Biology DNA Protein Synthesis and Fingerprinting. Spring 2009

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1 Biology DNA Protein Synthesis and Fingerprinting Spring 2009

2 Chains of amino acids 20 named types Create/build structure within organisms Function as important biochemicals Ex: hair, skin, tissues in organs, muscle, enzymes Proteins - Review

3 Symbolize amino acids as shapes Ex: Valine Alanine Tyrosine Etc. Phenylalanine

4 Protein Synthesis Process by which proteins are built in cells DNA has code for building the protein, ie. the amino acid sequence Code? Sequence of nitrogen bases Problem, where are proteins built? Ribosomes in cytoplasm DNA stuck in nucleus Who can help DNA? RNA can travel between nucleus and cytoplasm

5 RNA Review DNA sugar? Deoxyribose RNA sugar? Ribose DNA bases? Adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine Base pairing? A-T and C-G RNA bases? Adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil Base pairing? A-U and C-G DNA shape? Double helix RNA shape? Often single stranded; sometimes a weird cloverleaf shape that is partially double stranded

6 Protein Synthesis Goal: to make a piece of dark hair protein according to DNA base code (gene) on a chromosome in nucleus Must assemble amino acids in correct order Assume this is the correct sequence of amino acids

7 Step One Begins in nucleus Strand of DNA (gene) for dark hair

8 Complementary bases?

9 Step Two DNA uncoils DNA unzips Remind you of another process? NOT DNA duplication this time

10 Problem? DNA (chromosome) is in nucleus Amino acids (proteins) are assembled in the cytoplasm at the ribosome RNA to the rescue!!

11 Step Three Floating in the nucleus are spare part RNA nucleotides made by the nucleolus

12 Step Four Spare Part RNA nucleotides move in Pair up with unzipped DNA on one side Bond to form a strand of RNA

13 Step Five RNA strand now has the DNA code for dark hair Detaches and leaves the nucleus Travels to cytoplasm and ribosome Called: messenger RNA (mrna) DNA zips up and coils up In cytoplasm

14 Steps of the process occurring in nucleus are called: Transcription = DNA passes the code to RNA Once mrna moves into cytoplasm, a second phase called translation begins Translation = mrna translates the code into a specific amino acid sequence (protein)

15 Step Six Floating in the cytoplasm is another type of RNA Cloverleaf shaped with some bases bonded 3 free bases on one end Opposite ends holds a specific amino acid Act like semi trucks Haul amino acids to the protein factory Called: transfer RNA (trna)

16 Called: Triplet code Three bases code for one specific amino acid Each amino acid has its own specific code Some have more than one Ex: phenylalanine code can be: AAA or AAG Having 4 different nucleotide bases and having 3 bases code for one amino acid, allows for how many different combinations? Would two bases be enough to code for 20 different amino acids? trna

17 trna haul their amino acids to ribosome How do they know where to drop their load? Pair up with bases on mrna Sequence of 3 base pairs on mrna is called a codon Opposite sequence of 3 on trna is called an anticodon Step Six Continued

18

19 Amino acids are so close, they bond in a chain to form a specific protein In this case, dark hair protein Protein is released into the cell trna release from mrna and travel back into cytoplasm to pick up another load (amino acid) Step Seven

20 Mutations Mutation = mistake in DNA base sequence Often harmful, sometimes positive Ex: rabbit with white coat Mutagen = agent/substance that can cause mutations Ex: ultraviolet radiation sunlight, nuclear radiation, chemicals in food, air, water cigarette smoke, asbestos drugs

21 Mutation Impact on Protein Assume the original DNA sequence is mutated in a gene that codes for an important protein to clot blood Synthesis Normal Gene Mutated Gene

22 Mutated DNA gene unzips

23 What type of mrna will be built? Normal gene mrna Mutant Gene mrna

24 Normal Gene Translation at the Ribosome

25 Mutated Gene Translation at the Ribosome

26 Mutated Translation Continued

27 Normal Blood Clotting Protein

28 Mutated Blood Clotting Protein

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