# Economics 100A Prof. McFadden Fall 2001 Due the week of 11/26/01. Answer Key to Problem Set #11

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1 Economics 100 Prof. McFadden Fall 01 Due the week of 11/26/01 nswer Key to Problem Set #11 1. Currently, there is an incumbent monopoly in the market. Next year, a potential entrant may. The incumbent needs to make a decision on whether or not it should spend \$50 to lobby the government into passing legislation which places a lump-sum tax of \$100 on the potential entrant if it s. If the potential entrant stays out of the market it makes zero profit and the incumbent firm makes a monopoly profit, π m >0, minus expenditures on lobbying if any (\$50 or \$0). If the potential entrant s the market, it gets duopoly profit, π d \$0, minus the tax if any, and the incumbent gets duopoly profit minus the lobbying costs if any.. Show the game in extensive form. What strategies will be played? The following game tree describes the sequential move game. Generally, let T equal the lump-sum tax and b equal the lobbying expense): Incumbent Lobby lobby Entrant Payoffs: Incumbent: π d -b150 π m -bπ m -50 π d 0 π m Entrant: π d -T100 0 π d 0 0 If the incumbent lobbies, the entrant still finds it profitable to (100>0). nd if the incumbent knows this, it will not lobby since 0>150. Therefore, the strategies played are "don't lobby" by the incumbent and "" by the entrant, yielding payoffs of \$0 for each participant.. Suppose the tax on the potential entrant is \$210 instead of \$100. Repeat part. How large must π m be for the monopolist to want to lobby? Now the entrant will stay out of the market if the incumbent lobbies (-10<0). So the incumbent can make "π m -50" if it lobbies, and "0" if it does not (when it doesn't, the entrant s and the incumbent therefore makes duopoly profit). For the incumbent to want to lobby, π m -50>0, or π m >250. The game tree is shown as follows: Economics 100 Page 1 Problem Set 11

2 Incumbent Lobby lobby Entrant Payoffs: Incumbent: 150 π m π m Entrant: Consider a market in which two firms produce a homogeneous product. Market demand is given by Q d (P)0-P. The cost functions for firm and firm are TC a (q a )5q a and TC b (q b )0.5q b 2, respectively.. Find the Cournot equilibrium quantities supplied by each firm. Graph your result using reaction functions. Find the market price, and calculate profits for each firm. To determine the Cournot equilibrium, we first calculate the reaction function for each firm. Firm 's residual demand is P0-q a -q b and MR a (0-q b )-2q a. y equating MR a and MC a and rearranging, we get q a q b, 's reaction function. Similarly for, MR b (0-q a )- 2q b MC b q b. Rearranging, we get q b q a, 's reaction function. With two equations and two unknowns, we substitute for q b in 's reaction function to solve for q a. q a ( q a ). q a 77 Substituting q a into 's reaction function gives us q b 41. The following graph of reaction functions shows exactly where the Cournot equilibrium is located: 195 's reaction function q b Cournot eq. 41 's reaction function 77 0 q a Economics 100 Page 2 Problem Set 11

3 Substituting q a and q b into the demand equation gives us the market price: P P\$82 Finally, find firm profits: π a (82)(77)-[5(77)]\$5929 π b (82)(41)-[0.5(41) 2 ]\$ Now suppose that firm chooses how much to produce before firm does (i.e. firm is a Stackelberg leader, a follower). Calculate quantities, market price and profit for each firm 1. Firm will choose its output q a to maximize its profits, subject to the reaction function of Firm. That is, faces demand P0-q a -q b, but it also knows 's reaction function. We can plug that into the demand faced by. P0-q a -[66.67-(1/3)q a ] (2/3)q a 's MR is therefore: MR a (4/3)q a. Setting MR a MC a gives (4/3)q a 5, or q a Substituting q a into 's reaction function gives q b P π a (69.2)(96.25)-[5(96.25)]\$ π b (69.2)(34.58)-[0.5(34.58) 2 ]\$1795. C. Now consider the case where total social welfare is maximized. Find market quantity, quantities supplied by each of the two firms, and market price. Total welfare is maximized when the price is equal to the marginal cost (the competitive equilibrium where market demand equals market supply). Market supply is a horizontal sum of each firm's supply curve. Firm 's supply curve is P5 since MC a C a 5 and Firm 's supply curve is Pq b since MC b q b. Thus market supply is PQ s for Q<5 and P5 for Q>5. Under perfect competition, Q s Q d. Using the inverse demand equation we find 0-Q5, yielding a total quantity Q195 and P\$5. Since 's costs are lower for quantity <5, produces the first 5 units of output and produces the rest. If Firm produces all of the output alone there will be no producer surplus and we lose the surplus that can be obtained by allowing Firm to produce 5 units of output. q a 190 q b 5 π a 0 π b (5)(5)-[0.5(5) 2 ]\$12.5 D. Compare firm output, total output and price for parts through C. Do your values make sense? s expected, we observe more production and a lower price when social welfare is maximized. When Firm can move first it produces more than it does in the Cournot case, implying a first-mover advantage. We find a similar effect if moved first compared to the Cournot case. 1 pologies for forcing you to get out your calculator. Economics 100 Page 3 Problem Set 11

