Psychodynamic (psychoanalytic) theory

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1 Personality Unit 10

2 Psychodynamic Approach Sigmund Freud ( ) Austrian physician - treated patients with neurotic disorders (no physical cause) Psychodynamic (psychoanalytic) theory Personality is determined by interaction of various unconscious psychological processes (

3 Exploring the Unconscious Free association is when patient says whatever comes to mind Mind is like an iceberg: Unconscious: reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts Point of free association to unlock unconscious Preconscious: thoughts we are aware of but not thinking about currently Conscious: part of the mind that is currently active & responding to stimuli

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5 Personality Structure Id Unconscious portion of personality Life instincts (Eros) Positive, constructive behavior (esp. sex) and reflects energy called libido Death instincts (Thanatos) Responsible for aggression, destruction Seeks immediate satisfaction ( pleasure principle ) Ego develops from id as parents, teachers, etc. place restrictions on id behavior Mediates conflicts b/w demands of id, superego, real world Operates on reality principle Superego Tells us what we should and should not do Internalized rules and values of parents and society As relentless, unreasonable in demands as id

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7 Defense Mechanisms Unconscious tactics used by the ego to protect against anxiety & guilt (from id & superego) by preventing material from surfacing or disguising it when it does

8 Psychosexual Stages of Development Personality develops during childhood in series of stages, where we attempt to resolve certain conflicts Failure to resolve conflict at a stage results in fixation unconscious preoccupation with area of pleasure associated with stage Affects adult personality characteristics

9 Psychosexual Stages of Development Oral Stage (1 st year) Mouth is center of pleasure at this stage Fixation can come from weaning too early or late Can result in adult characteristics like overeating, childlike dependence (late weaning), biting sarcasm (early weaning)

10 Psychosexual Stages of Development Anal Stage (2 nd year) Child s ego develops to cope with parental/societal demands (toilet training clashes with freedom to go at will) Fixation from toilet training too early or harsh anal retentiveness or stinginess/excessive neatness (symbolically withholding feces) Fixation from training too late/lax disorganized, impulsive behavior (symbolically expelling feces)

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12 Psychosexual Stages of Development Phallic Stage (ages 3-5 years) Focus shifts to genital area Oedipus Complex Boy has sexual desire for mother and wants to eliminate father s competition for her attention Electra Complex Girl develops attachment to father (due to penis envy ) and competes with mother for attention Fixation leads to difficulty dealing with authority figures, inability to maintain stable love relationships

13 Psychosexual Stages of Development Latency Period (childhood to puberty) Peaceful interval where sexual impulses remain in background Focus on education, same-sex peer play, develop social skills Genital Stage (adolescence on) Sexual impulses reappear at conscious level with genitals as focus

14 Neo-Freudian & Psychodynamic Theorist Neo-Freudians accepted his basic principals: Id, ego, superego, importance of unconscious Differed in two ways: - More emphasis in conscious minds role in shaping experience & coping with environment - Doubted sex & aggression were all consuming motives Alder & Horney believed childhood social not sexual themes shape personality Jung agreed unconscious is a powerful force for motives Said a collective unconscious exist Explains why certain ideas are cross-cultural Modern P.D. theorist believe: Childhood shaped personality & Unconscious plays powerful role in mental life

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