RECENT ADVANCES IN SOIL LIQUEFACTION ENGINEERING AND SEISMIC SITE RESPONSE EVALUATION

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1 RECENT ADVANCES IN SOIL LIQUEFACTION ENGINEERING AND SEISMIC SITE RESPONSE EVALUATION Seed, R. B. Cetin, K. O. Moss, R. E. S. University of California Middle East Technical University Kammerer, A. M. Berkeley, California Ankara, Turkey Wu, J. Pestana, J. M. Riemer, M. F. University of California, Berkeley, California ABSTRACT Over the past decade, major advances have occurred in both understanding and practice with regard to engineering treatment of seismic soil liquefaction and assessment of seismic site response. Seismic soil liquefaction engineering has evolved into a sub-field in its own right, and assessment and treatment of site effects affecting seismic site response has gone from a topic of controversy to a mainstream issue addressed in most modern building codes and addressed in both research and practice. This rapid evolution in the treatment of both liquefaction and site response issues has been pushed by a confluence of lessons and data provided by a series of earthquakes over the past eleven years, as well as by the research and professional/political will engendered by these major seismic events. Although the rate of progress has been laudable, further advances are occurring, and more remains to be done. As we enter a new millenium, engineers are increasingly well able to deal with important aspects of these two seismic problem areas. This paper will highlight a few major recent and ongoing developments in each of these two important areas of seismic practice, and will offer insights regarding work/research in progress, as well as suggestions regarding further advances needed. The first part of the paper will address soil liquefaction, and the second portion will (briefly) address engineering assessment of seismic site response. INTRODUCTION Soil liquefaction is a major cause of damage during earthquakes. Modern engineering treatment of liquefactionrelated issues evolved initially in the wake of the two devastating earthquakes of 1964, the 1964 Niigata and 1964 Great Alaska Earthquakes, in which seismically-induced liquefaction produced spectacular and devastating effects. Over the nearly four decades that have followed, significant progress has occurred. Initially, this progress was largely confined to improved ability to assess the likelihood of initiation (or triggering ) of liquefaction in clean, sandy soils. As the years passed, and earthquakes continued to provide lessons and data, researchers and practitioners became increasingly aware of the additional potential problems associated with both silty and gravelly soils, and the issues of post-liquefaction strength and stress-deformation behavior also began to attract increased attention. Today, the area of soil liquefaction engineering is emerging as a semi-mature field of practice in its own right. This area now involves a number of discernable sub-issues or subtopics, as illustrated schematically in Figure 1. As shown in Figure 1, the first step in most engineering treatments of soil liquefaction continues to be (1) assessment of liquefaction potential, or the risk of triggering (initiation) of liquefaction. There have been major advances here in recent years, and some of these will be discussed. Once it is determined that occurrence of liquefaction is a potentially serious risk/hazard, the process next proceeds to assessment of the consequences of the potential liquefaction. This, now, increasingly involves (2) assessment of available post-liquefaction strength and resulting post-liquefaction overall stability (of a site, and/or of a structure or other built facility, etc.). There has been considerable progress in evaluation of post-liquefaction strengths over the past fifteen years. If post-liquefaction stability is found wanting, then deformation/displacement potential is large, and engineered remediation is typically warranted. If post-liquefaction overall stability is not unacceptable, then attention is next directed towards (3) assessment of anticipated deformations and displacements. This is a very soft area of practice, and much remains to be done here with regard to development and calibration/verification of engineering tools and methods. Similarly, relatively little is known regarding Paper No. SPL-2 1

