# UPhysical Science 412 Level 2. Physics

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1 UPhysical Science 412 Level 2 Physics Mathematical skills Construct and use tables and graphs to interpret data sets. Solve basic algebraic expressions. Measure with accuracy and precision (e.g., length, volume, mass, temperature, time) Recognize SI and English measurement systems Use appropriate metric/standard international (SI) units of measurement for mass (g); length (cm); volume (ml); and time (s). Use the Celsius and Kelvin scales. Convert within a unit (e.g., centimeters to meters). Use common prefixes such as milli-, centi-, and kilo-. Use scientific notation, where appropriate. Determine the correct number of significant figures. Use ratio and proportion to solve problems. Perform calculations involving scientific notation and conversion factors. Identify metric and SI units used in science and convert between common metric prefixes Compare and contrast between accuracy and precision. Determine the correct number of significant figures. Organize and analyze data using charts and graphs. Using a calculator with scientific notation Measuring with a device that has lines Algebraic manipulation Glenco Science: Physical Science, Chapter 1 Instructional Fair: Physical Science Chemistry Handouts Lab: measurement Quiz: scientific notation Quiz: metric prefixes Test: Measurement

2 1. Motion and Forces Central Concept: Newton s laws of motion and gravitation describe and predict the motion of most objects. 1.1 Compare and contrast vector quantities (e.g., displacement, velocity, acceleration force, linear momentum) and scalar quantities (e.g., d distance, speed, energy, mass, work). 1.2 Distinguish between displacement, distance, velocity, speed, and acceleration. Solve problems involving displacement, distance, velocity, speed, and constant acceleration. 1.3 Create and interpret graphs of 1-dimensional motion, such as position vs. time, distance vs. time, speed vs. time, velocity vs. time, and acceleration vs. time where acceleration is constant. 1.4 Interpret and apply Newton s three laws of motion 1.5 Use a free-body force diagram to show forces acting on a system consisting of a pair of interacting objects. For a diagram with only colinear forces, determine the net force acting on a system and between the objects. Identify frames of reference Distinguish and Calculate distance and displacement Recognize instantaneous speed vs. average speed Interpret and make time vs. distance graphs Recognize velocities are vectors Identify and calculate acceleration Interpret and create acceleration vs. time graphs Calculate force and identify appropriate SI units Explain how motion is affected by balanced and unbalanced forces Recognize and describe the four types of friction Describe Newton s first law of motion Describe and Use Newton s second law of motion Relate mass to weight Describe Newton s third law of motion Calculate momentum and describe collisions calculation graphing using a stop watch understand the concepts of linear motion Distinguish between mass and weight Identify Matter Recognize and describe Newton s three laws of motion Text- Glenco Science: Physical Science Ch 2&3 Video- Discovery Channel School: Forces and Motion Video- Disney Educational Productions: Bill Nye the Science Guy- Friction Lab: Indy 500 Lab: Marble acceleration Quiz: Velocity and acceleration calculation Test : Motion and Speed Lab: Weight vs. Mass Quiz : Newton s laws Test: Forces

3 2. Conservation of Energy and Momentum Central Concept: The laws of conservation of energy and momentum provide alternate approaches to predict and describe the movement of objects. 2.1 Interpret and provide examples that illustrate the law of conservation of energy. 2.2 Interpret and provide examples of how energy can be converted from gravitational potential energy to kinetic energy and vice versa. 2.3 Describe both qualitatively and quantitatively how work can be expressed as a change in mechanical energy. 2.4 Describe both qualitatively and quantitatively the concept of power as work done per unit time. 2.5 Provide and interpret examples showing that linear momentum is the product of mass and velocity, and is always conserved (law of conservation of momentum). Calculate the momentum of an object. Describe conversion of energy from one form to another. State and apply the law of conservation of energy. Solve equations that equate initial energy to final energy. Describe the relationship between work and energy. Relate kinetic energy to mass and speed and calculate these quantities. Analyze how potential energy is related to position and give examples of both gravitational and elastic potential energy. Solve equations that relate an objects gravitational potential energy to its mass and height. Describe the law of conservation of energy and understand how it is conserved Understand the relationship between energy types Calculation Identify Forms of Energy Text- Glenco Scoence: Physical Science Ch 4&5 Demo: Burning Paper Video- Discovery Channel School: Forces and Motion Lab: Pendulum Lab: falling motion Test: Energy Lab: Levers Lab: Pulleys Report: Alternative energy Test: Work and Machines

