EnvironmentallyInduced Migration (EIM) and Sustainable development

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1 EnvironmentallyInduced Migration (EIM) and Sustainable development By Sami Areikat, DSD/DESA/ United Nations Andrea Milan, University of Ferrara, Italy Contribution to: Climate Induced Migration in Middle East North Africa - Research Workshop June 2010 at the Center for Mediterranean Integration (CMI) in Marseille, France

2 Division for Sustainable Development (DSD) DSD is under UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-DESA) Promoting sustainable development as the substantive secretariat to the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) and through technical cooperation and capacity building at international, regional and national levels The context for the Division's work is the implementation of Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation and the Barbados Programme of Action for Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States

3 Presentation objectives Overview EIM as an emerging issue by UN-DESA Introduction of DSD/DESA initial research on EIM from a sustainable development perspective. The implications of EIM for sustainable development in the Middle East and North Africa Region. Sustainable Development: an effective and comprehensive approach to EIM in general and in Middle East and North Africa Region.

4 Sustainable Development Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. the most frequently quoted definition to SD and adopted by DESA is from Our Common Future, also known as the Brundtland Report SD came to the forefront of public interest in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro (the Earth Summit) SD continued to develop with major landmarks such as the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 SD to receive renewed political commitment during the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio + 20) in 2012

5 Sustainable Development Principles Human beings are at the center of concerns for sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature Rio Declaration, Principle 1 The sustainable development guidelines include: Integration of economic, social and environmental objectives; Development of capacity and an enabling environment Improving access to information; Ensuring broad participation and effective partnerships; Fostering country ownership and commitment; and Focusing on outcomes and means of implementation.

6 Agenda 21 References to EIM Chapter 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY The relationships between demographic trends and factors and environmental change and between environmental degradation and the components of demographic change should be analyzed Research should be conducted on how environmental factors interact with socio economic factors as a cause of migration.

7 UN Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) in 'Rio+20' UN General Assembly Resolution A/RES/64/236 The Conference aims at: securing renewed political commitment to sustainable development assessing the progress and implementation gaps in meeting already agreed commitments addressing new and emerging challenges. First Preparatory Committee Meeting for UNCSD in May 2010 CO-CHAIRS SUMMARY: International migration was mentioned by some delegations as an emerging issue

8 EIM: An Emerging Issue for Sustainable Development Failing ecosystems, vulnerability to natural hazards and disasters, gradual climate-driven environmental changes and degradation are putting pressure on human migration and can lead to a future crisis in sustainable development. Forecasts of large-scale migration due to climate change and environmental degradation estimates between 50 and 350 million by 2050

9 SG s Report to GA64 Climate change and its possible security implications Population movements due to changing weather, drought and flooding can lead to conflicts Channels linking CC to security Survival strategies (un-coordinated coping) competition for scarce resources population displacement, forced migration both increase risk of violent conflict Statelessness: extreme instance of resource scarcity and population displacement from sea-level rise affecting coastal areas, islands

10 SG s Report to GA64 Climate change and its possible security implications Channels linking CC to security

11 Background paper on EIM and Sustainable Development The background paper prepared jointly by DSD/DESA, UNU- EHS (Tamer Afifi) and University of Ferrara (Mr Andrea Milan) Contribution to the overall effort in exploring the emerging issue of EIM and its impacts on sustainable development. An effort to analyze the nexus between environmental change and migration from the perspective of sustainable development with focus on migration induced by slow-onset environmental degradation and exacerbated by climate change. Conducted additional research on EIM in the Middle East and North Africa.

12 The Economic Pillar Of Sustainable Development The main aspects of the economic component of SD are that: Society s well being would have to be maximized and poverty eradicated. Overriding priority should be given to the basic needs of the world's poor Main economic sectors affected are the ones most directly depend on the ecosystem: Agriculture, forestry, fisheries Tourism and utilities

13 Connections with sustainable development The Economic Pillar Poverty and EIM : Impacts on the regions of origin Impacts on the regions of destination Environmental Migrants settlement in poor urban residents and slums. Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) In MENA countries, only Djibouti and Yemen have submitted a PRSP with limited attention to migration

14 The Social Pillar Of Sustainable Development The social component in sustainable development includes: uplifting the welfare of people improving access to basic health and education services fulfilling minimum standards of security and respect for human rights development of various cultures, diversity and effective grass roots participation in decision-making equity (i.e., the distribution of benefits and access to resources) remains an essential component of both the economic and social dimensions of sustainable development.