2 1. Assessment of the likelihood of triggering or initiation of soil liquefaction. 2. Assessment of post-liquefaction strength and overall post-liquefaction stability. 3. Assessment of expected liquefaction-induced deformations and displacements. 4. Assessment of the consequences of these deformations and displacements. 5. Implementation (and evaluation) of engineered mitigation, if necessary. Fig. 1: Key Elements of Soil Liquefaction Engineering (4) the effects of liquefaction-induced deformations and displacements on the performance of structures and other engineered facilities, and criteria for acceptable performance are not well established. Finally, in cases in which the engineer(s) conclude that satisfactory performance cannot be counted on, (5) engineered mitigation of liquefaction risk is generally warranted. This, too, is a rapidly evolving area, and one rife with potential controversy. Ongoing evolution of new methods for mitigation of liquefaction hazard provides an ever increasing suite of engineering options, but the efficacy and reliability of some of these remain contentious, and accurate and reliable engineering analysis of the improved performance provided by many of these mitigation techniques continues to be difficult. It is not possible, within the confines of this paper, to fully address all of these issues (a textbook would be required!) Instead, a number of important recent/ongoing advances will be highlighted, and resultant issues and areas of controversy, as well as areas in urgent need of further advances either in practice or understanding, will be noted. ASSESSMENT OF LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL Liquefiable soils: The first step in engineering assessment of the potential for triggering or initiation of soil liquefaction is the determination of whether or not soils of potentially liquefiable nature are present at a site. This, in turn, raises the important question regarding which types of soils are potentially vulnerable to soil liquefaction. It has long been recognized that relatively clean sandy soils, with few fines, are potentially vulnerable to seismicallyinduced liquefaction. There has, however, been significant controversy and confusion regarding the liquefaction potential of silty soils (and silty/clayey soils), and also of coarser, gravelly soils and rockfills. Coarser, gravelly soils are the easier of the two to discuss, so we will begin there. The cyclic behavior of coarse, gravelly soils differs little from that of sandy soils, as Nature has little or no respect for the arbitrary criteria established by the standard #4 sieve. Coarse, gravelly soils are potentially vulnerable to cyclic pore pressure generation and liquefaction. There are now a number of well-documented field cases of liquefaction of coarse, gravelly soils (e.g.: Evans, 1987; Harder, 1988; Hynes, 1988; Andrus, 1994). These soils do, however, often differ in behavior from their finer, sandy brethren in two ways: (1) they can be much more pervious, and so can often rapidly dissipate cyclically generated pore pressures, and (2) due to the mass of their larger particles, the coarse gravelly soils are seldom deposited gently and so do not often occur in the very loose states more often encountered with finer sandy soils. Sandy soils can be very loose to very dense, while the very loose state is uncommon in gravelly deposits and coarser soils. The apparent drainage advantages of coarse, gravelly soils can be defeated if their drainage potential is circumvented by either; (1) their being surrounded and encapsulated by finer, less pervious materials, (2) if drainage is internally impeded by the presence of finer soils in the void spaces between the coarser particles (it should be noted that the D 10 particle size, not the mean or D 50 size, most closely correlates with the permeability of a broadly graded soil mix), or (3) if the layer or stratum of coarse soil is of large dimension, so that the distance over which drainage must occur (rapidly) during an earthquake is large. In these cases, the coarse soils should be considered to be of potentially liquefiable type, and should be evaluated accordingly. Questions regarding the potential liquefiability of finer, cohesive soils (especially silts ) are increasingly common at meetings and professional short courses and seminars. Over the past five years, a group of approximately two dozen leading experts has been attempting to achieve concensus regarding a number of issues involved in the assessment of liquefaction potential. This group, referred to hereafter as the NCEER Working Group, have published many of their consensus findings (or at least near-consensus findings) in the NSF-sponsored workshop summary paper (NCEER, 1997), and additional views are coming in a second paper scheduled for publication this year in the ASCE Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering (Youd et al., 2001). The NCEER Working Group addressed this issue, and it was agreed that there was a need to reexamine the Modified Chinese Criteria (Finn et al., 1994) for defining the types of Paper No. SPL-2 2