4 3. Heat and Heat Transfer Central Concept: Heat is energy that is transferred by the processes of convection, conduction, and radiation between objects or regions that are at different temperatures. 3.1 Explain how heat energy is transferred by convection, conduction, and radiation. 3.2 Explain how heat energy will move from a higher temperature to a lower temperature until equilibrium is reached. 3.3 Describe the relationship between average molecular kinetic energy and temperature. Recognize that energy is absorbed when a substance changes from a solid to a liquid to a gas, and that energy is released when a substance changes from a gas to a liquid to a solid. Explain the relationships among evaporation, condensation, cooling, and warming. 3.4 Explain the relationships among temperature changes in a substance, the amount of heat transferred, the amount (mass) of the substance, and the specific heat of the substance. Describe convection, conduction, radiation and identify each. Apply the second law of thermodynamics in situations where heat moves from cooler to warmer objects. Classify materials as thermal conductors or thermal insulators. Apply the law of conservation of energy to conversions between thermal energy and other forms of energy. State the third law of thermodynamics. Explain how work and heat transfer energy. Relate thermal energy to the amount of particles that make up matter. Calculate thermal energy, temperature change, or mass using specific heat. Using a thermometer Temperature unit conversions Using a balance Differentiate between the types of heat energy Recognize Newton s second and third laws Text- Glenco Scoence: Physical Science Ch 6 Demo: thermal contraction Demo: Specific Heat at the Beach Video- Discovery Channel School: Heat and Temperature Video- Discovery Channel School: Fire Lab: specific heat of aluminum Test: Thermal Energy

5 4. Waves Central Concept: Waves carry energy from place to place without the transfer of matter. 4.1 Describe the measurable properties of waves (velocity, frequency, wavelength, amplitude, period) and explain the relationships among them. Recognize examples of simple harmonic motion. 4.2 Distinguish between mechanical and electromagnetic waves. 4.3 Distinguish between the two types of mechanical waves, transverse and longitudinal. 4.4 Describe qualitatively the basic principles of reflection and refraction of waves. Define mechanical waves and relate waves to energy. Describe longitudinal, surface and transverse waves and discuss how they are produced. Identify examples of each wave type. Analyze the motion of a medium as a wave passes through it. Define frequency, period, and wavelength. Solve equations relating wave speed to frequency or pe4riod. Describe how to measure the amplitude, and relate it to energy of the wave. Describe how reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference affect waves. Distinguish between constructive and destructive interference. Graphing waves Describe and recognize the types of waves Understand how waves are affected Show how waves transfer energy Text- Glenco Scoence: Physical Science Ch 11&13 Demo: big slinky, long spring Video: of wave types and medium movement Video- Discovery Channel School: The Phenomenon of Sound Lab: making waves Quiz: wave types Test: Waves Lab: Mirrors Test: Sound

6 Chemistry 1. Properties of Matter Central Concept: Physical and chemical properties reflect the nature of the interactions between molecules or atoms, and can be used to classify and describe matter. 1.1 Identify and explain physical properties (e.g., density, melting point, boiling point, conductivity, malleability) and chemical properties (e.g., the ability to form new substances). Distinguish between chemical and physical changes. 1.2 Explain the difference between pure substances (elements and compounds) and mixtures. Classify pure substance as elements or compounds. Describe the characteristics of an element and the symbols that identify them. Describe the characteristics of a compound Distinguish pure substances from mixtures. Classify mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous. Describe physical properties of matter Identify substances based on their physical properties. Describe methods used to separate mixtures. Describe chemical properties of matter Describe the three signs of chemical change. Distinguish physical changes from chemical changes Lab skills: Recognizing equipment Learning basic lab techniques Following directions and analyzing data Describe physical and chemical properties and changes Classify matter into mixtures and substances Text: pp , Lab: Hoffman Apparatus Quiz: elements and symbols Quiz mixtures vs. substances Test: Properties of Matter

