Chapter 7. Writing Formulas and Naming Compounds. Chemistry

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1 Chapter 7 Writing Formulas and Naming Compounds Chemistry

2 Systematic Naming There are too many compounds to remember the names of all of the known compounds. Compounds are made of two or more elements.

3 Types of Compounds 1.Ionic Compounds 2.Covalent (Molecular) Compounds

4 Ionic Bonds Elements can become stable by gaining or losing their valence electrons. When an atom gains or loses valence electrons, they become an ion. An atom or group of atoms that has a charge because of the loss or gain of electrons.

5 Ionic Bonds Types of Ions Cation - an atom that has lost its valence electrons a positive ion has a positive charge made by metals

6 Ionic Bonds Types of Ions Anion - an atom that has gained valence electrons a negative ion has a negative charge made by nonmetals

7 Chemical Formulas Chemical Formulas show the kind and number of atoms in the smallest piece of a substance. Molecular Formulas show the number and kind of atoms in a molecule. ex. CO 2 and C 6 H 12 O 6

8 Charges of Ions For most main group elements, the location on the periodic table can tell you what kind of ion they form. Elements in the same group/family have similar properties. including the charge of their ions

9 Charge in Groups 1, 2, & 13 is the group number. Groups is the group number minus

10 Naming Ions Cations write the name of the element if the charge is always the same only applies to main group elements (Groups 1, 2, 13) Na 1+ - sodium

11 Naming Ions Most transition elements can have more than one charge. The charge is indicated with Roman Numerals in parenthesis Co 2+ - cobalt (II) A few transition elements (Ag, Sc, Zn, & Cd) only form one kind of ion they do not get a roman numeral Ag - silver Zn - zinc Cd - cadmium

12 Name these Ions Na 1+ Ca 2+ Al 3+ Fe 3+ Fe 2+ Pb 2+ Li 1+ sodium ion calcium ion aluminum ion iron (III) ion iron (II) ion lead (II) ion lithium ion

13 Write these Ions potassium ion magnesium ion copper (II) ion chromium (VI) ion barium ion mercury (II) ion beryllium ion K 1+ Mg 2+ Cu 2+ Cr 6+ Ba 2+ Hg 2+ Be 2+

14 Naming Anions Anions are always named the same. Change the element s ending to -ide F 1- Fluorine

15 Naming Anions Anions are always named the same. Change the element s ending to -ide F 1- Fluorin

16 Naming Anions Anions are always named the same. Change the element s ending to -ide F 1- Fluori

17 Naming Anions Anions are always named the same. Change the element s ending to -ide F 1- Fluor

18 Naming Anions Anions are always named the same. Change the element s ending to -ide F 1- Fluori

19 Naming Anions Anions are always named the same. Change the element s ending to -ide F 1- Fluorid

20 Naming Anions Anions are always named the same. Change the element s ending to -ide F 1- Fluoride

21 Naming Anions Anions are always named the same. Change the element s ending to -ide F 1- Fluoride

22 Name these Ions Cl 1- N 3- Br 1- O 2- Ga 3+ chloride ion nitride ion bromide ion oxide ion gallium ion

23 Write these Ions sulfide ion iodide ion phosphide ion oxide ion fluoride ion strontium ion S 2- I 1- P 3- O 2- F 1- Sr 2+

24 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Binary compounds have 2 elements The name is the same as their ions. Name the cation first then the anion Easy with main group elements NaCl sodium chloride MgBr magnesium bromide 2

25 Name the following binary ionic compounds. Al O 2 3 MgF 2 Na S 2 CaCl 2 Ba P 3 2 K N 3 aluminum oxide magnesium fluoride sodium sulfide calcium chloride barium phosphide potassium nitride

26 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds The problem comes with naming compounds with transition elements. The cation name includes the charge. Fe 2+ - iron (II) The compound must be neutral same number of + and - charges. Use the negative charge to find the charge of the positive ions.

27 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Write the name of CuO Copper Oxide But copper has multiple charges +2 2 =0 Cu +2 O 2 Cut the compound in half. What is the charge of the anion? Oxygen s charge is 2-. How many anions are present? There is one oxygen ion. The total charge must equal zero. For the charge to equal zero, what must the charge be on the left side? The charge on the left must be +2. How many cations are present? There is one copper ion.

28 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Write the name of CuO Copper (II) Oxide But copper has multiple charges +2 2 =0 Cu +2 O 2 Cut the compound in half. What is the charge of the anion? Oxygen s charge is 2-. How many anions are present? There is one oxygen ion. The total charge must equal zero. For the charge to equal zero, what must the charge be on the left side? The charge on the left must be +2. How many cations are present? There is one copper ion.

29 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Write the name of Cu 2 S Copper Sulfide But copper has multiple charges Cu 2 2 =0 S 2

30 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Write the name of Cu 2 S Copper (I) Sulfide But copper has multiple charges Cu 2 2 =0 S 2

31 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Write the name of Fe 2 O 3 Iron Oxide But iron has multiple charges Fe 2 6 =0 O 3 2

32 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Write the name of Fe 2 S 3 Iron (III) Oxide But iron has multiple charges Fe 2 6 =0 O 3 2

33 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Does the metal have multiple charges? Yes No The compound must be split. The compound s name will be the The metal will have a roman numeral. same as its ion s names.

