Physical Sciences: Matter & Energy. What is physical science? A. Physical science is a field of science that studies matter and energy.

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1 Physical Sciences: Matter & Energy What is physical science? A. Physical science is a field of science that studies matter and energy. B. Physical science has 2 main branches: 1. PHYSICS: the study of how matter and energy interact robotics, nuclear energy, solar panels 2. CHEMISTRY: the study of the structure, makeup, and changes of matter chemicals, acids & bases, medicines

2 What is matter? A. MATTER: anything that has mass and takes up space B. PROPERTIES: characteristics used to describe matter 1. There are 2 major types of properties: a. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: characteristics that can be observed without changing the chemical makeup of a substance i. Includes size, texture, states, color, shape, mass, volume, buoyancy, density b. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES: characteristics that can be observed by changing the chemical makeup of a substance i. Includes oxidation, combustion, digestion, endothermy, exothermy

3 What is matter made of? A. All matter is made up of elements or combinations of elements. B. ELEMENT: a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances 1. Some matter is only made of one element Aluminum foil is made of aluminum (Al) Pure gold is made of only gold (Au) 2. Some matter is made of two or more elements Water is made of oxygen (O) & hydrogen (H) Sugar is made of carbon (C), hydrogen, & oxygen

4 What is an atom? A. ATOM: the smallest part of an element. B. Atoms cannot be divided any smaller and remain elements C. Atoms are made of three subatomic particles: 1. PROTON: a positive (+) subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom 2. NEUTRON: a neutral subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom 3. ELECTRON: a negative (-) subatomic particle found in the energy levels (orbits) of an atom

5 What is an atom? D. There are two parts to an atom: 1. NUCLEUS: the center of an atom where neutrons and protons are located 2. ENERGY LEVELS: orbits where electrons are located a. Energy levels can only hold a certain number of electrons i. Level 1 (K) : can hold 2 electrons ii. Level 2 (L): can hold 8 electrons iii. Level 3 (M): can hold 18 electrons iv. Level 4 (N): can hold 32 electrons

6 What is an atom? b. Those electrons furthest from the nucleus are important in understanding how an atom behaves. i. VALENCE ELECTRONS: electrons on the outer energy level of an atom Hydrogen has 1 valence electron on level K Carbon has 4 valence electrons on level L Oxygen has 6 valence electrons on level L

7 What is an atom? E. ATOMIC NUMBER: the number of protons and electrons in an atom: 1. The atomic number is used to determine the type of atom (element) a. Hydrogen : atomic # 1 b. Helium: atomic # 2 c. Silver: atomic # 47 d. Mercury: atomic # 80 F. ATOMIC MASS: the total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom 1. The number of neutrons can be determined using the atomic mass and atomic number: a. average the atomic mass to the nearest whole number b. subtract the atomic number from the mass number

8 What is a molecule? A. MOLECULE: a group of atoms bonded together 1. Molecules can be made of one kind of atom or many different kinds of atoms. Oxygen we breathe is an example of one kind of atom in a molecule Water is an example of more than one kind of atom in a molecule 2. Molecules are held together by chemical bonds B. CHEMICAL BOND: a force of attraction that holds atoms together 1. Bonds that hold atoms together involve the electrons, not the nucleus

9 Why do atoms bond to form molecules? A. Atoms want to be stable. This is achieved by completing the number of valence electrons that can fit on the outermost energy level. 1. Atoms will gain, lose, or share valence electrons to achieve stability:

10 How do atoms bond to form molecules? A. All bonding occurs with the valence electrons in the outer most energy level. 1. Atoms bond with other atoms that complete their outer energy level. 2. No bonds involve the nucleus. Hydrogen needs one more electron to complete its level Carbon needs four more electrons to complete its level Oxygen needs two more electrons to complete its level

11 How do atoms bond to form molecules? B. There are two major ways atoms bond to form molecules: 1. COVALENT BOND: a bond formed between atoms when they share valence electrons. a. Atoms share electrons with each other to complete their outermost energy level A water molecule is an example of a covalent compound where two hydrogen and one oxygen share electrons to complete each other s outer energy level

12 How do atoms bond to form molecules? 2. IONIC BOND: a bond formed between atoms that have lost or gained electrons. A table salt molecule is an example of an ionic compound where one sodium and one chlorine swap electrons, making them charged and attracted like magnets.