7 2. Atomic Structure Central Concepts: Atomic models are used to explain atoms and help us understand the interaction of elements and compounds observed on a macroscopic scale. 2.1 Recognize discoveries from Dalton (atomic theory), Thomson (the electron), Rutherford (the nucleus), and Bohr (planetary model of atom), and understand how each discovery leads to modern theory. 2.2 Describe Rutherford s gold foil experiment that led to the discovery of the nuclear atom. Identify the major components (protons, neutrons, and electrons) of the nuclear atom and explain how they interact. 2.3 Interpret and apply the laws of conservation of mass, constant composition (definite proportions), and multiple proportions. 2.4 Write the electron configurations for the first twenty elements of the periodic table. Describe the ancient Greek models of the atom List the main points of Dalton s atomic theory Explain how Thomson and Rutherford used experiments to produce their atomic models Describe the Bohr atomic model and evidence for it Describe modern atomic models in terms of probability and the electron cloud Differentiate between all atomic models Identify three subatomic particles and their properties Distinguish atomic number from mass number and use these to describe atomic structure Recognize ions and atomic charge Understand the major parts of the development of atomic models Know the major parts of the atom Text pp Demo: Cathode Ray Tube Demo: Atomic Spectrum Tubes, Bright line spectrums, Diffraction glasses Worksheet: Identify elements by spectra Cartoons of atomic theories Quiz: atomic structure Test: Atomic Theory

8 3. Periodicity Central Concepts: Repeating (periodic) patterns of physical and chemical properties occur among elements that define families with similar properties. The periodic table displays the repeating patterns, which are related to the atoms outermost electrons. 3.1 Explain the relationship of an element s position on the periodic table to its atomic number. Identify families (groups) and periods on the periodic table. 3.2 Use the periodic table to identify the three classes of elements: metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. 3.3 Relate the position of an element on the periodic table to its electron configuration and compare its reactivity to the reactivity of other elements in the table. 3.4 Identify trends on the periodic table (ionization energy, electronegativity, and relative sizes of atoms and ions). Describe how Mendeleev organized his periodic table Describe the modern organization of he periodic table Identify properties of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids and show their position on the periodic table Describe how properties of elements change across the periodic table and identify periods Identify groups and their properties Relate properties to valence electrons Describe activity in terms of electronegativity and ionization energy Describe how atomic radius changes Understand the organization of the periodic table Relate the organization of the periodic table to the structure and reactivity of the elements Text: pp Creation electron dot periodic table Quiz on groups Periodic table Test Periodic table

9 4. Chemical Bonding Central Concept: Atoms bond with each other by transferring or sharing valence electrons to form compounds. 4.1 Explain how atoms combine to form compounds through both ionic and covalent bonding. Predict chemical formulas based on the number of valence electrons. 4.2 Draw Lewis dot structures for simple molecules and ionic compounds. 4.3 Use electronegativity to explain the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds. 4.6 Name and write the chemical formulas for simple ionic and molecular compounds, including those that contain the polyatomic ions: ammonium, carbonate, hydroxide, nitrate, phosphate, and sulfate. Recognize stable electron configurations. Predict an element s chemical properties using number of valence electrons and electron dot diagrams. Describe how and ionic bond forms and how ionization energy affects this process. Predict the composition of ionic formulas and name them. Relate ionic properties to their crystal lattice structure. Describe how covalent bonds form. Compare polar and nonpolar molecules, and demonstrate how polar bonds affect the polarity of a molecule. Name and write covalent molecular formulas. Describe bonding in metallic formulas. Recognize how stability determines bonding Differentiate between types of bonding Write basic names and formulas Text: PPt: examples of bonding Quiz : ionic bonding Quiz: covalent bonding Test: bonding

10 5. Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry Central Concepts: In a chemical reaction, one or more reactants are transformed into one or more new products. Chemical equations represent the reaction and must be balanced. The conservation of atoms in a chemical reaction leads to the ability to calculate the amount of products formed and reactants used (stoichiometry). 5.1 Balance chemical equations by applying the laws of conservation of mass and constant composition (definite proportions). 5.2 Classify chemical reactions as synthesis (combination), decomposition, single displacement (replacement), double displacement, and combustion. 5.3 Use the mole concept to determine number of particles and molar mass for elements and compounds. Interpret chemical equations in terms of reactants, products,and conservation of mass. Balance chemical equations by manipulating coefficients Convert between moles and mass using molar mass. Classify reactions as synthesis, decomposition, single-replacement, double replacement or redox Recognize five types of reactions Apply the conservation of mass to chemical equations by balancing handouts stories and handouts Quiz: balancing equations Test: Chemical reactions