3 50 35% 0 Liquid Limit, LL (%) 100 SAFE Natural Water Content, W n (%) Fig. 2: Modified Chinese Criteria (After Finn et al., 1994) fine cohesive soils potentially vulnerable to liquefaction, but no improved concensus position could be reached, and more study was warranted. Some of the confusion here is related to the definition of liquefaction. In this paper, the term liquefaction will refer to significant loss of strength and stiffness due to cyclic pore pressure generation, in contrast to sensitivity or loss of strength due to monotonic shearing and/or remolding. By making these distinctions, we are able to separately discuss classical cyclically-induced liquefaction and the closelyrelated (but different) phenomenon of strain-softening or sensitivity. Figure 2 illustrates the Modified Chinese Criteria for defining potentially liquefiable soils. According to these criteria, soils are considered to be of potentially liquefiable type and character if: (1) there are less than 15% clay fines (based on the Chinese definition of clay sizes as less than mm), (2) there is a Liquid Limit of LL 35%, and (3) there is a current in situ water content greater than or equal to 90% of the Liquid Limit. Andrews and Martin (2000) have re-evaluated the liquefaction field case histories from the database of Seed et al. (1984, 1985), and have transposed the Modified Chinese Criteria to U.S. conventions (with clay sizes defined as those less than about mm). Their findings are largely summarized in Figure 3. Andrews and Martin recommend that soils with less than about 10% clay fines (< mm) and a Liquid Limit (LL) in the minus #40 sieve fraction of less than 32% be considered potentially liquefiable, that soils with more than about 10% clay fines and LL 32% are unlikely to be susceptible to classic cyclically-induced liquefaction, and that soils intermediate between these criteria should be sampled and tested to assess whether or not they are potentially liquefiable. This is a step forward, as it somewhat simplifies the previous Modified Chinese criteria, and transposes it into terms more familiar to U.S practitioners. We note, however, that there is a common lapse in engineering practice inasmuch as engineers often tend to become distracted by the presence of potentially liquefiable soils, and then often neglect cohesive soils (clays and plastic silts) that are highly sensitive and vulnerable to major loss of strength if sheared or remolded. These types of sensitive soils often co-exist with potentially liquefiable soils, and can be similarly dangerous in their own right. Both experimental research and review of liquefaction field case histories show that for soils with sufficient fines (particles finer than mm, or passing a #200 sieve) to separate the coarser (larger than mm) particles, the characteristics of the fines control the potential for cyclicallyinduced liquefaction. This separation of the coarser particles typically occurs as the fines content exceeds about 12% to 30%, with the precise fines content required being dependent principally on the overall soil gradation and the character of the fines. Well-graded soils have lesser void ratios than uniformly-graded or gap-graded soils, and so require lesser fines contents to separate the coarser particles. Similarly, clay fines carry higher void ratios than silty particles and so are more rapidly effective at over-filling the void space available between the coarser (larger than 0.074mm) particles. In soils wherein the fines content is sufficient as to separate the coarser particles and control behavior, cyclically-induced soil liquefaction appears to occur primarily in soils where these fines are either non-plastic or are low plasticity silts and/or silty clays (PI 10 to 12%). In fact, low plasticity or non-plastic silts and silty sands can be among the most dangerous of liquefiable soils, as they not only can cyclically Clay Content 2 < 10% Clay Content 2 10% Liquid Limit 1 < 32 Liquid Limit 32 Further Studies Susceptible Required Further Studies Required (Considering nonplastic clay sized grains such as mine and quarry tailings) (Considering plastic non-clay sized grains such as Mica) Not Susceptible Notes: 1. Liquid limit determined by Casagrande-type percussion apparatus. 2. Clay defined as grains finer than mm. Fig. 3: Liquefaction Susceptibility of Silty and Clayey Sands (after Andrews and Martin, 2000) Paper No. SPL-2 3

4 liquefy; they also hold their water well and dissipate excess pore pressures slowly due to their low permeabilities. Soils with more than about 15% fines, and with fines of moderate plasticity (8% PI 15%), fall into an uncertain range. These types of soils are usually amenable to reasonably undisturbed (e.g.: thin-walled, or better) sampling, however, and so can be tested in the laboratory. It should be remembered to check for sensitivity of these cohesive soils as well as for potential cyclic liquefiability. The criteria of this section do not fully cover all types of liquefiable soils. As an example, a well-studied clayey sand (SC) at a site in the southeastern U.S. has been clearly shown to be potentially susceptible to cyclic liquefaction, despite a clay content on the order of 15 %, and a Plasticity Index of up to 30% (Riemer et al., 1993). This is a highly unusual material, however, as it is an ancient sand that has weathered in place, with the clay largely coating the individual weathered grains, and the overall soil is unusually loose. Exceptions must be anticipated, and judgement will continue to be necessary