Pattern Identification for English to Hindi, Urdu and Punjabi Translation

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1 Pattern Identification for English to Hindi, Urdu and Punjabi Translation V. N. Shukla, Renu Balyan Abstract - Pattern identification plays an important role in machine translation. We have identified and categorized various patterns that exist between English, Hindi, Urdu and Punjabi translation. This will be useful in designing translation systems between these languages. Index Terms - Patterns, English-Hindi, English-Urdu, English- Punjabi. 1. INTRODUCTION Rule based machine translation (RBMT) systems depend a lot on the patterns [1-3]. The translation of a sentence will depend on the type of pattern that has been given to the system. Also the way a sentence will be translated will vary from language to language. The same English sentence when translated in different languages may vary in the structure to quite an extent. In this paper we have identified the various patterns that are generated for different languages when they are translated and how these translated patterns differ from language to language. This is a task that has been taken up for improvement of the existing English to Urdu and English to Punjabi MT systems. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: In section II we discuss the various patterns obtained on translation and Section III concludes the paper. 2. Conflational/Inflational patterns A pattern will be called conflational when two or more words in one language are translated by one word in another language. The reverse patterns would be called as inflational patterns where one word in a language is represented by two or more in another language. (1.H.a) ve khaa rahe hein. {they eat PROG be.pr.pl} (1.H.b) ve khaanaa khaa rahe hein. (1.U) voh khaanaa nosh farmaa rahe hein. (1.P) oh khaanaa kaa rahe han {they eat PROG be.pr.pl} The English translation for all these sentences of different languages would be They are eating. In this example, the verb nosh farmaa rahe hein of Urdu sentence [5] is equivalent to one word verb of English (eat) upon translation. Also the object is explicit in Urdu but its implicit in the English translation. If we look at the Hindi and Punjabi translation in (1.H.b) and (1.P) the word khaanaa for food has been introduced though this is missing in the English sentence. But both (1.H.a) and (1.H.b) are equally correct and acceptable translations. Another sentence that can be considered is a case where one English word may be represented by multiple words in a language. (2.H.a) kripyaa jaaeye {please go IMPR} (2.H.b) kripyaa karke jaaeye { please do go IMPR} (2.H.c) aap Kripyaa jaaeye {you please go IMPR} (2.U) baraaye maherbaani aap tashreef le jaayen {- please you - take go IMPR} (2.P) jaan di kirpaa karo/ kariyo Proceedings of ASCNT-2011, CDAC, Noida, India, pp

2 V. N. Shukla, Renu Balyan {go of please do} The English for all these sentences would be just one and that will be Please go. Here the word please is being referred to as baraaye maharbaani in urdu, kripyaa karke in Hindi [4] in one case and the verb go, is referred to as tashreef le jaayen for the Urdu translation. In the English sentence there is no mapping for the word that has been translated to aap. The word tashreef has no mapping in English for it. There are patterns where one English word is translated to multiple target language words. The reverse case would be when there is a single word in the target language to represent multiple English words. This is illustrated in examples (3)-(5) (3.H/U) loo chal rahii hai. (3.P) loo chal rahii hai. {Hot wind walk PROG be.pr} (3.E) Hot wind is blowing. In this example, the word loo of Urdu, Hindi and Punjabi sentence requires two words of English (hot wind) for translation. Also chal in English means walk but with wind it uses blow. (4.E) One moment please! (4.H) ek kshan rukiye/ intazaar kijiye {one moment stop/ wait do } (4.U) baraaye maherbaani kuch der intazaar kijiye {- please some late wait do IMPR} (4.P) ik vaari rukin/taharii zaraa {one moment stop little} In this example one moment has been translated to kuch der intazaar kijiye and please as baraaye maherbaani. In sentence (4) there is no verb but in the urdu/hindi translation it is visible. For Punjabi translation there is no word taken for please and also zarra has no mapping in English for it but it has been used to just give force to the sentence. Example (5) shows the case where one English word may not be translated to one word in the target language. (5.E) Welcome! (5.H) aapkaa swaagat hai {you welcome be.pr} (5.U) khush aamdeed {happy come PR} (5.P) ji aayaan nu {respect come of} In the Hindi translation the subject has been explicitly assumed. Also for urdu the translation words do not have a direct mapping with the English word. 3. Prepositional/Postpositional Patterns These are the patterns when a preposition/postposition is present in the sentence of one language but not reflected in the other language explicitly. There could be cases when the preposition/postposition is missing but when translated it is introduced in the translation. Let us illustrate these with examples (6) and (7). (6.H) mere pitaa lucknow ja rahe hein (6.U) mere vaalid lucknow ja rahe hein

