GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION IN ORDER TO FIND BLEND COMPOSITION OF GASOLINE OF DESIRED OCTANE NUMBER CONSIDERING ETHANOL AS OCTANE-BOOSTER

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1 GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION IN ORDER TO FIND BLEND COMPOSITION OF GASOLINE OF DESIRED OCTANE NUMBER CONSIDERING ETHANOL AS OCTANE-BOOSTER Mohsen Mazloum Farsibaf Mona Golchinpour Ali Barzegar Department of Energy planning, Ministry of Petroleum Department of industrial engineering, Iran university of science & technology(iust), , Department of industrial engineering, Iran university of science & technology(iust), , Abstract A modern oil refinery first of all should be focused on manufacturing high-quality gasolines as development of oil products market is directly concerned with improvement of quality and assortments of gasolines. The most significant property of gasoline which determines its quality is octane number. Proper price of ethanol which creates favorable economic condition for it and significant decrease in exhaust air pollutant emissions due to using ethanol blended gasoline makes ethanol a good choice for using as an octane-booster. In this paper, an optimization model has been developed to find blend composition of gasoline with desired octane number when ethanol is one of the blending components and plays a vital role in increasing octane number. Keywords: RON, Gasoline, Ethanol, Global optimization. 1. Introduction Gasoline is one of the most desired products of the petroleum industry. It is produced in a refinery and used as a fuel for transportation. In an integrated refinery, about 70% of the crude is generally converted into gasoline [1]. Gasoline is produced by blending different fuel streams coming from various production processes. Atmospheric straight run cuts together with products from catalytic reforming and cracking, isomerization etc. units are the most commonly used feeds for the production of the final gasoline. These 313

2 fractions are referred to as gasoline components. The blend recipes are determined such that the properties' specifications of the final gasoline are met, while maximizing the profitability of the product under the constraint of the gasoline component's availability. Therefore, optimum control on gasoline blending operations is a key question in the refineries [2]. The key indication of performance property of gasoline is its octane number (ON). The octane number rating of a gasoline is an indication of how the gasoline will perform under various engine conditions. Two different ratings are included: Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON). Finished gasoline must meet certain octane number specifications. Thus refineries control this parameter during production and must certify that a gasoline meets specification before it is released [3]. Other important technological properties of the commercial gasolines are the Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP), ASTM distillation points, flash point, aromatic and sulfur content etc. These properties are monitored during production to ensure the required technological and environmental quality level of the final gasoline. Although the final gasoline has to meet all the product specifications, RON and MON are considered to be the most important ones. This is especially true during the last decade, when the increase in the compression ratio of motor vehicle engines led to higher requirements in octane rating of the fuels. Additionally, restrictions in using octane number improvers increased the demand in high octane value components. It is estimated that the elimination of the lead additives in gasoline itself caused a gap in the octane rating of the produced gasoline of 2 to 6 numbers depending on their specifications [2]. The typical octane rating of gasoline produced commercially for mobile combustion engines in the mid-1920s was octanes. In the last 80 years, the petrochemical methods for the production of fuels improved continuously to meet the demand both on the simultaneously growing amounts and the constantly increasing knock resistance of gasoline. Different additives were applied to achieve the required specifications of the highly knock resisting super grade gasolines used today. So, oxygenous compounds, the so-called oxygenates, are often used as octaneboosters. In addition to the engine sided demands more and more environmental orders become important for the composition of gasoline at the present [4]. Optimization of the quality of automotive gasoline production with respect to antiknock properties is very important today, since it offers a means for utilizing petroleum raw material more efficiently, reducing the costs in gasoline production, and meeting more fully the demand for fuel in automotive transport [5]. Because of the importance of determining the octane number of gasoline a lot of works have been done for predicting it, but there are a few works about optimizing the octane number of gasoline. In the former case, we can name a lot of researches. Meusinger and Moros [4] have been determined the octane number of gasoline compounds from their chemical structure by neural network. They have been developed a new theoretical model which explains the association between the molecular structure and the knock resistance of individual gasoline compounds convincingly. Pasadakis [2] has been developed artificial neural network (ANN) models to determine the research octane number of gasoline blends produced in a Greek refinery. A prediction of octane number requirements of gasoline and power-to-weight ratio of automotive vehicles has been done by Azev and Gladkikh [6]. In the latter case, we can name a work done by Murty and Rao [I]. They have been developed an artificial neural network to predict research octane number (RON) of motor gasoline and compared it with a multiple linear regression (MLR) model which have been proposed by Zahed. Further they have been applied a global optimization technique to predict probable composition of blends with desired RON specified properties. Another research that has been done by L. Vladimir [7] deals with the application of genetic algorithm for solving the task of drawing up optimum compounding of gasoline fractions blending, observing given conditions on octane numbers and quantity of given types of commodity gasolines. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In section 2, the history of octane-boosters is discussed briefly and blending components of gasoline are defined. In section 3, optimization problem and its result s are given and finally, conclusions are given in section4. 2. Ethanol as an octane-booster 314