in evaluating whether or not specific soils are potentially liquefiable. maturity as to represent viable tools for this purpose, and these are (1) the Standard Penetration Test (SPT), (2) the cone penetration test (CPT), (3) measurement of in-situ shear wave velocity (V s ), and (4) the Becker penetration test (BPT). The oldest, and still the most widely used of these, is the SPT, and this will be the focus of the next section of this paper. Existing SPT-Based Correlations: The use of SPT as a tool for evaluation of liquefaction potential first began to evolve in the wake of a pair of devastating earthquakes that occurred in 1964; the 1964 Great Alaskan Earthquake (M = 8+) and the 1964 Niigata Earthquake (M 7.5), both of which produced significant liquefaction-related damage (e.g.: Kishida, 1966; Koizumi, 1966; Ohsaki, 1966; Seed and Idriss, 1971). Numerous additional researchers have made subsequent progress, and these types of SPT-based methods continue to evolve today. As discussed by the NCEER Working Group (NCEER, 1997; Youd et al., 2001), one of the most widely accepted and used SPT-based correlations is the deterministic relationship proposed by Seed, et al. (1984, 1985). Figure 4 shows this Two additional conditions necessary for potential liquefiability are: (1) saturation (or at least near-saturation), and (2) rapid (largely undrained ) loading. It should be remembered that phreatic conditions are variable both with seasonal fluctuations and irrigation, and that the rapid cyclic loading induced by seismic excitation represents an ideal loading type. Assessment of Triggering Potential: Quantitative assessment of the likelihood of triggering or initiation of liquefaction is the necessary first step for most projects involving potential seismically-induced liquefaction. There are two general types of approaches available for this: (1) use of laboratory testing of undisturbed samples, and (2) use of empirical relationships based on correlation of observed field behavior with various in-situ index tests. The use of laboratory testing is complicated by difficulties associated with sample disturbance during both sampling and reconsolidation. It is also difficult and expensive to perform high-quality cyclic simple shear testing, and cyclic triaxial testing poorly represents the loading conditions of principal interest for most seismic problems. Both sets of problems can be ameliorated, to some extent, by use of appropriate frozen sampling techniques, and subsequent testing in a high quality cyclic simple shear or torsional shear apparatus. The difficulty and cost of these delicate techniques, however, places their use beyond the budget and scope of most engineering studies. Accordingly, the use of in-situ index testing is the dominant approach in common engineering practice. As summarized in the recent state-of-the-art paper (Youd et al., 1997, 2001), four in-situ test methods have now reached a level of sufficient Fig. 4: Correlation Between Equivalent Uniform Cyclic Stress Ratio and SPT N 1,60 -Value for Events of Magnitude M W 7.5 for Varying Fines Contents, With Adjustments at Low Cyclic Stress Ratio as Recommended by NCEER Working Group (Modified from Seed, et al., 1986) Paper No. SPL-2 4

5 relationship, with minor modification at low CSR (as recommended by the NCEER Working Group; NCEER, 1997). This familiar relationship is based on comparison between SPT N-values, corrected for both effective overburden stress and energy, equipment and procedural factors affecting SPT testing (to N 1,60 -values) vs. intensity of cyclic loading, expressed as magnitude-weighted equivalent uniform cyclic stress ratio (CSR eq ). The relationship between corrected N 1,60 -values and the intensity of cyclic loading required to trigger liquefaction is also a function of fines content in this relationship, as shown in Figure 4. Although widely used in practice, this relationship is dated, and does not make use of an increasing body of field case history data from seismic events that have occurred since It is particularly lacking in data from cases wherein peak ground shaking levels were high (CSR > 0.25), an increasingly common design range in regions of high seismicity. This correlation also has no formal probabilistic basis, and so provides no insight regarding either uncertainty or probability of liquefaction. Efforts at development of similar, but formally probabilistically-based, correlations have been published by a number of researchers, including Liao et al. (1988, 1998), and more recently Youd and Noble (1997), and Toprak et al. (1999). Figures 5(a) through (c) shows these relationships, expressed as contours of probability of triggering of liquefaction, with the deterministic relationship of Seed et al. from Figure 4 superimposed (dashed lines) for reference. In each of the figures on this page, contours of probability of triggering or initiation of liquefaction for P L = 5, 20, 50, 80 and 95% are shown. The probabilistic relationship proposed by Liao et