SHORT COURSE GCSE RELIGIOUS EDUCATION. BELIEVING IN GOD Revision Booklet

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1 SHORT COURSE GCSE RELIGIOUS EDUCATION BELIEVING IN GOD Revision Booklet

2 GCSE RELIGIOUS EDUCATION BELIEVING IN GOD CHECK LIST WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW Different arguments for and against the belief in God. What a religious upbringing is. What a religious experience is. What is the theory of design? What is the theory of causation? What is evil and suffering? WHAT YOU SHOULD UNDERSTAND The meaning of the following key words: 1. Numinous 2. Conversion 3. Miracle 4. Prayer 5. Design 6. Causation 7. Agnosticism 8. Atheism 9. Moral Evil 10. Natural Evil 11. Benevolent 12. Omnipotent 13. Omniscient WHAT YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO EXPLAIN Why people believe in God. How a religious upbringing might encourage a belief in God. The effects of a religious upbringing. What a religious experience is. What is meant by numinous, conversion and prayer. How a religious experience might lead to support belief in God. What a miracle is. The claim that miracles provide evidence for God s existence. How experience of the world design and causation can lead to a belief in God. How the experience of life, and the fact of religion can lead to or support a belief in God. The reasons why some people do not believe in God. Why the existence of evil and suffering causes problems for religious believers. The response of Christianity OR Islam to the problem of evil and suffering.

3 Believing in God KEYWORDS Numinous the feeling you get when you are in a great cathedral or look up at the stars and feel there is something much greater than you. Conversion when your life is changed by giving yourself to God. Miracle something which seems to break a law of science and makes you think only God could have done it. Prayer an attempt to contact God, usually through words. Design when things are connected and seem to have a purpose, e.g. the eye is designed for seeing. Causation the idea that everything has been caused (started off) by something else. Agnosticism not being sure whether God exists. Atheism believing that God does not exist. Moral Evil actions done by humans which cause suffering. Natural Evil things like earthquakes and floods which cause suffering and have nothing to do with humans. Benevolent the belief that God is good / kind. Omnipotent the belief that God is all powerful / can do anything. Omniscient the belief that God knows everything that has happened and that is going to happen.

4 KEYWORDS fill in using key words and definitions 1. Numinous 2. Conversion 3. Miracle

5 RELIGIOUS UPBRINGING AND BELIEF IN GOD If someone is brought up by religious parents, then they will believe in God from the beginning of their life. They will be taken to worship God with their parents; they will be taught to pray to God every day; they will be expected to thank God and remember God s good gifts at various religious festivals; they are likely to go to a school where everyone believes in God and so they are expected to believe in God. In answering questions you need to refer to a specific religion, e.g. in Christianity you should illustrate by referring to baptism, Christmas, Easter, Sunday School, etc. With an upbringing like this, it is natural to believe in God, and such children will never even think that God might not exist.

6 Believing in God Religious upbringing and belief in God

7 RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE AND BELIEF IN GOD Religious experience means the way in which people come into direct contact with God. It can just be a feeling you get when you are in a holy building or say your prayers, or even look up at stars and feel in the presence of something greater than yourself. This is called the numinous. It can be a more definite feeling of God s presence which makes you much more religious and changes your life, e.g. St Paul on the road to Damascus. This is called a conversion. It can be believing that a miracle has happened, e.g. when someone is cured of an incurable disease after prayers being said for them or after something else connected with religion. It can be having a prayer answered, e.g. someone prays for God to help them out of a problem and the problem disappears. Any of these experiences are almost certain to lead the person who experiences them to believe in God.

