affricate combined with or replaced by white noise burst task 2AFC: Is speech continuous through or interrupted by the noise? one session with pseudoword controls (e.g. ibressor ) Stimuli near Illusion Threshold Design and Interpretation interpretations based on contrasting: continuous vs interrupted percepts (controlled for stimuli), and continuous vs interrupted stimuli (controlled for percept) two stimulus conditions & two responses = 4 combinations same stimuli, different percepts and vice versa noise duration determines illusion: too long no illusion noise duration adaptively adjusted around subject s threshold for illusion time 4

5 Continuity Illusion Unconscious repair of degraded speech left Angular Gyrus / STS Precuneus right STS Superior Frontal Sulcus Insula IFG (Broca s area) Pre- Supplementary Motor Area (PreSMA) Illusion > Illusion-failure this contrast is between conditions with identical stimuli (interrupted), differing only in what subjects perceived Illusion > Natural this contrast is between conditions with identical percept (continuous), differing only in stimulus properties could give same areas as Continuity; rather, are dissociable Mechanisms: Template Matching or Gestalt Mechanisms: Template Matching or Gestalt at least two mechanisms could account for phonemic restoration: 1) gestalt completion (rule-based) 2) template matching (object-based) comparing restoration of words vs nonwords identifies regions for word-level l template t matching may be evident in illusion areas and/or repair areas left Angular gyrus/ STS mediates illusion more for words than pseudowords template-matching right STS, Precuneus, SFS mediate illusion irrespective of word/ pseudoword distinction gestalt completion Broca s, Insula, and pre-sma favor repairing degradations in words template-matching p g g p p g CONTINUITY REPAIR natural illusion illusion failure Functional Connectivity Summary: Phonemic Restoration Hypothesis: continuity areas should communicate with repair areas left Angular Gyrus communicates more with Broca s, insula, and left presma when speech is repaired Broca s, Insula and presma repair degradations using word- templates right Superior Temporal Sulcus mediates illusion using low-level (gestalt) completion Broca s area (and Insula) left Ang Gyr /STS presma Angular Gyr / STS template matching relies on communication with repair regions, e.g. Broca s left Angular Gyrus / STS mediates illusion by matching wordtemplates Shahin et al. Neuroimage

6 Both anterior and posterior temporal areas reflect understanding; LTO and MTL use audiovisual integration to improve it. Both anterior and posterior temporal areas reflect understanding; LTO and MTL use audiovisual integration to improve it. Repair (Broca s, Insula) and Continuity (Ang.Gyr/STS) mechanisms are neurally dissociable They communicate to apply top-down knowledge and fill-in degradations Acknowledgments Kevin Hill Chris Bishop Antione (Tony) Shahin Jess Kerlin Kristina Backer I. HEAR: Acoustic cues (pitch and space) II. SEE: Audiovisual Integration National Institutes of Health National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders III. KNOW: Top-down inference (prior knowledge) 6

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