# PX0101 THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER

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1 PX0101 THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER Autumn semester: 10 credits. Module organiser: Dr D I Westwood. Deputy Module Organiser: Prof P A R Ade. Teaching and feedback methods: Lectures 22 x 1 hr, Exercise classes 11 x 1 hr, marked Exercises. Assessment: Examination 90%. Coursework 10%. [Examination duration: 2 hours] To introduce the microscopic nature of matter. To relate the microscopic properties of matter to selected macroscopic properties of solids, liquids and gases through simple models. To explore practical applications though numerical examples. Describe the electronic structure of the atom and its relationship with both chemical bonds and the periodic table. Describe how bonding and microscopic structure determines selected macroscopic properties of solids and liquid surfaces. Relate the concepts of temperature and pressure to the properties of an ideal gas and the kinetic theory of gases. Recall descriptive elements of the module and solve unseen numerical problems. Building Blocks of Matter: The atomic model and its importance. Structure of the atom, isotopes, the Periodic table, calculating with moles. Differences between gases, liquids and solids. Bonds: Forces between atoms or molecules - force/distance and potential energy/distance relationships. Types of bonding: ionic, covalent, van-der Waals and metallic bonds. Surface Tension: Surface tension and surface energy of liquids: definition. Water and soap films, minimisation of surface area, idea of breaking molecular bonds to form a surface. Properties of Solids: Stretching a wire, introduction to elastic moduli, theoretical maximum breaking stress and relation to microscopic properties. Explanations for the weakness of real solids. Properties of Fluids: Liquids and gases as fluids. Properties of ideal gases. The concept and measurement of pressure and temperature. The universal gas law (pv = nrt). Kinetic theory of ideal gases: Boltzmann constant, mean free paths, r.m.s. velocities and the Maxwell-Boatman distribution. Problem solving. Investigative skills. Mathematics. Analytical skills.

2 PX0102 MOTION AND ENERGY Autumn semester: 10 credits. Module organiser: Dr D Stamatellos. Deputy Module Organiser: Dr D I Westwood. Teaching and feedback methods: Lectures 11 x 1 hr, Laboratory 3 hrs per week, marked assignments. Assessment: Examination 60%. Assignments 10%. Lab 30%. [Examination duration: 1 hour] To provide a basic introduction to Newtonian mechanics. To provide an introduction to momentum and the energy of motion. To introduce the student to the application of these concepts in the solution of problems. To develop experimental physics methodology. Distinguish between and apply the concepts of scalar and vector quantities. Differentiate between and apply the concepts of vector displacement, velocity, acceleration and force. Apply the equations of motion to solve problems. Recall and apply Newton's laws of motion and his universal law of gravitation. Describe the concepts of energy and momentum and the laws governing their conservation, and apply these conservation laws to solve problems. Apply the laws of motion to the case of circular motion. Make, record and interpret measurements made in laboratory practicals. Present these findings in written, scientific format. Motion: An introduction to the laws of motion and the equations that describe them. Energy and Momentum: A description of the concepts of energy and momentum and their relation to the motion of bodies. A study of the particular case of circular motion. Experimental physics. Communications skills. Personal skills. Problem solving. Investigative skills. Mathematics. Analytical skills. Ethical behaviour. Laboratory manual.

3 PX0201 FOUNDATIONS OF MODERN PHYSICS Module organiser: Dr J Kirk. Deputy Module Organiser: Dr D Nutter. Teaching and feedback methods: Lectures 22 x 1 hr, Examples classes 11 x 1 hr, marked Exercises. Assessment: Examination 90%. Coursework 10%. [Examination duration: 2 hours] To provide an introduction to waves, diffraction and interference. To introduce the experimental evidence that lead to the development of modern physics. To introduce the Bohr model of single electron atoms and its use to understand atomic spectra. To provide a basic introduction to wave-particle duality and the Schrödinger equation. To discuss the basic structure of the nucleus and radioactive decay. Describe the basic wave properties and explain diffraction and interference patterns (Young s slits). Describe and discuss the significance of crucial experiments that lead to the development of modern physics, including blackbody radiation, measurement of the charge and e/m ratio for electrons, the photoelectric effect and absorption and emission spectra. Give an account of the Bohr theory of single-electron atoms and use it to describe spectral series. Explain the concepts of wave-particle duality and its consequences, including a brief discussion of the Schrödinger equation and its physical interpretation. Discuss the structure of the nucleus and describe radioactive decay processes. Recall descriptive elements of the module and solve unseen numerical and algebraic problems. Waves: Waves and simple harmonic motion, longitudinal and transverse waves, electromagnetic waves. Principle of superposition, constructive and destructive interference, diffraction, Young s double slit and single slit patterns. Milestones in Modern Physics: Crucial experiments and their interpretation: Blackbody radiation, the discovery of the electron, measurement of the electronic charge (Millikan oil-drop experiment), e/m for electrons, photoelectric effect and emission and absorption spectra. Bohr Model: Bohr model of single-electron atoms and its use to describe the spectral series for hydrogen. Wave-particle duality: The de Broglie wavelength of matter, a brief introduction to the Schrödinger wave equation, the interpretation of the wavefunction, application to one-dimensional particle in a box. The Nuclear Atom: Protons and neutrons in a nucleus, isotopes, atomic number and mass, mass spectrometer, binding energies. Radioactivity: and particles and radiation, decay rates, dating. Problem solving. Investigative skills. Mathematics. Analytical skills.

