Communicable disease control in emergencies

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1 Communicable disease control in emergencies A field manual Edited by M.A. Connolly

2 WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Communicable disease control in emergencies: a field manual edited by M. A. Connolly. 1. Communicable disease control methods 2. Emergencies 3. Disease outbreaks prevention and control 4.Manuals I.Connolly, Máire A. ISBN (NLM Classification: WA 110) WHO/CDS/ World Health Organization, 2005 All rights reserved. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the pert of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on map represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. All reasonable precautions have been taken by WHO to verify he information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either express or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising in its use. Layout: CME/B. Duret, France Photo credits: top left & bottom: Unicef / middle: PAHO / top right: WHO Gayer

3 CONTENTS * iii CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...vi INTRODUCTION RAPID ASSESSMENT 1.1 Objectives of a rapid assessment Composition of the team Methods of data collection Survey and sampling methods Data to be collected Analysis and presentation of results PREVENTION 2.1 Shelter Water Sanitation Vector control Food and nutrition Vaccination Health education and community participation SURVEILLANCE 3.1 Introduction and general principles Objectives Setting surveillance priorities Data collection methods Case definitions Minimum data elements Data sources for routine surveillance Identifying tasks and responsible persons Analysis and interpretation of surveillance data Feedback...105

4 iv * Communicable disease control in emergencies A field manual 4 OUTBREAK CONTROL 4.1 Preparedness Detection Confirmation Response Evaluation DISEASE PREVENTION AND CONTROL 5.1 Acute respiratory infections Bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) Cholera Other diarrhoeal diseases Conjunctivitis Dengue Diphtheria Hepatitis (viral) HIV/AIDS Japanese encephalitis Leishmaniasis Malaria Measles Meningococcal meningitis (epidemic) Relapsing fever (louse-borne) Scabies Sexually transmitted infections Trypanosomiasis, African (African sleeping sickness) Tuberculosis Typhoid fever Typhus (epidemic louse-borne) Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) Yellow fever...194

5 CONTENTS * v ANNEXES 1 WHO reference values for emergencies Health assessment sample survey forms NCHS/WHO normalized reference values for weight for height by sex Weekly surveillance report Case definitions Outbreak investigation kit Organization of an isolation centre and calculation of treatment supplies Collection of specimens for laboratory analysis Setting up a diagnostic laboratory Treatment guidelines Management of the child with cough or difficulty in breathing Assessment and treatment of diarrhoea Flowcharts for syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections Health card List of WHO guidelines on communicable diseases List of publishers General references...294

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