3 Pattern Identification for English to Hindi, Urdu and Punjabi Translation {my father lucknow go PROG be PR.PL} (6.P) mera payo lucknow jaa riyaa hai. {my father lucknow go PROG be PR.SG} (6.E) My father is going to Lucknow. In this example (6), we have a PP to Lucknow in English sentence but if we see the translations in the various languages the translation for to is missing and its only lucknow taken as a NP being considered. Also for the Punjabi translation the honorific sense is not taken into consideration. (7.E) He entered the room. (7.U) vah kamare mein ghusaa. (7.U) vah kamare mein daakhil huaa (7.P) oh kamare vich daakhil hoyaa {he room in enter be.pst} In example (7) the English sentence has no preposition in with the room but a postposition has been introduced in the translations of the target languages as kamare mein for Hindi and Urdu translation and kamare vich for the Punjabi translation [7]. 4 Promotional/ Demotional Verb Patterns Promotional and demotional verb patterns refer to the patterns where the status (lower or higher) of a syntactic constituent in one language is affected in another language. For instance, when an adverbial element in one language is realized by a verbal element, it constitutes a promotional case and an opposite case will result in demotional patterns. In demotional patterns the role of the main verb of the source language sentence is demoted upon translation. Examples (8) show demotional divergence for H/U/P-E translation. In these examples the word which is acting as the main verb in source language (H/U/P) is realized as an Adverbial Modifier or as an adjective in the target language (E). (8.H/U) sangeet baj rahaa hai (8.P) sangeet vaj rayaa hai {music play PROG be.pr} (8.E) The music is on. Here the main verb in Hindi and Urdu sentence baj raha and vaj rayaa in Punjabi sentence is realized as an Adverbial Modifier on in English sentence upon translation. Sentence (9) shows a promotional case from English to Hindi,Urdu and Punjabi translation. (9.E) Life goes on. (9.H) jeevan chalta rahtaa hai (9.U) zindagi chalti rahti hai (9.P) zindagi chaldi payii hai {life walk PROG be.pr} For sentence (9) Hindi translation differs slightly due to change in the word used for life (jeevan) and the gender for the word. The gender in Hindi translation is masculine whereas in Urdu the gender was feminine and hence the verb will change form to maintain compatibility with the gender, but the translation patterns remain similar for all the three languages. Sentence (10) illustrates the demotional case if we consider E-H/U/P translation. (10.E) It suffices. There are two possible Urdu translations for the English sentence: (10.U.a) yah kaafi hai

4 V. N. Shukla, Renu Balyan {this enough be.pr} (10.U.b) yah zaroorat ke mutaabik hai {this need to according be.pr} (10.H) yah bahut hai {this enough be.pr} (10.P) ye kaafi hai {this enough be.pr} The word suffice is realized as the main verb in English but as an adverbial modifier kaafi / zaroorat ke mutaabik in Urdu and bahut in Hindi. Here the role of word suffice (verb) in English is being demoted in Urdu/ Hindi translation and realized as an adverbial modifier. 5. Lexical Variant Patterns This category patterns [5-7] consist of sentences that translate in a very different pattern due to non- availability of an exact translation map for a construction in one language into another language. It also means that the choice taken for the target language word is not the literal translation for an English word. Consider the following English sentences (11-14): (11.E) Good luck. (11.H) achhi kismat {good luck} (11.U) allah ka fazal ho {God of grace be.fu} (11.P) vadiyaa/ changii kismet {good luck} The words used in Urdu are not the literal meanings of the words in English sentence. Hindi and Punjabi however has exact mapping and does not fall into this category. (12.E) It is cold. (12.H) sardii hai. {cold be.pr} (12.U) maahaul sard hai {surroundings cold be.pr} (12.P) Thand hai {cold be.pr} In Urdu translation the word maahaul does not have a corresponding map in the English sentence. Also the word it has been considered in any of the translations. Patterns for Hindi and Punjabi work on the similar patterns. (13.E) Excuse me!... (to ask for something) (13.H) maaf kijiyee {forgive do.pr} (13.U) maazirat chaahta hoon {apology want PR-PRT be.pr} (13. P) maaf karnaa