34 Name the following binary ionic compounds. KCl Na 3 N potassium chloride sodium nitride CrN chromium (III) nitride Sc 3 P 2 PbO scandium phosphide lead (II) oxide PbO 2 lead (IV) oxide

35 Polyatomic Ions Polyatomic ions are a group of atoms that stay together and have a charge. they are covalently bonded NO 3-1

36 Polyatomic Ions acetate C 2 H 3 O 2 1 nitrate hydroxide permanganate cyanide chlorate sulfate carbonate NO 1-3 OH 1 MnO 1-4 CN 1 ClO 1-3 SO 2-4 CO 2-3

37 Polyatomic Ions chromate dichromate phosphate CrO 4 2 Cr 2 O 7 2- PO 4 3- Only Positive Polyatomic Ion ammonium NH 4 1+

38 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Write the name of CuSO 4 Copper Sulfate But copper has multiple charges +2 Cu +2 2 =0 SO 4 2

39 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Write the name of CuSO 4 Copper (II) Sulfate But copper has multiple charges +2 Cu +2 2 =0 SO 4 2

40 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Write the name of Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2 Iron Phosphate But iron has multiple charges +6 6 =0 +2 ( ) 2 3 Fe 3 PO 4

41 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Write the name of Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2 Iron (II) Phosphate But iron has multiple charges +6 6 =0 +2 ( ) 2 3 Fe 3 PO 4

42 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Write the name of Cr 2 (CO 3 ) 3 Chromium Carbonate But chromium has multiple charges +6 6 =0 +3 ( ) 3 2 Cr 2 CO 3

43 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Write the name of Cr 2 (CO 3 ) 3 Chromium (III) Carbonate But chromium has multiple charges +6 6 =0 +3 ( ) 3 2 Cr 2 CO 3

44 Name the following ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions. ( ) 2 O ammonium oxide NH 4 ( ) 3 iron (III) hydroxide Fe OH LiCN lithium cyanide ( ) 2 CO 3 ammonium carbonate NH 4 NiPO 4 ZnCrO 4 nickel (III) phosphate zinc chromate

45 Writing Ionic Chemical Formulas The charges have to add up to zero. Get the charge from each ion. Cation s from the name or the periodic table Anion from the periodic table or the polyatomic ions Balance the charges by adding subscripts Put polyatomic ions in parenthesis if there is more than one polyatomic ion

46 Writing Ionic Chemical Formulas Write the formula for calcium chloride Calcium is Ca 2+ Chloride is Cl 1-2 Ca +2 Cl 1 CaCl 2 1. Write the ions involved. 2. We want to find the MAGIC NUMBER. It is the lowest number both charges go into. Put the number in the middle and circle it. 3. Divide the MAGIC NUMBER by the charges and that becomes the subscript.

47 Write the formula for barium nitride 6 Ba +2 N 3 Ba 3 N 2 Write the formula for copper (II) phosphate 6 Cu +2 PO 4 3 ( ) 2 Cu 3 PO 4

48 Write the formulas for these compounds. lithium sulfide tin (II) oxide tin (IV) oxide copper (II) sulfate iron (III) phosphate gallium nitrate iron (III) sulfide ammonium sulfide Li S 2 SnO SnO 2 CuSO 4 FePO 4 ( ) 3 Ga NO 3 Fe 2 S 3 ( ) 2 S NH 4

49 Writing Ionic Chemical Formulas Things to look for: if the cation has (), the number is its charge, not how many. if the anion ends in -ide, they are probably off the periodic table (monatomic) if anion ends in -ate or -ite, it is polyatomic

50 Daily Objectives Chemistry I Honors Today, I will be able to name covalent compounds. write the formula for covalent compounds. C-3.1, C-4.1

51 Covalent/Molecular Compounds made just of nonmetals smallest piece is a molecule is not held together by a charge cannot use charges to figure out how many of each atom is present.

52 Covalent/Molecular Compounds Ionic compounds use charges to determine how many of each ion is present have to figure out charge have to figure out numbers Covalent compound s names tell you the number of atoms present. Uses prefixes to tell you the number

53 Covalent/Molecular Compounds Prefixes 1 - mono 6 - hexa 2 - di 7 - hepta 3 - tri 8 - octa 4 - tetra 9 - nona 5 - penta 10 - deca

54 Covalent Compounds To write the name of a covalent compound, you will write two words. Prefix name Prefix name -ide Exception - We do not write mono- if there is only one of the first element.

55 Name the following molecular compounds. N 2 O dinitrogen monoxide NO 2 nitrogen dioxide Cl 2 O 7 dichlorine heptoxide CBr 4 carbon tetrabromide CO 2 carbon dioxide BaCl 2 barium chloride

56 Write the formulas for the following molecular compounds. diphosphorus pentoxide P 2 O 5 tetraiodine nonoxide I 4 O 9 sulfur hexafluoride SF 6 nitrogen trioxide NO 3 carbon tetrahydride CH 4 phosphorus trifluoride PF 3 aluminum chloride AlCl 3

57 Naming Simple Compounds Naming Acids Acids containing anions whose name ends in -ide change -ide to -ic, then add hydro- to the anion name Acids containing anions whose name ends in -ate change -ate to -ic, then add the word acid Acids containing anions whose name ends in -ite change -ite to -ous, then add the word acid

58 Naming Simple Compounds Naming Acids Sample PRoblem D Name the following acids. HCN hydrocyanic acid HNO 3 nitric acid H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid H 3 PO 3 phosphorous acid

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