13 How do atoms bond to form molecules? 2. IONIC BOND: a bond formed between atoms that have lost or gained electrons a. ION: an electrically charged atom, either positive or negative b. Ions are formed when they gain or lose an electron c. Bonding between oppositely charged atoms occur because opposites attract

14 What is a chemical formula? A. CHEMICAL FORMULA: way of writing the name of a molecule using chemical symbols 1. Chemical symbols are the letters used on the periodic table for the elements: Carbon: C Helium: He Hydrogen: H Gold: Au Oxygen: O Iron: Fe Nitrogen: N Sodium: Na 2. Chemical formulas are a combination of symbols and numbers to indicate elements used and how many: Water: 2 Hydrogen, 1 Oxygen: H 2 O Carbon Dioxide: 1 Carbon, 2 Oxygen: CO 2 Ethane: 2 Carbon, 6 Hydrogen: C 2 H 6 Glucose: 6 Carbon,12 Hydrogen, 6 Oxygen: C 6 H 12 O 6

15 How can molecules be represented? A. Molecules can be represented in a number of different ways using 2 dimensional and 3 dimensional models. 1. 2D models can be illustrated in two major ways : a. Bond-line Formula: b. Dash & Wedge: 2. 3D models are often plastic, wood or foam and give a sense of geometry:

16 What are the 3 types of molecular matter? A. Molecular matter can be grouped into three main types: 1. ELEMENT: molecules made of one kind of atom Oxygen is an example of an element 2. COMPOUND: molecules made up of two or more types of atoms that are joined together Water is an example of compound 3. MIXTURE: a substance made up of two or more kinds of molecules that are mixed together Soil, air and pancake batter are examples of mixtures

17 How are molecules classified? A. Molecular compounds are classified in a number of different ways: 1. Compounds made with or without carbon: a. INORGANIC COMPOUNDS: molecules that do not contain the element carbon b. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: molecules that contain the element carbon; 95% of all substances are organic 2. Compounds that are large or small: a. MONOMERS: smaller molecules b. POLYMERS: large molecules that are formed from joining together many monomers 3. Compounds joined by different bonds: a. IONIC COMPOUNDS: molecules formed from ionic bonding between metal and nonmetal elements b. COVALENT COMPOUNDS: molecules formed from the covalent bonding between nonmetal elements

18 What is a chemical property of matter? A. Chemical properties of matter involve a chemical change. 1. Observations of matter that involve a chemical change cause new matter to be formed. a. Chemical changes occur when new bonds are formed or old bonds are broken. b. CHEMICAL REACTION: a process where new substances with new properties are formed

19 What is a chemical property of matter? B. Certain substances are a part of a chemical reaction. 1. REACTANTS: the substance that is changed in a chemical reaction a. These are the substances that start a reaction 2. PRODUCTS: substances that are formed in a chemical reaction a. These are the substances at the end of a reaction

20 What is a chemical property of matter? C. Matter does not magically appear or disappear in a chemical reaction. 1. Matter is never lost in a chemical reaction, it is only changed. 2. LAW OF THE CONSERVATION OF MATTER: matter can neither be created nor destroyed by a chemical change.

21 What is a chemical property of matter? D. Chemical equations are used to show reactants and products in a chemical reaction. 1. CHEMICAL EQUATION: a statement in which chemical formulas are used to describe a chemical reaction. 2. Most equations must be balanced with the same number of atoms in the products as found in the reactants. 6CO 2 + 6H 2 0! C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Na 2 + Cl 2! 2NaCl

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