INTRODUCTION GEOGRAPHY

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1 COUNTRY DATA: ECUADOR : Information from the CIA World Factbook INTRODUCTION What is now Ecuador formed part of the northern Inca Empire until the Spanish conquest in Quito became a seat of Spanish colonial government in 1563 and part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in The territories of the Viceroyalty - New Granada (Colombia), Venezuela, and Quito - gained their independence between 1819 and 1822 and formed a federation known as Gran Colombia. When Quito withdrew in 1830, the traditional name was changed in favor of the "Republic of the Equator." Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in Although Ecuador marked 30 years of civilian governance in 2004, the period has been marred by political instability. Protests in Quito contributed to the mid-term ouster of three of Ecuador's last four democratically elected Presidents. In September 2008, voters approved a new constitution; Ecuador's twentieth since gaining independence. General elections, under the new constitutional framework, were held in April 2009, and voters reelected President Rafael CORREA. GEOGRAPHY Location Area Climate Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru total: 283,561 sq km land: 276,841 sq km water: 6,720 sq km note: includes Galapagos Islands coastal plain (costa), inter-andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente) Natural Resources petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower Total Renewable Water Resources Freshwater Withdrawal Natural Hazards Environmental 432 cu km (2000) total: cu km/yr (domestic 12%/ industrial 5%/ agricultural 82%) per capita: 1,283 cu m/yr (2000) requent earthquakes; landslides; volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts volcanism: Ecuador experiences volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains; Sangay (elev. 5,230 m, 17,159 ft), which erupted in 2010, is mainland Ecuador's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes in the Andes include Antisana, Cayambe, Chacana, Cotopaxi, Guagua Pichincha, Reventador, Sumaco, and Tungurahua; Fernandina (elev. 1,476 m, 4,842 ft), a shield volcano that last erupted in 2009, is the most active of the many Galapagos volcanoes; other historically active Galapagos volcanoes include Wolf, Sierra Negra, Cerro Azul, Pinta, Marchena, and Santiago deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production

2 Issues wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin and Galapagos Islands PEOPLE Population Ethnic Groups 15,007,343 (July 2011 est.) mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3% Religions Roman Catholic 95%, other 5% Languages Literacy Rate Major Infectious Diseases Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua) definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 91% male: 92.3% female: 89.7% (2001 census) degree of risk: high food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009) HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate 0.4%; 37,000 people living with HIV/AIDS; 2,200 people died (2009 est.) GOVERNMENT Type Independence republic 24 May 1822 (from Spain) Constitution 20 October 2008 Legal System based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction ECONOMY Agricultural Products Industries Import commodities Import Partners Export Commodities Export Partners bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp petroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals industrial materials, fuels and lubricants, nondurable consumer goods US 25.4%, Columbia 10.6%, Venezuela 6.5%, Brazil 4.5% (2009 est.) petroleum, bananas, cut flowers, shrimp, cacao, coffee, hemp, wood, fish US 33.5%, Peru 6.8%, Chile 6.5%, Columbia 4.9% (2009 est.)

3 Per Capita GDP Population below poverty line $8,000 (2010 est.) 33.1% (June 2010) *CITATIONS: All information included above is extracted from the CIA World Factbook except where noted.

4 Country Data: Information from Human Development Report COUNTRY: ECUADOR General Life Expectancy at Birth (in years) 75.4 Average number of years in School (in years) 7.6 Gross National Income Per Capita (In US Dollars) 7,931 Gender Inequality Female Seats in Parliament (%) 25.0 Population with at least a Secondary Education Female (% 0f 25 and older) 44.2 Population with at least a Secondary Education Male (% 0f 25 and older) 45.8 Labor Force Participation Female (%) 48.1 Labor Force Participation Male (%) 79.2 Births Attended by Skilled Health Professionals (%) 99 Poverty Population surviving on $1.25 per day (%) 4.7 Empowerment Number of Journalists Imprisoned 0 Corruption Victims (% of people who face a bribe situation in the last year) 7 Political Engagement (% percent of people who voiced opinion to public officials) 15

5 Sustainability Fossil Fuels as Primary Energy Source (%) 87 Renewable Resources as Primary Energy Source (%) 13 Population without Access to Water (%) 6 Population Without Access to Sanitation Services (%) 8 Population affected by natural disasters (% between ) 0.09 Human Security Number of Refugees leaving this country 1,100 Number of Internally Displaced People in This Country Prevalence of Undernourishment (%) 13 Demographics Urban Residents (% of total Population) 67.0 Health HIV Prevalence in Female Youth (% ages 15-24) 0.2 HIV Prevalence in Male Youth (% ages 15-24) 0.4 HIV Prevalence in Adults (% ages 15-49) 0.3 Other Official Development Assistance Per Capita (in US dollars) 17.1 Population without Electricity (%) 8.2

6

: Information from the CIA World Factbook INTRODUCTION GEOGRAPHY

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