8 Believing in God Religious experience and belief in God

9 MIRACLES The problems of believing in miracles 1. All miracles require you to believe in the evidence of eyewitnesses and we all know that people can be mistaken about what they have seen and heard, and that some very responsible people do tell lies if it is to their benefit. 2. Science can now explain many miracles, so perhaps in the future it will be able to explain all miracles. 3. It seems more sensible to look for a natural explanation than to think God must have done it. 4. Illusionists like Derren Brown and David Copperfield can do wonderful tricks which seem to have no explanation, but they tell us they are tricks. Maybe miracles are just tricks. 5. If God performs miracles, he must be evil, because if he, for example, could feed 5000 people with five loaves and two fishes, then why doesn t he use a miracle to feed all the starving people? If he can save one child from dying, than why didn t he stop the Dunblane massacre of children? Why miracles lead people to believe in God 1. Miracles are always going to convince people who witness them. If your friend is dying from cancer, and you pray for her and she recovers, you will believe it was a miracle and it will help you to believe in God. 2. Miracles could be signs from God to help us to believe in him. 3. To believe that miracles are possible can help people get through some very bad times. 4. Most people do not blame God when things go wrong. They believe that God only uses miracles as signs and that bad things happen because of humans refusing to follow God s commands.

10 Believing in God Problem of believing in miracles Why miracles lead people to believe in God

11 THE APPEARANCE OF THE WORLD AND BELIEF IN GOD Some people think the way the world works shows that God must exist: The universe needs a cause ( the causation / cosmological argument ): Science says everything has a cause or explanation; Therefore the universe itself must have a cause; Only God could be the cause of the universe; Therefore, God must exist. THE DESIGN ARGUMENT DESIGN + PURPOSE = INTELLIGENT MAKER The universe seems to be designed (the design argument): The way the universe works according to laws such as gravity; The way humans grow from a tiny blueprint of DNA etc; The way the complex mechanism of the eye allows people to see; The way the Big Bang worked with the laws of science to produce a universe of order. If something is designed, it must have a designer. The only possible designer of the universe is God, therefore, they believe God must exist. Paley s Watch (based on Natural Theology by William Paley, 1802) 1. If you were walking across an uninhabited piece of land and kicked a stone, you would have no reason to ask where it had come from. 2. If you were in the same place and kicked a watch, you would have to ask where it had come from, even if you had never seen one before and did not understand its workings because: a) no complex mechanism can be produced by chance b) any complex mechanism must have been designed; c) anything which has been designed must have a designer. 3. The universe is a far more complex mechanism than a watch (a small example would be an ecosystem where everything is working according to laws to support the life of everything else). 4. Just as the complexity of the watch forced you to believe it had been designed, so the complexity of the universe forces people to believe it has been designed (Paley gave many examples to illustrate this, for example, how the eye is much more complex and obviously designed for sight than a telescope, which humans have designed to assist the eye).

12 5. Therefore, the universe has been designed, and everything which is designed must have a designer. 6. The only possible designer of something as fantastic of the universe is God. 7. Therefore God must exist. Believing in God CAUSATION the universe needs a cause Because: DESIGN ARGUMENT the universe seems to be designed Because :

13 THE COSMOLOGICAL ARGUMENT This argument reasons from the way the universe operates to the existence of God. There are many forms of the argument. Here are the two most famous ones: The Way of Motion St Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologica, Everything is changing or moving. 2. Whatever is changing or moving is being changed or moved by something else, e.g. a snooker ball is moved by another ball, and that by a cue, etc. 3. An infinite regress (going back in time) of movers and changers is impossible because something must have started it off. 4. Therefore, there must be an Unmoved Mover, something which moves everything else without being moved itself. This Unmoved Mover is what people understand to be God. The First Cause St Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologica, Everything has a cause. 2. Nothing can cause itself because to do so it would have to exist before it existed. 3. Therefore, everything is caused by something else. 4. An infinite regress of cause is impossible because something must have started it off. 5. Therefore, there must be an Uncaused Cause or First Cause which is eternal and itself has no cause. This people understand to be God.

14 THE COSMOLOGICAL ARGUMENT The Way of Motion: St. Thomas Aquinas stated The First Cause: St. Thomas Aquinas also believed..

15 THE PROBLEM OF EVIL AND SUFFERING Religious believers find the existence of evil and suffering a problem because they believe that God is: BENEVOLENT - God is good, but if God is good, he ought not to want evil and suffering in his world; OMNIPOTENT - God has the power to do anything, but if God is all powerful, he must be able to get rid of evil and suffering from the world he has created; OMNISCIENT all knowing. However, there is evil and suffering in the world, and so either God is not good, or God is not all powerful, or God does not exist. As there is suffering in the world, it would appear that God cannot be good and all-knowing and all-powerful. As most religious believers believe that God is all-knowing, all-powerful and good, this is bound to cause a problem.

