How are ecosystems different?

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1 Lesson 1 Cycles in Ecosystems Lesson 2 Changes in Ecosystems Lesson 3 Biomes Lesson 4 Water Ecosystems How are ecosystems different?

2 water cycle evaporation condensation precipitation watershed runoff groundwater carbon cycle nitrogen cycle compost

3 What is the water cycle? condensation precipitation watershed transpiration evaporation The continuous movement of water between Earth s surface and the air is the water cycle. runoff groundwater All water on Earth is recycled constantly.

4 What is the carbon cycle? combustion (human-made and natural) CO 2 in air photosynthesis respiration dissolved CO 2 in water coal decomposition natural gas oil marine plankton remains rock The carbon cycle is the continuous exchange of carbon among living things.

5 What is the nitrogen cycle? The nitrogen cycle is the continuous trapping of nitrogen gas into compounds in the soil and its return to the air. nitrogen fixation nitrogen gas in air (N 2 ) denitrification decomposition absorption ammonia nitrite nitrate

6 How is matter recycled? Some natural resources are renewable and restore themselves naturally. Other resources need to be recycled, such as by reusing and by composting.

7 Main Idea What roles do plants play in the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles? Water cycle: Plants release water to the atmosphere through transpiration. Carbon cycle: Plants turn carbon dioxide into carbon-rich foods. Nitrogen cycle: Plants play a key role in housing bacteria that fix nitrogen and transform it into a usable form that other plants can build with.

8 Vocabulary Precipitation is any form of water that falls from the atmosphere and reaches the ground, such as rain, sleet, snow, or hail. The continuous exchange of carbon among living things is the. A is an area from which water is drained. The changing of a liquid into a gas is. Precipitation that flows across the land s surface and is not absorbed will flow into rivers, lakes, and streams as. carbon cycle evaporation precipitation runoff watershed

9 Vocabulary Compost is mixture of dead organic material that can be used as fertilizer. The continuous trapping of nitrogen gas into compounds in the soil and its return to the air is called the. Some runoff water settles underground and becomes. The continuous movement of water between Earth s surface and the air, changing from liquid to gas to liquid, is the. Condensation is the changing of a gas into a liquid. compost condensation groundwater nitrogen cycle water cycle

10 Summarize water recycled in process of evaporation, condensation, precipitation Write a summary of things that get recycled in an ecosystem. carbon recycled as plants, carbon-rich foods release carbon dioxide during respiration nitrogen recycled as bacteria is turned into ammonia and returns nitrogen to ground through decay Many things are recycled in an Summary ecosystem. End of Lesson

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21 extinct species endangered species threatened species succession primary succession pioneer species pioneer community climax community secondary succession

22 How can ecosystems change? Natural events such as earthquakes, fires, and floods can change ecosystems. Organisms such as beavers, elephants, and coral can change ecosystems. Humans can change ecosystems by actions such as cutting down forests, using pesticides, and causing pollution.

23 What happens when ecosystems change? Changes to ecosystems affect the organisms within that ecosystem. Organisms either adapt to changes in ecosystems or their species dies out.

24 How do ecosystems come back? Ecosystems can gradually change over time. Succession happens when one ecosystem eventually changes into a new and different ecosystem. bare rock lichens and mosses small plants, lichens, grasses and shrubs shrubs and poplar, pine, and willow trees maple and beech trees

25 What is secondary succession? Secondary succession is the beginning of a new community where a community had already existed. Secondary succession happens faster than primary succession, but happens in the same way as primary succession.

