Brain and Cranial Nerves (Ch. 15) Human Anatomy lecture. caudal = toward the spinal cord)

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1 Insight: Some cranial nerve disorders Brain and Cranial Nerves (Ch. 15) Human Anatomy lecture I. Overview (Directional terms: rostral = toward the forehead caudal = toward the spinal cord) A. 3 Major parts KNOW Fig & Brain stem - medulla oblongata - pons - midbrain - diencephalon (many texts disagree and consider this a 4 th part on its own) 2. Cerebrum 3. Cerebellum B. Major landmarks Cerebrum cerebral hemispheres separated by longitudinal fissure corpus callosum thick band of connecting fibers at bottom of longitudinal fissure gyrus (pl. = gyri) = ridge sulcus = groove C. Protection and coverings 1. Same 3 meninges; no epidural space 2. Dura mater has 2 layers - Fig venous sinuses lie between 3. 3 Extensions of dura help anchor brain (Fig & 15.5) - falx cerebri- between cerebral hemisphere in longitudinal fissure (attached to crista galli) - falx cerebelli- between cerebellar hemispheres; superficial to vermis - tentorium cerebelli- between cerebrum and cerebellum; in transverse fissure Brain & CN -- Page 1 of 6

2 D. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 1. Circulates around and within brain & spinal cord. KNOW Fig & a. 60% produced by choroid plexuses (capillary networks covered by ependymal cells)in each ventricle and general ependymal lining of ventricular system. b. 40% produced in subarachnoid space 3. Pathway: 4. Reabsorbed by arachnoid granulations in dural sinuses 5. Functions CNS blood : exchange of gases, nutrients & wastes absorbs shock buoyant: 1500g vs. 50g! Brain & CN -- Page 2 of 6

3 E. Blood supply prong supply through cerebral arterial circle (Review) 2. Brain capillaries less leaky = Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) II. Brain stem A. Medulla oblongata Fig. 15.6, but label Fig Continuous caudally with spinal cord, rostrally with pons ~ 3 cm 2. Anterior bulges pyramids ( primarily tracts) Lateral bulges olives (primarily nuclei) 3. Functions - conduction pathway - CNS (many descending tracts cross from left to right at decussation of pyramids) - nuclei for CN IX XII B. Pons (= bridge ) 1. Connects medulla with midbrain; both to cerebellum via cerebellar peduncles Fig. 15.6b little feet 2. Nuclei for CN V VIII C. Midbrain 1. rostral to pons; caudal to diencephalon 2. cerebral peduncles - anterior fiber tracts & nuclei 3. cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of the midbrain) runs through 4. corpora quadrigemina (= quadruplets ) - superior colliculi - visual reflexes - inferior colliculi - auditory reflexes 5. several other nuclei, including CN III and IV D. Diencephalon Fig Thalamus (80%) - 2 large masses bulge medially into 3 rd ventricle and laterally into lateral ventricles - connected by intermediate mass (like a dumbbell) that creates a hole in the third ventricle - many nuclei (23!) - major function is as relay center for sensory information to cerebrum 2. Epithalamus posterior roof - Pineal gland - neuroendocrine organ pine cone 3. Hypothalamus - floor More than 12 small nuclei Infundibulum connects to pituitary gland Functions: regulates autonomic nervous system and endocrine system 4. Third ventricle - donut pierced by intermediate mass Brain & CN -- Page 3 of 6

4 III. Cerebellum KNOW Fig A. Structure 1. dorsal to brain stem, separated from cerebrum by transverse fissure 2. central vermis between two cerebellar hemispheres 3. flat folia instead of gyri leaf 4. white matter forms arbor vitae (= tree of life) 5. communicates with brain stem via 3 pairs of cerebellar peduncles B. Functions (Fig ) 1. regulates voluntary, skilled movements by comparing intent with performance 2. regulates posture and balance 3. many others, including sensory & motor (only 10% of brain s mass but 50% of its neurons 100 billion!) IV. Cerebrum Fig A. Structure 1. cerebral cortex - outer rind of gray matter: 2500 cm 2 - grows rapidly in the fetus, forming gyri and sulci - why is gray matter on outside of cerebral/cerebellar cortex but on inside of spinal cord? surface area for integration 2. some sulci separate each hemisphere into lobes (named after overlying bone) -sketch- Insula deep in lateral sulcus Fig white matter - under cortex -- Fig association tracts- same hemisphere commissural tracts - between hemispheres: corpus callosum is major one projection tracts outside cerebrum 4. basal nuclei (ganglia) Fig several large nuclei 5. limbic (= border) system Fig bilateral interconnected rings of structures (mostly gray matter) around diencephalon - includes hippocampus (=seahorse), site of neuron proliferation & fornix (= arch) Brain & CN -- Page 4 of 6

5 B. Functions (NRF text detail) 1. sensory areas - interpret and localize 2. motor areas - initiate muscular movement 3. association areas - emotion and intellect 4. basal nuclei - coordinate gross, automatic movements (like walking) and muscle tone 5. limbic system - emotional behavior related to survival (pleasure, pain) and memory (hippocampus) V. Cranial nerves KNOW CHART: Number, Name, Function, Attachment (NRF text detail) - 12 pairs, part of PNS - numbered with Roman numerals rostral caudal - use mnemonic? p Insight: p. 431 KNOW FIG left side labels and only I VI - note that midbrain should be hypothalamus Brain & CN -- Page 5 of 6

6 CRANIAL NERVE SUMMARY NUMBER AND NAME SITE OF ATTACHMENT FUNCTION I olfactory cerebrum smell II optic thalamus vision III oculomotor Midbrain eyeball & eyelid movement, pupil constriction, muscle IV trochlear ( pulley ) V trigeminal ( triplets ) V 1 = ophthalmic V 2 = maxillary V 3 = mandibular Midbrain Pons eyeball movement; muscle chewing; muscle facial sensation VI abducens Pons eyeball movement, muscle VII facial Pons muscles of facial expression, saliva & tear secretion; taste, muscle VIII vestibulocochlear pons & medulla oblongata balance & hearing IX glossopharyngeal medulla oblongata saliva secretion, taste, blood pressure regulation X vagus ( wanderer ) XI accessory (spinal accessory) medulla oblongata medulla oblongata anterior gray horns, C 1 -C 5 visceral smooth muscle control, digestive secretion; visceral sensations, muscle head, neck & shoulder movements, swallowing; muscle XII hypoglossal medulla oblongata tongue movement (swallowing & speech); muscle NOTE: 1. Which 3 cranial nerves are primarily sensory? 2. There are no pure motor nerves because motor nerves also carry muscle (proprioception) from the muscles they serve. However, 5 cranial nerves are primarily motor and traditionally classified this way. Give the name & number of those Which 3 cranial nerves are involved in taste perception? 4. Which 3 cranial nerves are involved in eyeball movement? Brain & CN -- Page 6 of 6

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