11 6. States of Matter, Kinetic Molecular Theory, and Thermochemistry Central Concepts: Gas particles move independently of each other and are far apart. The behavior of gas particles can be modeled by the kinetic molecular theory. In liquids and solids, unlike gases, particles are close to each other. The driving forces of chemical reactions are energy and entropy. The reorganization of atoms in chemical reactions results in the release or absorption of heat energy 1.3 Describe the three normal states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) in terms of energy, particle motion, and phase transitions. 6.1 Using the kinetic molecular theory, explain the behavior of gases and the relationship between pressure and volume (Boyle s law), volume and temperature (Charles s law), pressure and temperature (Gay-Lussac s law), and the number of particles in a gas sample (Avogadro s hypothesis). Use the combined gas law to determine changes in pressure, volume, and temperature. 6.3 Using the kinetic molecular theory describe and contrast the properties of gases, liquids, and solids. Explain, at the molecular level, the behavior of matter as it undergoes phase transitions. 6.4 Describe the law of conservation of energy. Explain the difference between an endothermic process and an exothermic process. Describe the five states of matter. Classify materials as solids, liquids, or gases. Explain the behavior of gases using kinetic theory. Define pressure and gas pressure. Identify factors that affect gas pressure. Predict changes in gas pressure due to changes in temperature or volume. Explain Charles s law and Boyle s law. Describe phase changes. Explain how temperature can be used to recognize a phase change. Explain what happens to the motion, arrangement o, and average KE of water molecules during phase changes. Identify phase changes as endothermic or exothermic. Lab skills of liquid measurement and following directions Lab skills of predicting and inquiry Recognize states of matter Recognize and quantify Boyle s and Charles s Law Measurement and following directions Text: pp Demo: Can Implosions Phase quiz Quiz: States of matter and gases Test chapter three: States of Matter Predicting and inquiry

12 7. Solutions, Rates of Reaction, and Equilibrium Central Concepts: Solids, liquids, and gases dissolve to form solutions. Rates of reaction and chemical equilibrium are dynamic processes that are significant in many systems (e.g., biological, ecological, geological). 6.4 Describe the law of conservation of energy. Explain the difference between an endothermic process and an exothermic process. 7.5 Identify the factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction (temperature, mixing, concentration, particle size, surface area, catalyst). Describe the energy changes that take place during a chemical reaction Classify chemical reactions as exothermic or endothermic Explain how energy is conserved during a chemical reaction Explain what a reaction rate is & factors that affect it Recognize exothermic vs. endothermic reactions Realize that energy is conserved in a reaction Handouts PPt; equilibrium Quiz: exothermic and endothermic

13 8. Acids and Bases Central Concepts: Acids and bases are important in numerous chemical processes that occur around us, from industrial procedures to biological ones, from the laboratory to the environment. 8.1 Define the Arrhenius theory of acids and bases in terms of the presence of hydronium and hydroxide ions in water and the Bronsted- Lowry theory of acids and bases in terms of proton donors and acceptors. 8.2 Relate hydrogen ion concentrations to the ph scale and to acidic, basic, and neutral solutions. Compare and contrast the strengths of various common acids and bases (e.g., vinegar, baking soda, soap, citrus juice). 8.3 Explain how a buffer works. Define acid and describe some of the general properties of an acid Define base and describe some of the general properties of a base. Explain how acids and bases can be described as proton donors and proton acceptors. Identify neutralization and describe how the reactants and products of a neutralization reaction. Define ph and relate ph to hydronium ion concentration in a solution Distinguish between strong and weak acids and bases Define buffer and describe how a buffer can be made Using ph paper Understand the development of the theory of acids Describe acids and bases Text;pp Demo: preparing a salt by neutralization Quiz: acids and bases

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