Unit 1 Lesson 5 The Nervous and Endocrine Systems Essential Question: How do the nervous and endocrine system work?

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1 Unit 1 Lesson 5 The Nervous and Endocrine Systems Essential Question: How do the nervous and endocrine system work? Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

2 P60 What is the function of the nervous system The nervous system is made up of the structures that control actions and reactions of the body in response to stimuli in the environment. The nervous system receives and sends out information about activities within the body and outside your body. It directs the way in which your body responds to this information. It also monitors and responds to changes in the environment. helps maintain homeostasis

3 P60 The CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The brain is the body s central command organ. The spinal cord allows the brain to communicate with the rest of the body. The PNS connects the CNS to the rest of the body. Sensory and Motor parts Involuntary processes are those you have no control over, such as your heart beating. Voluntary processes are actions your brain can control, such as moving an arm or a leg. Both the CNS and PNS are both made of neurons

4 - Divisions of the Nervous System P61 What are the parts of the CNS? There are three main regions of the brain that receive and process information. These are: *cerebrum, * cerebellum, *brain stem (medulla) The Brain

5 P61 Cerebrum The largest part of the brain is called the cerebrum. Functions: Store memories Perform voluntary movements Allow you to sense the environment Think Problem solve

6 P61 Cerebellum The second largest part of your brain is called the cerebellum Functions: Process information from your body coordinates the actions of your muscles helps you keep your balance When you walk, the impulses that tell your feet to move start in your cerebrum. However, your cerebellum gives you the muscular coordination and sense of balance that keep you from falling down.

7 P61 The brain stem, connects your brain to the spinal cord. controls your body s involuntary actions Breathing and heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature Medulla / Brain Stem

8 Spinal Cord The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves protected by bones called vertebrae. P61 Nerves are a collection of nerve-cell extensions bundled together with blood vessels and connective tissue. The spinal cord carries messages to and from the brain. Link between PNS & Brain Sensory information flows in and motor information flows out towards the muscles

9 - How the Nervous System Works P62 How do signals move through the nervous system? Neuron: A cell that moves messages in the form of fast-moving electrical energy (Impulses)

10 P62 Types of Neurons Sensory Neuron, Interneuron, and Motor Neuron A sensory neuron picks up stimuli from the internal or external environment and moves the information to the spinal cord to the brain. The brain interprets the information A motor neuron sends an impulse to a muscle or gland, and the muscle or gland reacts in response.

11 - How the Nervous System Works P62 What are the parts of a neuron?

12 P63 Visualize it! Neuron Part Structure Function Cell Body Dendrites Axon Axon terminal Region containing nucleus and organelles Branches of the cell body Long branch from the cell body End of an axon Gathers information from dendrites Gathers information from other cells Send impulses away from the cell body Changes electrical signal to chemical signal

13 - How the Nervous System Works P63 How a Nerve Impulse Travels When a nerve impulse travels along a neuron or from one neuron to another, it does so in the form of electrical and chemical signals. For a nerve impulse to be carried along at a synapse, it must cross the gap between the axon and the next structure. The axon tips release neurotransmitters that carry the impulse across the gap.

14 NS Functions Numbers from top to bottom 3 cerebrum 1 cerebellum 2 medulla/brainstem 4 spinal nerves 5 spinal cord 1) Cerebellum 2) Medulla / brainstem 3) Cerebrum 4) Spinal nerves 5) Spinal cord CNS Review 1) Brain Stem/medulla 2) Spinal Cord 3) Cerebrum 4) cerebellum 5) Medulla/brainstem 6) Axon 7) Nucleus 8) Neuron 9) Dendrite

15 The body senses the environment with specialized structures called sensory organs What are the main senses? Sight Touch Hearing Taste Smell

16 What are the main senses? Sight allows you to see objects (size and shape), motion, and color. The front of the eye is protected by a membrane called the cornea. Light passes through an opening called the pupil. Light-sensitive receptor cells, called rods and cones, in the retina change light into electrical impulses that are sent to the brain.