al. employs a larger number of case history data points than were used by Seed et al. (1984), but this larger number of data points is the result of less severe screening of points for data quality, and so includes a number of low quality data. This relationship was developed using the maximum likelihood estimation method for probabilistic regression (binary regression of logistic models). The way the likelihood function was formulated did not permit separate treatment of aleatory and epistemic sources of uncertainty, and so overstates the overall variance or uncertainty of the proposed correlation. This can lead to large levels of over-conservatism at low levels of probability of liquefaction. An additional shortcoming was that Liao et al. sought, but failed to find, a significant impact of fines content on the regressed relationship between SPT penetration resistance and liquefaction resistance, and so developed reliable curves (Figure 5(a)) only for sandy soils with less than 12% fines. The relationship proposed by Youd and Noble employs a number of field case history data points from earthquakes which have occurred since the earlier relationships were developed, and excludes the most questionable of the data used by Liao et al. The basic methodology employed, maximum likelihood estimation, is the same, however, and as a result this correlation continues to overstate the overall uncertainty. The effects of fines content were judgmentally prescribed, a priori, in these relationships, and so were not developed as part of the regression. This correlation is applicable to soils of variable fines contents, and so can be employed for both sandy and silty soils. As shown in Figure 5(b), however, uncertainty (or variance) is high. The relationship proposed by Toprak et al. also employs an enlarged and updated field case history database, and deletes the most questionable of the data used by Liao et al. As with the studies of Youd et al., the basic regression tool was binary regression, and the resulting overall uncertainty is again very large. Similarly, fines corrections and magnitude correlated duration weighting factors were prescribed a priori, rather than regressed from the field case history data, further decreasing model fit (and increasing variance and uncertainty). Overall, these four prior relationships presented in Figures 4 and 5(a) through (c) are all excellent efforts, and are among the best of their types. It is proposed that more can now be achieved, however, using more powerful and flexible probabilistic tools, and taking fullest possible advantage of the currently available field case histories and current knowledge affecting the processing and interpretation of these. Proposed New SPT-Based Correlations: This section presents new correlations for assessment of the likelihood of initiation (or triggering ) of soil liquefaction (Cetin, et al., 2000; Seed et al., 2001). These new correlations eliminate several sources of bias intrinsic to previous, similar correlations, and provide greatly reduced overall uncertainty and variance. Figure 5(d) shows the new correlation, with contours of probability of liquefaction again plotted for P L = 5, 20, 50, 80 and 95%, and plotted to the same scale as the earlier correlations. As shown in this figure, the new correlation provides greatly reduced overall uncertainty. Indeed, the uncertainty is now sufficiently reduced that the principal uncertainty now resides where it belongs; in the engineer s ability to assess suitable CSR and representative N 1,60 values for design cases. Key elements in the development of this new correlation were: (1) accumulation of a significantly expanded database of field performance case histories, (2) use of improved knowledge and understanding of factors affecting interpretation of SPT data, (3) incorporation of improved understanding of factors affecting site-specific ground motions (including directivity effects, site-specific response, etc.), (4) use of improved methods for assessment of in-situ cyclic shear stress ratio (CSR), (5) screening of field data case histories on a quality/uncertainty basis, and (6) use of higher-order probabilistic tools (Bayesian Updating). These Bayesian methods (a) allowed for simultaneous use of more descriptive variables than most prior studies, and (b) allowed for appropriate treatment of various contributing sources of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. The resulting relationships Paper No. SPL-2 5