4 PX0202 ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM AND LIGHT Module organiser: Dr R Auld. Deputy Module Organiser: Dr C Tucker. Teaching and feedback methods: Lectures 11 x 1 hr, Laboratory 3 hrs per week, marked assignments. Assessment: Examination 60%. Assignments 10%. Lab 30%. [Examination duration: 1 hour] To provide an introduction to the fundamentals of electrostatics, current electricity and basic electrical circuit theory. To describe magnetism and its relationship with electrical current and changing electrical fields. To provide an appreciation of the breadth of the electromagnetic spectrum and to understand the basic properties of light. To develop experimental physics methodology. Recall the definitions of Coulomb s law, electric field strength and electric potential and describe the relationships between these quantities and use them for calculations on systems of point charges. Define what is meant by electrical current, emf, potential difference and resistance, and use these quantities for simple circuit analysis. Describe intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, electron and hole transport and basic band theory, and use these concepts to explain the operation of simple semiconducting devices. Describe the magnetic fields associated with current-carrying conductors and use these concepts to define the Ampere. Recall Faraday s and Lenz s laws of electromagnetic induction and use these concepts to describe the generation of a.c. electricity. Discuss the principal regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and use the wave properties of light to describe diffraction and interference. Make, record and interpret measurements made in laboratory practicals. Present these findings in written, scientific format. Electrostatics: Coulomb s law; electric fields. Electric potential. Insulators and conductors. Current Electricity: Current and charge; drift velocity; resistivity; superconductivity; Ohm s law; emf and internal resistance; electrical power. Electronics: Resistors and capacitors in series and parallel; permittivity; semiconductors (intrinsic and extrinsic); electron and hole transport; p-n junction; the junction diode. Magnetism: Permanent magnets; magnetic flux lines due to a current-carrying conductor; corkscrew rule; force on a currentcarrying conductor in a magnetic field; Fleming s left-hand rule; force between two current-carrying conductors; definition of the Ampere. Electromagnetism: Force on an electron in a magnetic filed; electromagnetic induction (Faraday s law); Lenz s law; electrical generators; transformers; a.c. currents. Light: The speed of light, wavelength and frequency; the electromagnetic spectrum; properties of light (reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference). Experimental physics. Communications skills. Personal skills. Problem solving. Investigative skills. Mathematics. Analytical skills. Ethical behaviour. Reading List: ADVANCED PHYSICS, T DUNCAN, 4TH EDITION (JOHN MURRAY). Laboratory manual.

5 PX0203 ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICAL METHODS Module organiser: Dr C Messenger. Deputy Module Organiser: Dr C Tucker. Teaching and feedback methods: Lectures 22 x 1 hr, Examples classes 11 x 1 hr, marked Exercises. Assessment: Examination 70%. Coursework 20%. Class test 10%. [Examination duration: 2 hours] Pre-cursors: MA0001 Basic Mathematics 1. To build on the mathematics learned at GCSE and also that met in Basic Mathematics 1 (MA0001), and to provide a firm foundation for students intending to study for a numerate science degree. Learning Outcomes: Solve simple problems involving the use of exponentials, logarithmic and trigonometric functions. Demonstrate that they can differentiate the above functions. Sketch the above and polynomial functions and appreciate limits. Demonstrate the use of integration by parts, substitution and partial fractions to evaluate integrals. Recall the solution of simple first-order differential equations. Algebra Recap: Equations, identities and polynomials, factoring quadratics and cubic equations; expressing fractional functions as partial fractions. Differentiation: The rules of differentiation, and differentiation and integration of the exponential, logarithmic and rational functions. Trigonometric equations: Further trigonometry and the solution of simple trigonometric equations. Differentiation and integration of trigonometric functions. Curve sketching: Turning points and elementary curve sketching. Area under a curve and between curves. Integration: Integration by parts, by substitution and using partial fractions. Applications: The solution of simple differential equations such as. Problem solving. Mathematics. Analytical skills. Mathematics The Core Course for A-Level, L Bostock and S Chandler (Stanley Thornes). Engineering Mathematics, K A Stroud (Palgrave MacMillan).

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