17 Unit 1 Lesson 5 The Nervous and Endocrine Systems That Makes Sense! What are the main senses? Impulses travel to your brain, creating an awareness of touch called a sensation. The skin has different kinds of receptors that detect pressure, temperature, pain, and vibration.

18 What are the main senses? Hearing happens when sound-wave vibrations are turned into electrical impulses in the ear. Sound is funneled through the outer ear, making the eardrum vibrate. Tiny bones in the ear vibrate, causing the fluid in the cochlea to move in waves. Hair cells in the fluid cause neurons to send electrical impulses to the brain via the auditory nerve.

19 What are the main senses? The tongue is covered with taste buds that contain taste cells. They respond to signals in dissolved molecules in food. Sweet, Sour, salty, bitter and savory (umani) Olfactory cells react to chemicals in the air that dissolve in the lining of the nasal cavity, triggering an impulse to the brain. Taste and Smell detect chemical cues from the environment.

20 Keep Your Cool! What is the function of the endocrine system? The endocrine system controls body functions and helps maintain homeostasis by using hormones. A hormone is a chemical messenger made in one cell or tissue that causes a change in another cell or tissue elsewhere in the body. Hormones are produced by endocrine glands or tissues and travel through the bloodstream. A gland is a group of cells that make special chemicals (hormones) in your body.

21 How do Hormones Work? Keep Your Cool! Travel through the blood. Hormones only affect specific target cells that have a specific receptor to that hormone.

22 The Endocrine System Functions of Endocrine Glands The pituitary gland communicates with the hypothalamus to control many body activities.

23 The Endocrine System

24 The Endocrine System Functions of Endocrine Glands The ovaries in females and testes in males are also endocrine glands. Ovaries: release the hormone estrogen that controls changes in the female body. Trigger egg development Testes: release the hormone testosterone, which controls changes in the male body and regulates sperm production

25 And Endocrine Systems What glands make up the endocrine system? The pituitary gland (brain) secretes hormones that control growth/sexual development and the functions of other glands. The hypothalamus (brain) controls the release of hormones from the pituitary gland. The pineal gland (brain)makes hormones that control sleep, aging, reproduction, and body temperature. The thyroid gland controls metabolism. The parathyroid gland controls calcium in the blood. Reproductive hormones control reproduction. The pancreas regulates blood-sugar levels (glucose). Adrenal gland controls the body s fight or flight response in dangerous situations by increasing blood pressure and heart rate during times of stress.

26 Endocrine System 1) Pituitary gland 2) Thymus 3) Adrenal gland 4) Ovaries (female) 5) Pineal gland 6) Thyroid 7) Pancreas 8) Testes (male) Gland / Function 1) Pituitary 2) Pancreas 3) Testes 4) Adrenal 5) Thyroid 6) Ovaries 7) Parathyroid 8) Pineal gland 9) Thymus

27 Feedback How are hormone levels controlled? The endocrine system helps maintain homeostasis by increasing or decreasing hormone levels. The endocrine system uses a feedback mechanism to maintain homeostasis. A feedback mechanism is a cycle of events in which information from one step controls or affects a previous step. In negative feedback, the effects of a hormone cause the release of that hormone to be turned down. In positive feedback, the effects of a hormone stimulate the release of more of that hormone.

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30 What are disorders of the endocrine and nervous systems? Endocrine System Disorders Hormone imbalances can happen when the endocrine system makes too much or too little of a hormone. Type 1 diabetes is caused by a hormone imbalance. Pancreas does not make enough insulin. Nervous System Disorders Parkinson s disease: cells that control movement are damaged. Multiple sclerosis: Affects the brain s ability to send signals to the rest of the body. Spinal-cord: Blocks information to and from the brain because impulses from the brain could not get past the injured site.

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