15 EACH-FOR Project The case study of Egypt(1/2) EIM is significant in Egypt due to its crucial dependence on traditional agriculture that is threatened by intensified air pollution, desertification, soil salinity, urban encroachments to farmlands, sea level rise, land degradation and water shortage.

16 EACH-FOR Project The case study of Egypt(2/2) The findings of this case study indicate that The push factors are: increasing environmental threats, with lack of land ownership, socio-economic capability of leaving the original place, or forced migration induced by government or landowners. Pull factors are social and economic rather than environmental

17 The Environmental Pillar Of Sustainable Development The environmental component of sustainable development is concerned with the conservation and enhancement of the physical and biological resource base and eco-systems. The main negative impacts of migration on biodiversity: Species and genetic diversity loss from an area Habitat loss and fragmentation The environmental impact of migration on: receiving regions. sending regions transit regions: (North Africa for people moving from Sub-Saharan Africa to Europe)

18 Drivers of EIM Migration induced by the sea-level rise: Gained a lot of attention in the debate on EIM Recent cases are those of Tulun (Carteret) and Takuu (Mortlock) in Papua New Guinea Numbers can increase dramatically in the next decades Desertification and land degradation: The challenges posed by increased desertification, including protecting the livelihoods of the millions of people directly affected by desertification, need urgent attention if sustainable development goals are to be achieved Report of the Secretary-General, Desertification, 2009 Summary of Recent estimates of the percentages of the dry lands affected or threatened by desertification : 43% in Africa 65% of West Asia - Report of the Secretary-General, Desertification, 2008

19 Main Environmental Issues in the MENA Region Water Scarcity And Quality Land Degradation And Diversification Coastal Degradation And Urban And Industrial Pollution Weak Environmental Institutions And Legal frameworks

20 Sustainable Development approach to EIM in MENA Region Sustainable Development is an effective and comprehensive approach to EIM in MENA Region as it takes into account all the dimensions of the decision to migrate through: Slowing down environmental degradation adaptation to climate change food security health and education water supply and sanitation conservation of biodiversity building resilience and reducing vulnerability sustainable use of natural resources early warning systems and risk management

21 Sustainable Development approach to EIM Special attention needs to be given to the environmental push factors in all kinds of development policies including: National Sustainable Development Strategies NSDS UNFCCC NAPAs, UNCCD NAPs and UNCBD NBSAPs Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRSPs) Peacebuilding and Conflict prevention strategies The importance of economic diversification to vulnerable areas relying primarily on: Agricultural Production Fishing

22 UNCCD NAPs in MENA Region Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Tunisia and Yemen submitted a National Action Programme (NAP) for the implementation of the UNCCD. Some NAPs addressed EIM as desertification can indirectly induce migration because it affects the rural agricultural sector and people move to find better economic opportunities in the urban sector.

23 UNFCCC NAPAs The National Adaptation Programmes of Actions (NAPAs) are a tool for Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to identify priority activities that respond to their [LDCs ] urgent and immediate needs to adapt to climate change. NAPAs include a list of priority actions whose delay would increase the future vulnerability and increase the future costs. This has led to a simplistic approach to adaptation actions. EIM, both as a consequence of environmental degradation and climate change and as an adaptation measure, is largely missing from NAPAs.

24 UNFCCC NAPAS The Case of Yemen Points out: the impact of water scarcity on the livelihoods of local communities the negative effect of desertification on agricultural incomes for local communities the threat posed to the local communities by flooding in low-lying areas and coastal erosion; however The possible migratory impacts on the human communities are not cited and missing.

25 Challenges/ the way forward Stronger scientific basis and appropriate data collection Technical expertise development and promotion of dialogue between experts Adequate funding for prevention and adaptation to EIM Consideration of the needs of the most vulnerable Synergies between sending and receiving regions Risk management and early warning system An inclusive and long-term approach to EIM

26 Thank you Q & A? Sami Areikat Andrea Milan Photo copyright: Giorgio Fochesato/iStockphoto.com

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