3 Octane rating is the most important aspect of gasoline quality and historically, lead has been an important source of increasing octane number. Because of the harmfulness of Tetra Ethyl Lead (TEL), its use has been forbidden in almost all countries. From February 2002, Iran's refineries just produce unleaded gasoline and replace TEL with Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) for increasing octane number. This replacement was 20 years after introducing of MTBE and 10 years after expanding the universal usage of it. The use of MTBE has already been forbidden in 25 states of USA and many countries because it may contaminate underground water. Japan has ceased to use MTBE though official specifications continue to allow a 7% volume limit. Moreover, methanol and methanol derivatives such as MTBE and TAME are not favorable in an environmental view point because they are mostly derived from natural gas whose production may contribute to global warming [8]. With MTBE's disadvantages being revealed, ethanol is being considered as an alternative octane source. Ethanol, one of biofuels, is a renewable energy source for alleviate the oil crisis and global climate change. Carbon dioxide produced from ethanol combustion is not considered as a global warming contributor since it is carbon neutral [8]. A lot of researchers tried to examine the possibility of using ethanol instead other octane boosters [8,9,10,11]. Today, ethanol isn't used in gasoline in Iran but Iran oil industry has been researched the possibility of using ethanol in gasoline. Results show that using ethanol in automobiles fuel is possible and adding ethanol at volume concentrations of up to 10% doesn't need any changes in engine or fueling system of automobiles. Standard gasoline octane number in USA and Euro is 95. If we consider octane number 95 as desired octane number, we should try to find the optimal volume of gasoline components including ethanol which will minimize the gap between the desired octane number and octane number of produced gasoline and then we will examine the possibility of using this amount of ethanol and its expenditure. Seven most commonly employed refinery streams in the gasoline production are: fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC), reforming (REF), isomerization (ISO), alkylation (ALK) and dimersol (DIM), together with the butane's fraction (C 4 ) and oxygenate additives such as MTBE or ethanol. These components as well as the ranges of their volumetric content in the blends and of their RON values are presented in Table 1. Product for gasoline blending and their process and feed are shown in Fig l. Table1. Gasoline components employed for the blends preparation [2] Fraction Min vol. Max vol. Min Max Typical % % RON RON RON FCC REF ISO ALK DIM C Ethanol

4 Fig1. Products for gasoline blending [12] 3. Global optimization Decision variables which we will use them in optimization problem and description of them are stated in Table 2. Table2. Decision variables and their description Decision variable (x) x 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 x 7 Description of x FCC, vol.% REF, vol.% ISO, vol.% ALK, vol.% DIM, vol.% C4, vol.% Ethanol, vol.% Although the relationship between the RON of produced gasoline and volume of its components with specific RON is non-linear, here we prefer to use a simple linear function to describe this relationship. This function can be stated as: RON PG RON Where RON PG is the octane number of produced gasoline and RON i is the average octane number of ith variable. 316

