Design of Chinese steel TV towers

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1 Desgn of Chnese steel TV towers Xng Ma Department of Cvl & Envronmental Engneerng, Unversty of Auckland, New Zealand Zhaomn Wang Department of Cvl Engneerng, Tongj Unversty, Shangha, Chna 6 NZSEE Conference ABSTRACT: The development of Chnese steel TV towers s ntroduced n ths paper. As an example of real project, the desgn procedure of Qngpu TV tower s presented. After the dynamc characterstcs of the structure s analysed, the quas-statc wnd loads and sesmc forces are calculated based on Chnese desgn code and a nonlnear spatal truss model s employed to analyse the response of the structure. Calculaton results show that the wnd-nduced structural response s much more severe than sesmc response. It s reasonable to omt sesmc forces for practcal desgn of steel TV towers. 1 INTRODUCTION The earlest tower structures n Chna are Guanghou TV tower (m hgh, bult n 1965) and Shangha TV tower (1m hgh, bult n 1973). Wth the development of Chnese televson ndustry, more and more TV towers came nto use. Excludng thousands of lower towers, there are more than 5 TV towers hgher than m n Chna now, among whch 7% are steel structures. The hghest steel TV tower n Chna s 336m Haerbn TV tower weghtng 3, ton. It was desgned by Tongj Unversty and the constructon was fnshed n. The future hghest structure durng the world s beng constructed n Guanghou, Chna, whch wll be`a 61m TV tower made from 4, ton steel. Accordng to Chnese desgn codes, to desgn a tower structure, one should consder lateral loads such as wnd load and sesmc forces. LOADS.1 Quas-statc wnd load Accordng to Chnese Desgn Standard for Hgh-rse Structure, the quas-statc along-wnd load may be referred to as w( ) = β ( ) µ s ( ) µ ( ) w (1) where w s the basc wnd pressure at 1m heght above the ground, kn/m ; µ s () s shape factor, smlar to drag force coeffcent n NZ loadngs standard; µ () s a factor of mean wnd pressure varyng wth the heght, smlar to ste terran/heght multpler n New Zealand loadngs standard; β () s wnd-nduced-vbraton coeffcent, smlar to gust-loadng factor. Basc wnd pressure w corresponds to the mean wnd pressure over open exposure at a equvalent elevaton of 1m, averaged over a perod of 1 mnutes and wth a return perod of once-n-3-years. It s mportant to pont out that basc wnd pressure s dfferent n dfferent codes even for the same one, because the averagng tme s dfferent. For example, averagng tme n U.S. loadng code s 36/v(mph), therefore, the basc wnd pressure for Shangha Zone s.89 kn/m accordng to U.S. loadng code, although t s only.55kn/m accordng to Chnese code. Paper Number 5

2 The factor µ () s a dmensonless coeffcent, whch expresses the steady wnd pressure on the s structure and depends on the rato of exposure area and profle area. The factor µ () descrbes the varaton wth heght n mean wnd pressure and depends on terran roughness and topography. The parameters n equaton () may be selected n table 1. µ α ( ) = 3.1( / H ) () Terran parameters Table 1 Terran type Descrpton α H (m) A open area.1 3 B suburb area C small cty. 4 D centres of large cty.3 45 The wnd-nduced-vbraton coeffcent β () s equal to the rato of the peak loadng to the mean loadng. The formula for β () should be derved accordng to the random vbraton theory due to stochastc wnd. β ( ) = 1+ ξνθ θ φ1( ) / ( ) (3) H ν µ where ξ s fluctuaton amplfcaton factor; ν s a factor takng account of the nfluence of fluctuatng wnd pressure varyng along the heght; θ H, θ ν are two factors takng nto account of nfluence of varaton of cross secton along the heght; φ ( ) s the 1 st mode functon of the structure. 1. Sesmc forces Accordng to Chnese Desgn Code, the sesmc force of th mode may be expressed as F ( ) = α γ G( ) φ ( ) (4) where α s the sesmc haard acceleraton coeffcent, dependng on the nherent perod of the structure and the ste category; γ s the mode nfluencng factor; G() s the sesmc gravty at heght; φ () s the th mode functon. The parameter above may be calculated accordng to.9 α max ( T / Tg ) T Tg α = (5) αmax T > Tg where T s the th nherent perod of the structure; Tg s the fundamental translatonal perod; the peak sesmc haard acceleraton coeffcent. where H s the heght of the structure. = H H α max γ G( ) φ ( ) d / G( ) φ ( ) d (6) s

3 3 DESIGN OF QINGPU TV TOWER 3.1 Introducton to Qngpu TV Tower Fg. 1 Qngpu TV tower 3

4 Qngpu TV tower (Fg. 1) s located n north suburb of Shangha cty, 168m hgh and 3t weght. It was bult n The man tower body s a spatal pentagon truss structure. There s a three-story ball-shaped turret between the elevaton of 9m and 14m. Basc wnd pressure n Qngpu one s w =.55kN/m. Ste sesmc parameters are T g =. 3s, α =. max 3. The frst four nherent perods of the structure are T 1 =1.94s, T =.95s, T 3 =.37s, T 4 =.5s respectvely. The correspondng mode shape are shown n Fg Heght (m) Mode 1 Mode Mode 3 Mode Mode functon Fg. Mode shape 3. Wnd load calculaton Based on equaton () and (3), the wnd load calculatng parameters are obtaned as followng β () µ () µ () s 14 Heght (m) shape factor heght varyng factor wnd-vbraton coeffcent 1 3 Wnd calculatng parameters Fg. 3 wnd load calculatng parameters 4

5 Wnd loads at dfferent elevatons are obtaned as shown n Fg Heght (m) Wnd load (kn) Fg. 4 wnd loads at dfferent elevatons 3.3 Sesmc forces Based on equaton (5) and (6), α 1 =. 15, α =. 8, α =. 3 66, α 8 4 =. ; γ 1 = 3. 51, γ = 3.35 γ, 3 = 3.85, γ 4 =.84. Sesmc load are calculated as followng Heght (m) Mode 1 Mode Mode 3 Mode Sesmc load (kn) Fg. 5 Sesmc loads at dfferent elevatons 3.4 Structural response The structural responses due to wnd loads and sesmc forces are shown n Fg. 6 and Fg. 7. 5

6 Heght (m) wnd nduced response sesmc response dsplacement(m) Fg. 6 dsplacement response to wnd load and sesmc load Heght(m) wnd nduced response sesmc response maxmm member stress(mpa) Fg. 7 member stress response to wnd load and sesmc load 4 CONCLUSION As flexble hgh-rse structures, steel towers are senstve to lateral loads, especally to wnd loads. From fg. 6 and fg.7, one may notce that the structural responses of Qngpu TV tower due to sesmc forces are only 1% those due to wnd load. The possble reason s that steel towers are lght and flexble. The man nherent perod of the structure s near that of wnd load and far way from that of earthquake. Therefore, the dynamc magnfcaton effect of wnd load s much more severe than that of earthquake. Meanwhle, the structure s lghter than normal hgh-rse buldng. The calculaton results of sesmc load based on structural gravty s much smaller. In general, for practcal desgn of steel tower structures, sesmc load may be omtted when combned wth wnd load. REFERENCES: Wang, ZM.. Tower Structures. Scence Press, Bejng, Chna. Chnese Standard.. Chnese Desgn Code for Hgh-rse Structures. Zhang, X.T The current Chnese code on wnd loadng and comparatve study of wnd loadng codes. Journal of Wnd Engneerng and Industral Aerodynamcs

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