6 (a) Liao et al., 1988 (b) Youd et al., 1998 P L P L % 80% 50% 20% 5% % 80% 50% 20% 5% FC 35% 15% 5% FC 35% 15% 5% CSRN CSRN Liao, et al. (1988) Youd, et al. (1998) 0.1 Deterministic Bounds, Seed, et al. (1984) 0.1 Deterministic Bounds, Seed, et al. (1984) (N 1 ) (N 1) 60,cs (c) Toprak et al., 1999 (d) This Study (σ v =1300 psf.) % P L 80% 50% 20% FC 35% 15% 5% 0.4 5% 0.3 CSRN Toprak et al. (1999) Deterministic Bounds, Seed, et al. (1984) (N 1) 60,cs Fig. 5: Comparison of Best Available Probabilistic Correlations for Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential (All Plotted for M w =7.5, σ v ' = 1300 psf, and Fines Content 5%) not only provide greatly reduced uncertainty, they also help to resolve a number of corollary issues that have long been difficult and controversial, including: (1) magnitude-correlated duration weighting factors, (2) adjustments for fines content, and (3) corrections for effective overburden stress. As a starting point, all of the field case histories employed in the correlations shown in Figures 4 and 5(a) through (c) were obtained and studied. Additional cases were also obtained, including several proprietary data sets. Eventually, approximately 450 liquefaction (and non-liquefaction ) field case histories were evaluated in detail. A formal rating system was established for rating these case histories on the basis of data quality and uncertainty, and standards were established for inclusion of field cases in the final data set used to establish the new correlations. In the end, 201 of the field Paper No. SPL-2 6

7 case histories were judged to meet these new and higher standards, and were employed in the final development of the proposed new correlations. A significant improvement over previous efforts was the improved evaluation of peak horizontal ground acceleration at each earthquake field case history site. Specific details are provided by Cetin et al. (2001). Significant improvements here were principally due to improved understanding and treatment of issues such as (a) directivity effects, (b) effects of site conditions on response, (c) improved attenuation relationships, and (d) availability of strong motion records from recent (and well-instrumented) major earthquakes. In these studies, peak horizontal ground acceleration (a max ) was taken as the geometric mean of two recorded orthogonal horizontal components. Whenever possible, attenuation relationships were calibrated on an earthquake-specific basis, based on local strong ground motion records, significantly reducing uncertainties. For all cases wherein sufficiently detailed data and suitable nearby recorded ground motions were available, site-specific site response analyses were performed. In all cases, both local site effects and rupturemechanism-dependent potential directivity effects were also considered. (a) A second major improvement was better estimation of in-situ CSR within the critical stratum for each of the field case histories. All of the previous studies described so far used the simplified method of Seed and Idriss (1971) to estimate CSR at depth (within the critical soil stratum) as CSR peak a = g max σ v σ v ( r ) where a max = the peak horizontal ground surface acceleration, g = the acceleration of gravity, σ v = total vertical stress, σ v = effective vertical stress, and r d = the nonlinear shear mass participation factor. d (Eq. 1) The original r d values proposed by Seed and Idriss (1971) are shown by the heavy lines in Figure 6(a). These are the values used in the previous studies by Seed et al. (1984), Liao et al. (1988, 1998), Youd et al. (1997), and Toprak et al. (1999). Recognition that r d is nonlinearly dependent upon a suite of factors led to studies by Cetin and Seed (2000) to develop improved correlations for estimation of r d. The numerous light gray lines in Figures 6(a) and (b) show the results of 2,153 seismic site response analyses performed to assess the variation of r d over ranges of (1) site conditions, and (2) ground motion excitation characteristics. The mean and +1 standard deviation values for these 2,153 analyses are shown by the heavy lines in Figure 6(b). As shown in Figures 6(a) and (b), the earlier r d proposal of Seed and Idriss (1971) understates the variance, and provides biased (generally high) estimates of r d at depths of between 10 and 50 feet (3 to 15 m.) Unfortunately, it is in this depth range that the critical (b) Fig. 6: R d Results from Response Analyses for 2,153 Combinations of Site Conditions and Ground Motions, Superimposed with Heavier Lines Showing (a) the Earlier Recommendations of Seed and Idriss (1971), and (b) the Mean and + 1 Standard Deviation Values for the 2,153 Cases Analyzed (After Cetin and Seed, 2000). Paper No. SPL-2 7

8 d < 65 ft: r (d, M d w d 65 ft:, a max, V a 1 + max ( d V s, ) e s,40 ) = ± σ ε rd a max M w V s, e a 1 + max M w ( V s, ) V s,40 (Eq 2) ( V s, ) e d (d, M w, a max, V s,40 ) = (d 65) ± σ ε rd a max M w V s,40 r where e M w V ( V s, ) σ ε (d) = d [for d < 40 ft], and σ ε (d) = [for d 40 ft] r d s,40 r d soil strata for most of the important liquefaction (and nonliquefaction) earthquake field case histories occur. This, in turn, creates some degree of corresponding bias in relationships developed on this basis. Cetin and Seed (2000, 2001) propose a new, empirical basis for estimation of r d as a function of; (1) depth, (2) earthquake magnitude, (3) intensity of shaking, and (4) site stiffness (as expressed in Equation 2). Figure 7 shows the values of r d from the 2,153 site