4 3. The only two consumers in an exchange economy, consumer and consumer, consume the only two goods, and, in the economy. There are units of available and units of.. If and have identical preferences, mutually beneficial trade cannot occur. True or false? Explain. False. Mutually beneficial trade will not occur only when the allocation of resources among and is already efficient. In the case of our two-consumer economy, MRS MRS indicates an efficient allocation of goods. If MRS is not equal to MRS, the two consumers will be able to arrange a mutually beneficial trade (I assume identical convex preferences).. ssume s preferences are described by U and s preferences are described by U 2, where,,, are the consumption of and by consumers and, respectively. Draw an Edgeworth box describing this scenario. Label the lengths of the sides, draw a few indifference curves for each consumer and (roughly) sketch the contract curve. IC s () IC s () Contract Curve (rough Sketch) C. Now derive an equation for the contract curve. (Hint: Compute the MRS for consumer as a function of and, and for consumer as a function of and. Impose the restriction that total consumption of should equal the total units of available, and do the same for. Rearrange to get an equation of as a function of (your result should look pretty simple)). When on the contract curve, MRS MRS. Therefore, MU MU MU MU Economics 100 Page 4 Problem Set 11

5 Since + and +, we substitute and into the above equation and then solve for as a function of. The contract curve is a straight diagonal line connecting 's origin to 's origin (note that this is unlike the curved "sketch" drawn in part. We have a linear contract curve, but this is not always the case). D. Suppose that consumer has an initial endowment of 5 units of and 15 units of, and consumer has the remainder of what's available. Show, using the concept of MRS and the Edgeworth ox, that a trade could benefit both consumers. MRS MRS MRS MRS In the following graph, any point in the shaded area represents a new allocation of and that benefits both consumers relative to the original endowment. So any trade which puts them into this area is beneficial (Pareto improving). Contract Curve IC () 15 IC () 5 Economics 100 Page 5 Problem Set 11

6 E. ssume the consumers can trade as much as they like at the prices of P 1 and P 1. If starting out with the same endowments as in part (D), how much will each consumer want to buy/sell of each good? Is the result a competitive equilibrium? Each consumer s demand will be at a point such that (1) P /P MRS, and (2) the amount spent on the desired bundle of goods is equal to the value of the initial endowment. For consumer : P P nd the cost of the initial endowment cost of the new bundle 1(10) + 1(10) (1) (2) + 10 and 10 For consumer : 1 1 nd 1(10) + 1(10) + 10 and 10 wishes to sell 5 units of and buy 5 units of. wishes to sell 5 units of and buy 5 units of. This is a competitive equilibrium. F. ssume the consumers can trade as much as they like at the prices of P 2 and P 1. If starting with equal endowments (each individual has 10 units of both good and good ), how much will each consumer want to buy/sell of each good? Is this result a competitive equilibrium? For consumer : (1) P /P / 2 (2) value of initial endowment cost of new bundle 2(10)+1(10) Substitute and solve: For consumer : (1) P /P / 2 (2) Substitute and solve: wishes to sell 2.5 units of and buy 5 units of. also wants to sell 2.5 units of and buy 5 units of. Since supply is not equal to demand in these markets for and, this is NOT a competitive equilibrium. Economics 100 Page 6 Problem Set 11

7 G. Suppose consumer C considers 2 units of a perfect substitute for 1 unit of and consumer D considers 3 units of a perfect substitute for 1 unit of (these ratios hold at all consumption levels). Now, consumers C and D are the only two consumers in an exchange economy. Repeat part (C). Firstly, I should have mentioned that you can't solve for the contract curve in the same way as part (C). It's easier to see what the contract curve will look like on a graph. To sketch, realize that consumer C is just as happy with 2 units of and no units of or no units of and 1 unit of. nd because and are perfect substitutes for this consumer, indifference curves are linear. U C (,) + 2 (any utility function with constant MRS1/2 is correct) Consumer D is just as happy with 3 units of and no units of or no units of and 1 unit of. gain, and are perfect substitutes for this consumer, and therefore indifference curves are linear. U D (,) + 3 (any utility function with constant MRS 1/3 is correct) MRS C never equals that of MRS D (both are constants in this example). Therefore, we get corner solutions and the contract curve follows the border of the Edgeworth ox. IC s (C) (slope-1/2) D IC s (D) (slope-1/3) Contract Curve (bold line) C Economics 100 Page 7 Problem Set 11

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