Chemistry Performance Final Review # 1 Mixtures

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1 Chemistry Performance Final Review # 1 Mixtures 1. What is a mixture? 2. What is a homogeneous mixture? Provide three examples. 3. What is a heterogeneous mixture? Provide three examples. 4. What is a solute? Solvent? 5. Identify the differences between a suspension, colloid and solution. Provide an example of each. 6. What is the Tyndall effect? What type of mixtures show this?

2 Chemistry Performance Final Review # 2 Pure Substances 1. What is matter? 2. What are pure substances? Explain how these are different from mixtures. 3. What is an element? Provide three examples. 4. What is a compound? Provide three examples. 5. How does an element differ from a compound? 6. Explain how pure substances can be separated (be very detailed). How is this different from how mixtures are separated?

3 Chemistry Performance Final Review # 3 Bonding Properties Compound Observations (Room Temperature) Boiling Point/Melting Point NH 3 Colorless gas 53 C / 78 C LiCl White, crystalline solid, brittle 1382 C / 605 C H 2 O Colorless liquid 100 C / 0 C CuSO 4 Blue crystalline solid, brittle 256 C / 114 C 1. What part of the atom is involved in chemical bonding? 2. What are the two types of chemical bonds? How are each formed (be specific)? 3. What types of elements are in each type of compound? 4. What is the three-dimensional shape of each type of compound? 5. Describe the malleability of each type of compound. 6. Describe the boiling and melting points of each type of compound. 7. Identify each type of compound in the chart above and justify your answer.

4 Chemistry Performance Final Review # 4 Bonding Structures DIAGRAM A DIAGRAM B 1. Write the formula for each of the diagrams depicted above. 2. Determine the type of compound for each diagram (ionic/covalent). Justify your answer. 3. Compare and contrast polar and nonpolar covalent compounds. Explain at least three differences. 4. What is a valence electron? How is the number of valence electrons determined for an element? 5. Write the formula and draw the Lewis dot diagram and structures for the bonding the compounds below. Explain in detail each diagram (type of compound, number of valence electrons in each atom before and after bonding, what s happening with the electrons, why the atoms bond, etc.). a. Nitrogen trifluoride b. Magnesium chloride c. Aluminum phosphide

5 Chemistry Performance Final Review #5 Electronegativity 1. What is electronegativity? 2. In general, how does the electronegativity of metals compare to the electronegativity of nonmetals. 3. Describe the difference in electronegativities between elements in ionic compounds. 4. Describe the difference in electronegativities between elements in polar covalent compounds. 5. Describe the difference in electronegativities between elements in nonpolar covalent compounds. 6. Identify the compounds above as ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent. Justify your answer including information about electronegativity.

6 Chemistry Performance Final Review # 6 Number of Bonds 1. What is the octet rule? 2. What type of bond forms each compound in the diagrams above? Explain your answers. 3. What does the dash/line in the diagrams above mean? What does it mean when there is more than one dash/line? Be specific in terms of electrons. 4. In an ionic compound, can an atom form more than one bond with another, different atom? Explain. 5. What does it mean if there is a pair of electrons in a Lewis structure? What about a single electron?

7 Chemistry Performance Final Review # 7 Matter 1. Define the terms physical properties and chemical properties. 2. How do intensive physical properties differ from extensive physical properties? Give three example of each type of physical property. 3. Differentiate between physical changes and chemical changes. Give three examples for each type of change. 4. What classification(s) of matter is/are formed through physical changes? What classification(s) of matter is/are formed through chemical changes? 5. What are the six indicators of a chemical change or reaction?

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