5 Pattern Identification for English to Hindi, Urdu and Punjabi Translation Here the English verb excuse has been translated as a different verb meaning want- chaahta hoon for the Urdu translation. Also the translation of me is not reflected in any of the translations. Consider a sentence in Urdu to be translated to English. (14.H/U) vah chayan ki niid so rahaa hai (14.P) oh chayan di ni so rayaa hai {he peaceful of sleep sleep PROG be.pr} (14.E) He is enjoying a sound sleep. In this example, the Hindi,Urdu and Punjabi verb so rahaa hai and so rayaa hai is converted into a different verb enjoying in English upon translation. The verb enjoying as such has no word whose literal meaning exists in the Hindi,Urdu or Punjabi translated sentence. 6. Honorific Patterns In Hindi and Urdu honorific features are expressed by several linguistic markers including the use of plural pronoun and plural verbal inflections. However this feature is not available in Punjabi language. This feature is also not available in a European language such as English. This too causes a deviation in the patterns during the translation process. Example (15) and (16) illustrate this feature. (15.H) uske pittaa aaye hein (15.U) uske vaalid aaye hein {his father come be.pr.pl} (15.P) ohda payo aayaa hai {his father come be.pr.sg} (15.E) His father has come. (16.H) uskaa saathi aayaa hai (16.U) uskaa dost aayaa hai (16.P) ohda mitar ayaa hai {his friend come be.pr.sg} (16.E) His friend has come. In sentence (15) for Hindi and Urdu, the subject vaalid / pittaa for father is an honorific noun which is reflected by the use of plural inflectional elements on the agreeing elements such as verb and the genitive noun. Whereas that is not the case for Punjabi translation. On the other hand, in sentence (16), dost /mitar/saathi ~ friend is a non-honorific noun and hence no plural inflectional element is used in all the language sentences. III. CONCLUSION This paper identifies and categorizes the different patterns that occur during the translation of English to Urdu and English to Punjabi language. The study was based on observations from English to Hindi system. The patterns have been categorized in five broad categories. It was observed that for a number of cases at least two language pairs behave in a similar manner. There are very few cases where all the three languages have different patterns during translation. There is need to explore the different language pair in greater depth for identifying more patterns.

6 V. N. Shukla, Renu Balyan REFERENCES [1] R.M.K. Sinha, Renu Jain and Ajai Jain. (2001) Translation from English to Indian Languages: ANGLABHARTI Approach, In Proc.of Symposium on Translation Support Systems STRANS2001, February 15-17, Kanpur, India. [2] R.M.K., Sinha et. al. (2003). 'AnglaHindi: An English to Hindi Machine Translation System', MT Summit IX, New Orleans, USA. [3] R.M.K. Sinha and others. (1995). ANGLABHARTI: A Multi-lingual Machine Aided Translation Project on Translation from English to Hindi, In Proc. IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Vancouver, Canada, pp [4] Lexicon Manual used in Anglabharti. (CDAC internal document) [5] Lexical Databases for Hindi language (CDAC internal document) [6] Lexical Databases for Urdu language (CDAC internal document) [7] Lexical Databases for Punjabi language (CDAC internal document) V. N. Shukla is Director (special applications) in C-DAC Noida and is heading Speech & Natural Language Processing lab. He has a total experience of 30 years and has been working in the field of Speech and Language Processing. He has a number of research publications at International and National level. Renu Balyan has been working with CDAC-Noida for the past 3 years and has a total experience of 11 years. She is currently registered for her PhD in the field of Machine Translation. She has been working in the field of Machine Translation and evaluation of Machine Translation systems for Indian languages for the last 4 years. She has published 3 national and 2 International papers.

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