response analyses performed as part of these studies sub-divided into 12 bins as a function of peak ground surface acceleration (a max ), site stiffness (V S,40ft ), earthquake magnitude (M w ), and depth (d). [V S,40ft is the average shear wave velocity over the top 40 feet of a site (in units of ft./sec.), taken as 40 feet divided by the shear wave travel time in traversing this 40 feet.] Superimposed on each figure are the mean and + 1 standard deviation values central to each bin from Equation 2. Either Equation 2, or Figure 7, can be used to derive improved (and statistically unbiased) estimates of r d. It is noted, however, that in-situ CSR (and r d ) can jump or transition irregularly within a specific soil profile, especially near sharp transitions between soft and stiff strata, and that CSR (and r d ) are also a function of the interaction between a site and each specific excitation motion. Accordingly, the best means of estimation of in-situ CSR within any given stratum is to directly calculate CSR by means of appropriate site-specific, and event-specific, seismic site response analyses, when this is feasible. As the new correlations were developed using both directly-calculated r d values (from site response analyses) as well as r d values from the statistically unbiased correlation of Equation 2, there is no intrinsic a priori bias associated with either approach. In these new correlations, in-situ cyclic stress ratio (CSR) is taken as the equivalent uniform CSR equal to 65% of the single (one-time) peak CSR (from Equation 1) as CSR eq = (0.65) CSR peak (Eq. 3) In-situ CSR eq was evaluated directly, based on performance of full seismic site response analyses (using SHAKE 90; Idriss and Sun, 1992), for cases where (a) sufficient sub-surface data was available, and (b) where suitable input motions could be developed from nearby strong ground motion records. For cases wherein full seismic site response analyses were not performed, CSR eq was evaluated using the estimated a max and Equations 1 and 2. In addition to the best estimates of CSR eq, the variance or uncertainty of these estimates (due to all contributing sources of uncertainty) was also assessed (Cetin et al., 2001). At each case history site, the critical stratum was identified as the stratum most susceptible to triggering of liquefaction. When possible, collected surface boil materials were also considered, but problems associated with mixing and segregation during transport, and recognition that liquefaction of underlying strata can result in transport of overlying soils to the surface through boils, limited the usefulness of some of this data. Paper No. SPL-2 8

9 (a) M w 6.8, a max 0.12g, V s,40 ft. 525 fps (b) M w 6.8, a max 0.12g, V s,40 ft. >525 fps (c) M w <6.8, a max 0.12g, V s,40 ft. 525 fps (d) M w <6.8, a max 0.12g, V s,40 ft. >525 fps Fig. 7: R d Results for Various Bins Superimposed with the Predictions (Mean and Mean ±1σ) Based on Bin Mean Values of V s,40 ft, M w, and a max (continued ) Paper No. SPL-2 9

10 (e) M w 6.8, 0.12< a max 0.23g, V s,40 ft. 525 fps (f) M w 6.8, 0.12< a max 0.23g, V s,40 ft. >525 fps (g) M w <6.8, 0.12< a max 0.23g, V s,40 ft. 525 fps (h) M w <6.8, 0.12< a max 0.23g, V.s,40 ft. >525 fps Fig. 7: R d Results for Various Bins Superimposed with the Predictions (Mean and Mean ±1σ) Based on Bin Mean Values of V s,40 ft, M w, and a max (continued ) Paper No. SPL-2 10

11 (i) M w 6.8, 0.23< a max, V s,40 ft. 525 fps (j) M w 6.8, 0.23< a max, V s,40 ft. >525 fps (k) M w <6.8, 0.23< a max, V s,40 ft. 525 fps (l) M w <6.8, 0.23< a max, V s,40 ft. >525 fps Fig. 7: R d Results for Various Bins Superimposed with the Predictions (Mean and Mean ±1σ) Based on Bin Mean Values of V s,40 ft, M w, and a max Paper No. SPL-2 11

12 The N 1,60 -values employed were truncated mean values within the critical stratum. Measured N-values (from one or more points) within a critical stratum were corrected for overburden, energy, equipment, and procedural effects to N 1,60 values, and were then plotted vs. elevation. In many cases, a given soil stratum would be found to contain an identifiable sub-stratum (based on a group of localized low N 1,60 -values) that was significantly more critical than the rest of the stratum. In such cases, the sub-stratum was taken as the critical stratum. Occasional high values, not apparently representative of the general characteristics of the critical stratum, were considered non-representative and were deleted in a number of the cases. Similarly, though less often, very low N 1,60 values (very much lower than the apparent main body of the stratum, and often associated with locally high fines content) were similarly deleted. The remaining, corrected N 1,60 values were then used to evaluate both the mean of N 1,60 within the critical stratum, and the variance in N 1,60. For those cases wherein the critical stratum had only one single useful N 1,60 -value, the coefficient of variation was taken as 20%; a value typical of the larger variances among