16 Believing in God The problem of evil and suffering

17 THE RESPONSE OF CHRISTIANITY TO EVIL AND SUFFERING 1. Many Christians respond to the problem by believing that God knows the answer, but they do not understand God s reasons. Christians believe this because God allowed his only son to suffer, therefore, suffering must be part of God s plan but we as humans don t understand this, because we are not God. 2. Some Christians think that God could not give humans free will unless they had the change to do evil things (being free is part of being made in God s image). Humans have used their free will to do evil things and this has brought suffering into the world. So evil and suffering are the fault of humans and not God. 3. Other Christians believe that this life is a sort of test in which people prepare their souls for heaven (preparation for paradise). If there was no evil and suffering, then they would not be able to develop as good people, because being good involves helping those who suffer and fight against evil. If people follow the Christian way, then their souls will become good and God will send them to heaven when they die. 4. All Christians believe they must respond to suffering by trying to help those who suffer, and they must respond to evil by fighting against it. Christians respond to evil and suffering in two ways: a) Practical by saying prayers, praying to God to help those who are suffering; by charity, giving money and helping those who are suffering EG Christian Aid and Salvation Army. b) Theoretical free will; preparation for paradise. Prayer praying to God to stop evil and suffering.

18 CHRISTIANITY There are two responses by Christians to evil and suffering. One response is.., this involves and The other response is.. THE RESPONSE OF CHRISTIANITY TO EVIL AND SUFFERING Free Will Preparation for Paradise Don t Understand God s Reasons

19 OTHER REASONS FOR BELIEVING IN GOD Many people cannot believe that people are here by chance. They think that life must have a meaning and purpose. Only God and life after death can give life meaning. So God must exist. The fact that there are religions which seem to believe a lot of the same things about God, and that so many people believe in God shows God must exist. All those people and religions cannot be wrong. WHY SOME PEOPLE DO NOT BELIEVE IN GOD 1. Scientific explanations of the world can lead people to become agnostic (not sure whether God exists), or atheists (believing that God does not exist). Many people believe in God because they think that God is the only explanation on how the universe came into being. However, science now explains the world and the universe much better than religion. For example, the Big Bang and evolution is much more believable than Genesis and the story of Adam and Eve. Science also makes it difficult to believe in the Bible which talks about God above the sky, and God performing miracles to which science gives natural explanations. The discoveries of astronomy and astronauts going into space make it difficult to think of anywhere God could be this also applies to the idea of life after death and where heaven could be. 2. Problems with miracles can lead people to become agnostic or atheist. Many people believe in God because they believe miracles have occurred, and God is the explanation, so God must exist, for example, Jesus rising from the dead. However, most miracles can now be explained, or shown to be based on insufficient evidence. Even if miracles cannot be explained, why would a good God just help one or two people with miracles and not help all the other people who need a miracle? Why would a good God send miracles for a few people, but allow people to starve to death and allow millions to die during the Holocaust? 3. Unanswered prayers can lead to people to become agnostic or atheist. God is supposed to care for those who worship him and answer prayers, but if someone prays to God to help a dying child, and the child dies, that person may well become agnostic or atheist. Religious people are praying for peace and an end to starvation all time and yet these things still exist. Many religious believers become agnostics or atheists because their prayers are not answered by God. 4. Evil and suffering in the world lead some people to become agnostic or atheists. The world has major design flaws which cause earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, diseases, floods and droughts. These cause massive amounts of human suffering which make it seem that if God did create the universe, He is either evil or useless, or, more likely, does not exist. People suffer from such things as disease, starvation, or through earthquakes and wars. If God is good, he must want to get rid of such things. If God is all powerful (omnipotent)

20 He must be able to get rid of such things. The fact that these things continue to exist leads some people to believe that there is no God. Believing in God Other reasons for believing in God Why some people do not believe in God

21

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