5 The first condition of this optimization problem should be on the summation of volume percentage of components that should be equal to 100%. This can be stated as: x 100 To fulfill conditions on the minimum or maximum volume percentage of components the equality should be carried out: x, 1,,7 Which is the minimum volume percentage of ith component and is the maximum volume percentage of ith component. As the purpose of the task, an error function, which is a squared deviation between desired RON and the RON presented by Eq.(1), is considered as an objective function. This function can be stated as: RON PG RON DES Then the problem of interest becomes the minimization of error function subject to equality and inequality constraints and bounds mentioned above. This can be stated as: RON PG RON DES Subject to: x x 100 x 54.4 x 32 x 20.7 x 14.8 x 7.4 x 10 x,x,,x 0 The optimization problem is solved using LINGO computer software. Results are shown in Table 3. Table3. Optimal blend composition Desired RON(RON DES ) 95 Optimal RON Optimal composition FCC, vol.% REF, vol.% 0 317

6 ISO, vol.% ALK, vol.% 0 DIM, vol.% 0 C 4, vol.% 7.4 E thanol, vol. % 10 According to the results, 10 percent of ethanol required for prepa ring 95 octane number gasoline. 4. Conclusion This paper presents an optimization model for finding blend composition of gasoline with desired octane number (95), when ethanol uses instead of TEL or MTBE for enhancing octane number. The volume percentages of seven most commonly employed refinery steams in the gasoline production are considered as decision variables. Problem solving results show that the optimal volume of ethanol is 10%. Acknowledgements We acknowledge the support of the National Iranian Oil Co. Research and Development (NIOCRD). References [1]. B. Murty, R. Rao, "Global optimization for prediction of blend composition of gasolines of desired octane number and propertes", Fuel processing Technology 85(2004) [2]. N. Pasadakis, V. Gaganis, C. Foteinopoulos, "Octane number prediction for gasoline blends", Fuel processing Technology 87(2006) [3]. Guided Wave Incorporated, "Application Octane Number of Gasoline", process analytical systems. [4]. R. Meusinger, R. Moros, "Determination of octane numbers of gasoline compounds from their chemical structure by 13C NMR spectroscopy and neural networks", Fuel 80 (2001) [5]. B. Englin, Y. Nilov, V. Eo Emellyanov, and G. Levinson, "Optimization of component composition and antiknock properties of AI-93 gasoline'", improvement of fuel quality, No. 11, pp.19-22, November, [6]. V. Azev, V. Gladkikh,F.Smal, and V.Tyukov, "Optimization of octane number requirements of gasolines and power-to-weight ratio of automotive vehicles", prospects and problems in the use of traditional motor fuels, no.11, pp.4-7, November,1985. [7]. L. Vladimir, j. burgher, S. Vyshemirskij vadim, A. Sokolova Nadeshda, "Application of genetic algorithm for optimization gasoline fractions blending compounding",proceedings of the 2002 IEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Systems (ICAIS'02) [8]. W. Kiatkittpong, P. Thipsunet, S. Goto, C. Chaisuk, P. Prasethdam, S. Assabumrungrat, "Simultaneous enhancement of ethanol supplement in gasoline and its quality improvement", Fuel Processing technology 89 (2008) [9]. H. Ahrned, N. Rask, D. Baldwin," Ethanol Fuel as an Octane Enhancer in the US Fuel Market",Biomass 19 (1989) [10]. V. Thomas, A. Kwong, "Ethanol as a lead replacement: phasing out leaded gasoline in Africa", Energy Policy 29(2001) [11]. M. Bahattin Celik, "Experimental determination of suitable ethanol-gasoline blend rate at high compression ratio for gasoline engine", Applied Thermal Engineering 28 (2008) [12]. R. Assi, "The relation between gasoline quality, octane number and the environment", Presented at Jordan National Workshop on lead Phase-out,23-24 July 2008, Amman- Jordan. 318

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