the cases with multiple N 1,60 values within the critical stratum (reflecting the increased uncertainty due to lack of data when only a single value was available). All N-values were corrected for overburden effects (to the hypothetical value, N 1, that would have been measured if the effective overburden stress at the depth of the SPT had been 1 atmosphere) [1 atm. 2,000 lb/ft 2 1 kg/cm lb/in kpa] as N 1 = N C N (Eq. 4(a)) where C N is taken (after Liao and Whitman, 1986) as C N = 1 σ v 0.5 (Eq. 4(b)) where σ v is the actual effective overburden stress at the depth of the SPT in atmospheres. The resulting N 1 values were then further corrected for energy, equipment, and procedural effects to fully standardized N 1,60 values as where N 1,60 = N1 CR CS CB CE (Eq. 5) C R = correction for short rod length, C S = correction for non-standardized sampler configuration, C B = correction for borehole diameter, and C E = correction for hammer energy efficiency. The corrections for C R, C S, C B and C E employed correspond largely to those recommended by the NCEER Working Group (NCEER, 1997). Table 1 summarizes the correction factors used in these studies. The correction for short rod length between the driving hammer and the penetrating sampler was taken as a nonlinear curve (Figure 8), rather than the incremental values of the NCEER Workshop recommendations, but the two agree well at all NCEER mid-increments of length. C S was applied in cases wherein a nonstandard (though very common) SPT sampler was used in which the sampler had an internal space for sample liner rings, but the rings were not used. This results in an indented interior liner annulus of enlarged diameter, and reduces friction between the sample and the interior of the sampler, resulting in reduced overall penetration resistance (Seed et al., 1984 and 1985). The reduction in penetration resistance is on the order of ~10 % in loose soils (N 1 <10 blows/ft), and ~30 % in very dense soils (N 1 >30 blows/ft), so C S varied from 1.1 to 1.3 over this range. Borehole diameter corrections (C B ) were as recommended in the NCEER Workshop Proceedings. Corrections for hammer energy (C E ), which were often significant, were largely as recommended by the NCEER Working Group, except in those cases where better hammer/system-specific information was available. Cases where better information was available included cases where either direct energy measurements were made during driving of the SPT sampler, or where the hammer and the raising/dropping system (and the operator, when appropriate) had been reliably calibrated by means of direct driving energy measurements. Within the Bayesian updating analyses, which were performed using a modified version of the program BUMP (Geyskins Rod Length (m) C R Fig. 8: Recommended C R Values (rod length from point of hammer impact to tip of sampler). Paper No. SPL-2 12

13 C R C S Table 1: Recommended Corrections for SPT Equipment, Energy and Procedures (See Fig. 8 for Rod Length Correction Factors) For samplers with an indented space for interior liners, but with liners omitted during sampling, N1,60 Cs = (Eq. T-2) With limits as 1.10 C S 1.30 C B Borehole diameter Correction (C B ) 65 to 115 mm mm mm 1.15 C E CE = ER 60% where ER (efficiency ratio) is the fraction or percentage of the theoretical SPT impact hammer energy actually transmitted to the sampler (Eq. T-1) The best approach is to directly measure the impact energy transmitted with each blow. When available, direct energy measurements were employed. The next best approach is to use a hammer and mechanical hammer release system that has been previously calibrated based on direct energy measurements. Otherwise, ER must be estimated. For good field procedures, equipment and monitoring, the following guidelines are suggested: Equipment Approx ER (see Note 3) C E (see Note 3) -Safety Hammer to to 1.2 -Donut Hammer to to 1.0 -Donut Hammer to to 1.4 -Automatic-Trip Hammer 0.5 to to 1.4 (Donut or Safety Type) For lesser quality fieldwork (e.g. irregular hammer drop distance, sliding friction of hammer on rods, wet or worn rope on cathead, etc.) further judgmental adjustments are needed. Notes: (1) Based on rope and cathead system, two turns of rope around cathead, normal release (not the Japanese throw ), and rope not wet or excessively worn. (2) Rope and cathead with special Japanese throw release. (See also Note 4) (3) For the ranges shown, values roughly central to the mid-third of the range are more common than outlying values, but ER and C E can be even more highly variable than the ranges shown if equipment and/or monitoring and procedures are not good. (4) Common Japanese SPT practice requires additional corrections for borehole diameter and for frequency of SPT hammer blows. For typical Japanese practice with rope and cathead, donut hammer, and the Japanese throw release, the overall product of C B C E is typically in the range of 1.0 to 1.3. Paper No. SPL-2 13

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