4) What important molecules of life did Miller and Urey brew up? 4) A) amino acids B) antacids C) RNA D) fatty acids E) lean acids

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1 Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Homogeneity and isotropy, taken as assumptions regarding the structure and evolution of the universe, are known as: A) the Cosmological Principle. B) Obler's Paradox. C) the Grand Unified Theory. D) Hubble's Law. E) Wien's Law. 1) 2) The critical temperature above which pair production can occur is called the: 2) A) threshold temperature. B) fusion temperature. C) Cosmological Constant. D) Chandrasekhar Limit. E) event horizon. 3) Which of the following appears most favored by natural selection? 3) A) binocular vision B) bipedal locomotion C) opposable thumbs D) live birth E) intelligence 4) What important molecules of life did Miller and Urey brew up? 4) A) amino acids B) antacids C) RNA D) fatty acids E) lean acids 5) Organic molecules are: 5) A) silicon-based. B) carbon-based. C) living cells. D) not found outside our solar system. E) found only on Earth. 6) The simplest life forms appeared on Earth when it was how old? 6) A) five million years B) one billion years C) 2.5 billion years D) 4.5 billion years E) 3.5 billion years 7) How long between the evolution of single versus multicellular organisms? 7) A) one billion years B) 600 million years C) 4.5 billion years D) 2.5 billion years E) 63 million years

2 8) How long ago did multicellular life forms appear in the fossil record? 8) A) 4.5 billion years ago B) 63 million years ago C) 30 million years ago D) one billion years ago E) 3.8 billion years ago 9) The famed meteorite with carbonate rocks and possible microfossils came from: 9) A) Europa. B) Comet Halley. C) the Moon. D) Venus. E) Mars. 10) Large molecules found in meteorites and interstellar clouds is evidence that: 10) A) life has definitely formed in other places than Earth. B) life originated on Mars before Earth. C) chemical evolution has taken place elsewhere in the Universe. D) organic molecules are extremely rare. E) life is abundant in the galaxy. 11) Which of the following does NOT reveal information about conditions on the early Earth? 11) A) advanced experiments on amino acids B) the sedimentary rocks found on the most ancient exposures in Greenland C) laboratory simulations of the primordial ocean and atmosphere D) evidence gleaned from other planets in the early stages of their evolution E) the fossil record 12) For which of these forms of life is it hardest to apply present criteria for life, based on its behavior when isolated? A) a fungus spore B) a virus C) a plant seed D) a slime mold E) a bacterial spore 12) 13) What unusual discovery was made about the Murchison Meteorite? 13) A) It contains living cells. B) It is the largest known meteorite. C) It contains amino acids. D) It is from Mars. E) It contains iron. 14) When new particle pairs are being created as fast as they annihilate, it is: 14) A) the critical density. B) the cosmological constant. C) hydrostatic equilibrium. D) thermal equilibrium. E) the threshold equilibrium. 15) Currently, most of the mass of the matter of the universe is believed to consist of: 15)

3 A) tachyonic matter, travelling only faster than the speed of light. B) dark matter not made of protons and neutrons. C) tiny but very numerous black holes. D) dark energy. E) baryonic matter, made up of protons and neutrons. 16) Pair production can occur if: 16) A) photons are at the event horizon of a black hole. B) only virtual particles are produced. C) the particle and antiparticle have opposite spins. D) the energy of two photons is greater than the combined mass-energy of a particle-anti-particle pair. E) one particle is struck by a sufficiently high energy photon that a pair of electrons is formed. 17) How does the energy of the cosmic microwave background compare to the energy radiated by all the stars and galaxies that ever existed? A) The starlight now dominates the background, as your eyes show clearly. B) 73% cosmic background, 27% starlight. C) We have no way of comparing matter and energy this way. D) They are very close to being equal. E) About ten times more from the Big Bang than from stars and galaxies. 17) 18) The crossover point from radiation to matter domination occurred: 18) A) with the creation of electrons and positrons at about K. B) about 50,000 years after the Big Bang, at a temperature of about 16,000 K. C) with the emission of the cosmic background radiation. D) when the strong force separated from the other two forces. E) with the creation of neutrons and protons, at about 1013 K. 19) Both protons and neutrons (and their anti-particles) froze out: 19) A) after seconds, at the Planck Era. B) about 50,000 years after the Big Bang. C) at 1032 K, at the end of the Inflationary Era. D) at 1013 K, about.0001 seconds after the Big Bang. E) after about a minute of expansion. 20) In pair production in the Big Bang, which statement is FALSE? 20) A) The heaviest particles and their antiparticles formed first, from collisions of the highest energy gamma rays. B) In addition to familiar neutrons and protons, many other exotic particle and antiparticle pairs formed, but decayed back to radiation. C) Matter is frozen energy, according to Einstein's E = mc2. D) Every electron should have a proton formed at the same time with it. E) Even neutrons have their antineutrons, although both lack any charge. 21) Concerning dark energy, we do know: 21) A) that it was revealed with Type II supernovae distances in the late 1990s. B) that it is created when matter annihilates anti-matter. C) its density remains constant over time, so it is not important in the early Universe. D) that it makes up 90% of all the matter and energy in the whole universe. E) combined with dark matter, it will ultimately produce a closed universe.