26 Main Idea What can cause ecosystems to change? natural: fire, flood, storm, earthquake, natural succession human-caused: pollution, land development, farming, burning forests

27 Vocabulary The process of one ecosystem changing into a new and different ecosystem is called. When a species is in danger of becoming extinct, it is called an. Pioneer species are the first species living in an otherwise lifeless area. A is the final stage of succession. When the last member of a species dies, the species becomes an. climax community extinct species succession endangered species pioneer species

28 Vocabulary Primary succession takes place in a community where few, if any, living things exist, or where earlier communities were wiped out. Species with low numbers that could become endangered are called. A is the first living community in an otherwise lifeless area. Secondary succession is the beginning of a new community where a community had already existed. pioneer community primary succession secondary succession threatened species

29 Cause and Effect Tell the causes and effects that result in a barren, lifeless ecosystem becoming a forest. moss and lichens grow soil collects soil gets deeper trees block light pines die rocks break down larger plants grow small trees grow hardwoods grow hardwoods take over End of Lesson

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39 biome desert tundra taiga tropical rain forest temperate rain forest deciduous forest grassland

40 What are biomes? Biomes are Earth s major land ecosystems. Each biome has its own characteristic animals, plants, soil, and climate.

41 What are some harsh biomes? Tundra and taiga are harsh biomes. Both have extremely cold weather.

42 What are some forest biomes? The two main types of forest biomes on Earth are rain forests and deciduous forests. tropical rain forest temperate rain forest There are two types of rain forests: tropical rain forests and temperate rain forests.

43 What are grasslands? The grassland is a biome where grasses are the main plant life. Grasses are the producers of grassland ecosystems. There are many kinds of animals living on grasslands.

44 Main Idea What are Earth s six major land biomes? desert tundra taiga rain forest deciduous forest grassland

45 Vocabulary The is a forest biome with four distinct seasons and deciduous trees. The is a biome where grasses, not trees, are the main plant life. A is one of Earth s major land ecosystems with its own characteristic animals, plants, soil, and climate. The is a cool forest biome of conifers found in northern regions. biome deciduous forest grassland taiga

46 Vocabulary A is a biome with a lot of rain, fog, and cool climate. The is a large, treeless biome where the ground is frozen all year. The is a hot, humid biome near the equator, with heavy rainfall and a wide variety of life. A is a sandy or rocky biome, with little precipitation and little plant life. desert temperate rain forest tundra tropical rain forest

47 Classify How would you classify the biome where you live? Give reasons to support your classification. Biome The biome where I live has 4 seasons with cold winters and warm summers. Deciduous Forest The leaves on the trees change color in the fall. The trees lose their leaves in the winter. End of Lesson

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56 plankton nekton benthos intertidal zone estuary

57 What are water ecosystems? benthos nekton Most of Earth s surface is covered by water. About 97% of the world s water is salty ocean water. The other 3% is fresh water. plankton plankton nekton benthos

58 What are freshwater ecosystems? Rivers and streams are running-water ecosystems. Lakes and ponds are standing-water ecosystems. Swamps, bogs, and marshes are freshwater wetlands.

59 What are ocean ecosystems? intertidal zone Ocean ecosystems are divided into three zones: the intertidal zone, the neritic zone, the oceanic zone. neritic zone bathyal zone The oceanic zone is further divided into the bathyal zone and the abyssal zone. abyssal zone

60 Where do salt and fresh water meet? The boundary where fresh water feeds into salt water is called an estuary. Estuaries are unique ecosystems that are part salt water and part fresh water. Estuaries usually contain salt marshes.

61 Main Idea Which water ecosystem contains most of the world s water? Oceans contain most of the world s water; it is salt water.

62 Vocabulary The shallowest part of the ocean ecosystem is called the. The boundary where fresh water feeds into salt water is called an. Benthos are organisms that live on the bottom of a body of water; many are scavengers and decomposers. Plankton are creatures that drift freely in the water. Nekton are the larger, active swimmers in water ecosystems, such as fish, turtles, and whales. benthos estuary intertidal zone nekton plankton

63 Main Idea and Details Which freshwater ecosystems get a fresh supply of water every day? Which do not? Use details to support your answer. Main Idea Some ecosystems get a fresh supply of water every day. Details Rivers, streams, and estuaries get a fresh supply of water every day. Lakes and especially ponds often have the same water in place. End of Lesson

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