4 22) At this time, the universe is: 22) A) dark energy dominated. B) quark dominated. C) lepton dominated. D) matter dominated. E) radiation dominated. 23) Before about 4 billion years ago the universe was: 23) A) quark dominated. B) radiation dominated. C) matter dominated. D) lepton dominated. E) dark energy dominated. 24) Before about 50,000 years after the Big Bang, the universe was: 24) A) quark dominated. B) lepton dominated. C) matter dominated. D) dark energy dominated. E) radiation dominated. 25) In the process of pair production, which of the following is a possible product pair? 25) A) proton-neutron B) proton-positron C) electron-positron D) electron-proton E) electron-neutron 26) Because of their mass, the threshold temperature for electrons is: 26) A) higher than that of protons. B) higher than that of hydrogen. C) higher than that of neutrons. D) lower than that of hydrogen. E) lower than that of protons. 27) The concept that the direction of observation does not matter overall is: 27) A) homogeneity. B) universality. C) geometry. D) relativity. E) isotropy. 28) The concept that on the grandest of scales, the universe is similar in appearance everywhere is: 28) A) special relativity. B) homogeneity. C) isotropy. D) general relativity. E) universality. 29) The two different kinds of surveys that have given astronomers great insight into the structure and expanse of the universe are: A) deep space survey and pencil beam. 29)

5 B) pie slice and pencil beam. C) pie slice and local surveys. D) pie slice and redshift survey. E) pencil beam and deep imaging. 30) The Hubble time is expressed as: 30) A) D/v. B) H D. C) 1/H. D) the critical density/h. E) H T. 31) While a variety of factors can produce redshifts in the spectrum, the one associated with the expansion of the universe is called: A) olberian. B) universal. C) relativistic. D) the Zeeman Effect. E) cosmological. 31) 32) The redshift of the galaxies is correctly interpreted as: 32) A) an aging of light as gravity weakens with time. B) a Doppler shift due to the random motions of galaxies in space. C) the differences in temperatures and star formation in old and young galaxies. D) placing our Galaxy near the center of the Local Group. E) space itself is expanding with time, so the photons are stretched while they travel through space. 33) What does Hubble's law imply about the history of the universe? 33) A) The Milky Way lies exactly at the center of this expansion. B) The universe must be infinitely old and huge. C) The redshifts will turn to blue shifts as universe contraction follows the expansion. D) The redshifts will lengthen with time due to dark energy. E) The universe had a beginning and has expanded since, giving it a finite age. 34) The presently accepted value of the Hubble constant gives an age of: 34) A) 22 billion years. B) 4.5 billion years. C) 18 billion years. D) 14 billion years. E) 8-9 billion years. 35) From the 1970s to the present, the accepted value of H has almost doubled, so: 35) A) the Copernican principle is not valid beyond our solar system. B) the age of the universe is twice as old as we originally believed. C) the critical density must also be halved. D) the age of the Universe is half what we believed. E) the ages of the oldest globular clusters are invalid. 36) The center of the universe: 36) A) is Earth. B) does not exist anywhere in space.

6 C) is the Milky Way. D) is where the Big Bang happened. E) is the Sun. 37) The sky is dark at night: 37) A) because the Sun is on the other side of Earth. B) because the quasars are too far away from Earth for their light to have arrived here. C) because the stars in the Milky Way are far away. D) because there are far fewer stars on the night side of Earth. E) because all the light from all the objects in the universe hasn't arrived here yet. 38) What do most scientists believe existed before the Big Bang? 38) A) everything was inside Earth B) a singularity C) the primeval fireball D) nothing E) a black hole 39) What was there just after the Big Bang? 39) A) everything was inside Earth B) nothing C) a singularity D) a black hole E) the primeval fireball 40) What is the Big Bang? 40) A) An enormous explosion that organized all matter in the universe. B) The creation of matter and the universe. C) The event that started the expansion of the universe. D) An explosion that spewed matter all over the universe. E) The creation of the primeval fireball.

7 1) A 2) A 3) E 4) A 5) B 6) B 7) D 8) D 9) E 10) C 11) D 12) B 13) C 14) D 15) B 16) D 17) E 18) B 19) D 20) D 21) C 22) A 23) C 24) E 25) C 26) E 27) E 28) B 29) B 30) C 31) E 32) E 33) E 34) D 35) D 36) B 37) E 38) D 39) E 40) C

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